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Essay methods of development

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Expository essay methods of …

AP and Other Stories Summary and essay of development Analysis of A P, Part 1. This story is on man versus, narrated by Sammy, a young cashier at methods of development the supermarket A P. Son Essay Blindness. One day, three girls in bathing suits stop in to methods, buy some snacks. Sammy is immediately struck by a “chunky” (596) girl with a “sweet broad soft-looking can.” He is so attracted to her that he accidentally rings up a box of resume style crackers twice, provoking the ire of the middle-aged customer who was trying to buy them. By the time Sammy calms down the irate customer, the girls are making their way towards an aisle close to essay, his checkout slot. He notices that the girls are barefoot. None of them are particularly beautiful; he characterizes the first as chunky and “pale” and the second as “the kind of girl that other girls think is very ‘striking’ and ‘attractive’ but never quite makes it.” However, he quickly identifies the third as their leader, noticing that she walks slightly ahead of on man her friends and almost seems to be showing them how to command attention.

He infers that it was her idea to come to essay, A P in son essay blindness, the first place. Essay Of Development. He calls her the queen or, later, Queenie. Sammy notices that the straps of the queen’s bathing suit have slipped off her shoulders, so there is no clothing between the top of the blind resume bathing suit and the top of her head. He is in methods of development, awe of her beauty, and marvels that only an extraordinarily pretty girl could get away with walking into a grocery store with her straps down. He continues to stare at her physical features, including her long neck and her oaky hair. Online Essays About. The other people in the store are shocked by essay of development, the girls’ skimpy attire, as well as the fact that they are walking “against the usual traffic” (597) down the aisles.

Sammy criticizes these “sheep” for looking askance at the girls but also being attracted to blind resume, them. He speculates that “you could set off dynamite” (598) in an A P and the shoppers would still go about their business as usual. Nevertheless, they do seem a bit “jiggled,” with some women even turning around to look at the girls again, as if they cannot believe their eyes. Only ten years before John Updike published “A P,” his New Yorker colleague J.D. Salinger rocked the literary establishment with his first novel, The Catcher in the Rye . Essay. There are striking similarities between Holden Caulfield, the blind resume main character of Salinger’s novel, and Updike’s narrator Sammy. Both hold a deep-seated contempt for authority and hypocrisy. But while Salinger’s hero is so self-absorbed that we never get an objective perspective on his world, Sammy is sharply perceptive, offering insights about human nature and society at large. The main action of “A P” unfolds not in the grocery store but in Sammy’s mind. It is not a chronicle of methods his ordinary day at work, but rather of about his rejection of bourgeois conformity. Some critics trace Sammy’s heritage not to essay methods, Holden Caulfield but to versus machine, Ralph Waldo Emerson, who advocated for non-conformity and moral self-reliance (Porter 1155).

In the early pages of methods of development “A P,” Sammy establishes his contempt for conformity and consumerism, insinuating that the people who shop at A P are “sheep” (597) who can never be roused out of their daily routines. This critique is cemented by his detailed description of the store. Sammy locates himself “between the checkouts and the Special bins” (596) and describes the girls going up “the cat-and-dog-food-breakfast-cereal-macaroni-rice-raisins-seasonings-spreads-spaghetti-soft-drinks-crackers-and-cookies aisle” (597). This careful delineation of the story’s space suggests an underlying concern for realism despite Sammy’s lighthearted rhetorical style, which often relies on native, caricature. Sammy’s list of grocery items in the aisle is humorous, but it also indicates a deep sense of unease with the rampant consumerism in American culture. None of the foods Sammy lists are nutritious.

They are all snack foods or condiments—or in the case of the pet foods, not for human consumption at essay methods of development all. Rather than a necessity for survival, Updike portrays grocery shopping as a lavish exercise in self-indulgence. By buying so many unnecessary items, he suggests that people abstract themselves from their physical existence as human beings. Sammy’s sexual desire for the girls initially seems to be an antidote to this deadening consumerism. If the other shoppers have, in conforming, sacrificed their humanity, then the blindness girls’ rebellion against social norms seems to be a refreshing dose of human vitality. This interpretation is reinforced by their nakedness; by forgoing regular clothing and the conformity that comes with it, they embrace their fundamental human nature, and the beauty of this spectacle is stunning to all who witness it. However, there is an alternate interpretation of the methods of development girls’ nudity. Resume Style. They are consumers just as much as the essay methods older shoppers are, and like those shoppers, they embrace unhealthy foods, looking at cookies before finally deciding to buy the essays activities herring snacks.

They are conformists in their own way, with the queen leading the other two girls who timidly “peek around [the queen’s body] and [hunch] over a little” (597). Although he knows nothing of their personalities and essay methods concedes that two of the girls are unattractive, Sammy still lusts after them. His sexual desire, then, is just as greedy and overindulgent as the sixty shoppers’ desire for essay methods snack foods. Over the course of his career, Updike has sometimes been accused of misogyny (Shapiro, Roiphe). Based on essays, his descriptions of the women in the story, Sammy certainly seems to have a misogynist worldview. He insinuates that the young girls are catty exhibitionists, but the brunt of his contempt is reserved for older women.

These middle-aged housewives, he suggests, are the engines of American consumerism, and he consistently belittles them, describing them as “houseslaves in pin curlers” (598). His account of the essay of development middle-aged woman at the beginning of “A P” is online essays, dehumanizing; he calls her a witch and compares her to a bird, calming her down by “[getting] her feathers smoothed and her goodies into a bag” (596). Although the methods of development character’s outlook should not necessarily be extended to Updike himself, there are certainly grounds to criticize his treatment of women. On Man Versus. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/a-and-p-and-other-stories/study-guide/summary-a-and-p-part-1 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About AP and Other Stories AP and Other Stories Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and methods of development Analysis Summary And Analysis Ace in the Hole A P, Part 1 A P, Part 2 A P, Part 3 Pigeon Feathers Separating Short Easter Consumerism and essay the Cold War Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store John Updike Biography. AP and methods Other Stories Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for AP and Other Stories is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Sammy is a nineteen-year-old cashier at the A P, a large supermarket chain. He narrates a day at the store, complaining about customers who are mean or behave like sheep.

He is critical of the commercialism of modern culture. Three. Sammy thinks he experiences an epiphany for the rights of sixty lights these girls but his decision to quit his job is really driven by teen angst and sexual attraction. Check out essay of development this GradeSaver link below: Study Guide for AP and on man versus Other Stories. AP and Other Stories study guide contains a biography of John Updike, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

AP and Other Stories essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of AP and other short stories by methods, John Updike.

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Expository essay methods of …

online thesis guid The Aims and Scope of Food Chemistry are assessed and modified on an annual basis to reflect developments in the field. This means that research topics which may have been deemed in scope in previous years may now fall outside of the essay, scope of the journal as our scientific and technical understanding of the field evolves and sixty topics become less novel, original or relevant to of development Food Chemistry. Ten essential rules to ensure your manuscript is handled promptly. The manuscript fits the blind resume, Aims and Scope of the journal (http://www.journals.elsevier.com/food-chemistry ) Manuscript is in accordance with ARTICLE TYPE - GUIDELINES (http://www.elsevier.com/journals/food-chemistry/0308-8146/guide-for-authors#14000) The text is essay of development written in blindness, good English. Authors who feel their manuscript may require editing to of development conform to correct scientific English may wish to essays activities use an English Language Editing service such as the one available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/ ). Manuscript text is divided into numbered sections; line and page numbers are added and text is double spaced An ethical statement is required for experiments involving humans or animals Conflict of essay of development, interest statement is included at the end of the manuscript The number of figures and tables combined does not exceed a total of 6; additional tables and figures can be submitted as supplementary material. All relevant references should be provided in the Reference list. Blind Resume! Cover letter is prepared, introducing your article and explaining the novelty of the research Highlights are prepared (a birds' eye view of your article in 3-5 points, 85 characters each) The Authors should ensure that The manuscript fits within Aims Scope of Food Chemistry. The research is novel and has not been published previously - please see Responsible research publication: international standards for authors from COPE for more information http://publicationethics.org/files/International%20standards_authors_for%20website_11_Nov_2011_0.pdf Ethical consent has been obtained in case of methods, work on versus animals and/or humans. 2) Manuscript preparation:

The Authors should ensure that The number of words and of figures/tables is within limits: • Research article: 7500 words, 6 tables and essay methods of development figures combined. • Review article: 10 000 words, 6 tables and figures combined. • Short communication: 3000 words, 6 tables and activities figures combined More tables and figures? Submit as supplementary material The title page contains title, author names, affiliations and corresponding author telephone. Of Development! Email addresses are required for native, ALL authors. Authors must provide and of development use an e-mail address unique to themselves and resume style not one that is shared with another author registered in EES, or a department . The highlights are provided (3-5 bullet points, max 85 characters each including spaces). The manuscript contains a conflict of interest statement (before references) The language follows the requirements of the Guide for Authors . The formatting of the manuscript follows the requirements of the Guide for Authors . Continuous line numbering is essay methods provided throughout the manuscript (including captions and references); page numbering is provided. All relevant references are provided in alphabetical order Figures and tables (6 combined) include clear labels and blind resume are prepared as individual files. Essay Methods Of Development! The manuscript contains appropriate ethical approval and informed consent (if applicable, include statement). 3) Before submission: Manuscript file is provided as a Microsoft Word file.

Figures and blind resume tables are provided as individual files A cover letter is included. 3 or more suggested reviewers are provided ( including affiliation and professional email address ), at least 2 of which are from a different country than the Authors. Keywords are provided. 1.Research papers - original full-length research papers which have not been published previously, except in a preliminary form, and essay should not exceed 7,500 words (including no more than 6 tables - additional tables and figures can be submitted as supplementary material). Research papers should not contain more than 40 references. 2.Review articles - will be accepted in native, areas of topical interest, will normally focus on literature published over the previous five years, and of development should not exceed 10,000 words (including allowance for son essay blindness, no more than 6 tables and illustrations). Review articles should not contain more than 80 references. ) If it is felt absolutely necessary to exceed this number, please contact the editorial office for advice before submission.

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As a minimum, the full URL should be given and essays about the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to methods of development a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Resume Style! Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the essay of development, reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list. Example: CTAHR (College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of online, Hawaii). Tea (Camellia sinensis) a New Crop for Hawaii, 2007. Methods! URL http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/tea_04_07.pdf. Accessed 14.02.11. This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by video essay, citing them in essay, your text and including a data reference in your Reference List.

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Text: Citations in the text should follow the methods, referencing style used by the American Psychological Association. You are referred to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition, ISBN 978-1-4338-0561-5, copies of online about activities, which may be ordered online or APA Order Dept., P.O.B. 2710, Hyattsville, MD 20784, USA or APA, 3 Henrietta Street, London, WC3E 8LU, UK. List: references should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication. Reference to methods of development a journal publication: Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J. A. Blind Resume! J., Lupton, R. A. Essay! (2010). The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific Communications, 163 , 5159.

Reference to a book: Strunk, W., Jr., White, E. B. (2000). The elements of style. Blind Resume! (4th ed.). New York: Longman, (Chapter 4). Reference to a chapter in an edited book: Mettam, G. R., Adams, L. B. (2009). How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In B. S. Jones, R. Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the electronic age (pp.

281304). New York: E-Publishing Inc. Reference to a website: Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK. (2003). http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/aboutcancer/statistics/cancerstatsreport/ Accessed 13 March 2003. Reference to a dataset: [dataset] Oguro, M., Imahiro, S., Saito, S., Nakashizuka, T. (2015).

Mortality data for Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions . Mendeley Data, v1. https://doi.org/10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1. Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. Essay Methods Of Development! If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to sixty cite the data in essay, your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the References section for more information about essay on man versus machine data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the of development, research data page. If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described. There are different ways to versus link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system.

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You are encouraged to submit your article for Data in Brief as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of your manuscript. Versus! If your research article is accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to essay methods Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in blind resume, the open access data journal, Data in Brief . Methods Of Development! Please note an open access fee of machine, 500 USD is payable for publication in essay methods of development, Data in Brief . Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website. Please use this template to native son essay blindness write your Data in Brief. To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to essay post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by about activities, stating that the research data is essay methods confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the essay on man versus machine, Data Statement page. Abbreviations for methods of development, units should follow the blind resume, suggestions of the British Standards publication BS 1991. The full stop should not be included in abbreviations, e.g. m (not m.), ppm (not p.p.m.), % and methods '/' should be used in online essays activities, preference to essay of development 'per cent' and blindness 'per'. Where abbreviations are likely to essay cause ambiguity or may not be readily understood by an international readership, units should be put in full.

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5 pharagraph essay Have you ever made an awesome chocolate cake without looking at a recipe first? Unless you are an extremely talented baker, most likely the answer is “no.” Just one cup of flour too many and your chocolate dessert will be a chocolate mess! The same goes for writing a 5-paragraph essay. If you are an extremely talented writer, you may be able to essay methods, intuitively create a compelling essay with all the components needed to be both persuasive and sixty lights essay easy to swallow…or follow. However, if writing doesn’t come easily to you, you can benefit from creating a 5-paragraph essay outline before jumping into your writing assignment. I always make an essay methods, outline first, no matter what writing project I’m working on. There are endless, different ways to write a compelling essay. But, if your teacher is demanding that you sum up your argument in five succinct paragraphs, follow this easy tutorial on how to create a 5-paragraph essay outline. Structure of the 5-Paragraph Essay Outline.

The 5-paragraph essay is made of…you guessed it…five paragraphs. Each paragraph serves a specific purpose: Paragraph 1: Amazing introduction (hook) and the all-important thesis statement Paragraph 2: Argument A and supporting facts or quotes Paragraph 3: Argument B and supporting facts or quotes Paragraph 4: Argument C and sixty lights supporting facts or quotes Paragraph 5: Conclusion, made up of of development your restated thesis and the broader significance of resume style your argument. Here’s how this outline would look if you sketched it out: A Note on Formatting Your 5-Paragraph Essay Outline. Now, I’m not saying that you must put your outline into a diagram like the one above—using a simple pen and paper or word processor will suffice. If you like technology though, there are several digital outlining tools that can help you out—some of them more sophisticated and methods user-friendly than others. It’s not really about making a perfect 5-paragraph essay outline, rather, it’s about developing an outline that makes the most sense to lights essay, you. An outline ensures that you have the necessary components to of development, write an awesome essay. Without further delay, let’s jump into more detail about each of the outline components. Native! First we need a topic. Typically, your instructor will give you a subject to write about, or at least parameters for a topic.

Always follow your teacher’s specific instructions when embarking on your 5-paragraph essay journey. Essay Methods! After all, you don’t want the wrath of your instructor to college video essay, come down upon you for completely ignoring instructions. Essay Of Development! For our sample topic, we’re going to sixty lights essay, use the following prompt: What are the methods of development arguments for video, or against writing a 5-paragraph essay? Should teachers continue requesting this writing method from students? Step Two: Take a Stance on Your Topic. Essay Methods! We need to take a stance for or against teachers asking students to write 5-paragraph essays, so we can argue for or against it in our thesis statement. Don’t make the mistake of not taking a stance —without taking a position, your essay (five paragraphs or twenty) will have no direction at all. Machine! When deciding on your position, you have to choose one that can be backed with valid and supportable arguments, either from your research or from the course materials provided in your class.

For our sample essay outline, I’m going to take a stance against the 5-paragraph essay . Step Three: Write a Clear Thesis Statement. Methods! Based on my chosen stance against 5-paragraph essays, my thesis statement will be “Teachers should stop teaching students to write 5-paragraph essays.” Notice the word “should” in the thesis statement? More power can be added to your position by creating a statement about what should or shouldn’t be done. This is a much stronger and essay more defensible stance than if I simply wrote “5-paragraph essays are boring,” or something similar. Step Four: Develop Three Arguments to Underscore Your Thesis. Now you need to come up with three arguments that will back your thesis statement.

Here are mine: The 5-paragraph essay is too basic. There are myriad other ways to essay methods of development, write essays, many of which are more thought-provoking and college video essay creative than the 5-paragraph essay. The 5-paragraph essay does not allow for analytical thinking, rather, it confines students to following a restrictive formula. Methods! Step Five: Develop Three Supports for Each of Your Arguments. Your evidence, or supports, should include facts, quotes, and native son essay data that substantiate your thesis. This is essay of development a great place to include quotes directly from your research sources. For example, to sixty essay, support argument A (“The 5-paragraph essay is too basic”), I might offer the following evidence: Support 1A : Chicago teacher Ray Salazar says, “The five-paragraph essay is essay of development rudimentary, unengaging, and useless.” Support 2A: Elizabeth Guzik of blind resume California State University, Long Beach says, “The five paragraph essay encourages students to of development, engage only on video the surface level without attaining the level of cogency demanded by methods of development, college writing.” Similarly, in regards to essay versus, argument C (“The 5-paragraph essay does not allow for analytical thinking, rather, it confines students to of development, following a restrictive formula”), I might support it with this quote: Support 1C: According to an article in Education Week , “There is a consensus among college writing professors that ‘students are coming [to college] prepared to do five-paragraph themes and arguments but [are] radically unprepared in thinking analytically.’” Remember, for the 5-paragraph essay structure, you typically need to come up with three supports for online activities, each of your three arguments. Of Development! In our example, I only blind resume, show three of the total nine supports needed to round out the essay methods of development argument.

Once you have your thesis and arguments sorted, you can work on developing your introduction. (*Hint* it’s an exercise in futility to blind resume, develop your introduction first, because you won’t really know what you’re introducing yet.) For example, my hook could be, “English teachers across the essay of development nation have been teaching students to become ineffective writers.” This hook makes a bold statement that will encourage readers to continue on to find out why I would say such a thing… especially if the reader is your English teacher. Essay Versus! Step Seven: Develop Your Conclusion. After you have your paper outlined, figuring out a concluding paragraph should be a breeze. In a traditional 5-paragraph essay, the first step in writing your conclusion is to restate your thesis using different words. For example, I might write, “The 5-paragraph essay is an outdated and useless writing tool that should be phased out essay of the classroom.” To close out the paper, I would open a discussion on son essay the broader significance of this argument. For example, I might write, “Teachers should teach other methods of essay writing that help students stay organized and also allow them to think analytically.” Now that you’ve established all the essay methods of development components of your 5-paragraph essay outline, you’ll need to actually sit down, avoid social media for a while (I know, it’s hard), and write your 5-paragraph essay. Believe me, it will be much easier to do now that your thoughts are organized and you have somewhere to start.

Ask any writer. There is nothing more frightening than the pure white of an empty page. An outline is a great remedy for lights, this. Oh, and a couple more things: As you start writing, you’ll want to essay methods of development, be sure to essay, connect all the pieces of your essay together with strong transition sentences. Don’t just line up the essay of development notes from your outline and sixty lights call it done. And always, always be sure to edit; if you need help with that, you can use Kibin’s essay editing services. Spend a little extra time adding those finishing touches that will elevate your essay from good to great. How about you? Do you work from an methods, outline? Or are you more accustomed to blind resume, writing by the seat of methods your pants?

Let us know in essay machine, the comments. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. Essay Of Development! About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the blind resume former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. Excellent post. Love the paradoxical example. I#8217;ll try this with my blog posts. We#8217;re not huge fans of the essay methods 5-paragraph essay, but we realize it#8217;s still a widely taught and essays utilized writing method. The paradoxical example was the perfect way for us to express our own view while still writing a valuable and useful article.

I#8217;m glad you appreciate it #128521; I liked it so much I created a Mind map for it at Xmind. http://www.xmind.net/m/bjGj/ Hope that#8217;s okay. Methods Of Development! Very cool! Thanks for doing and sharing this, @sganpat:disqus. this is completely helpful. Awesome! Glad it helped you. #128578; What a very useful tips that is so applicable in sixty lights, all writer#8217;s on how to write well written paragraph. I think these are all very efficient and methods of development effective things that everyone should learned. Thank you for the good tips and methods of blind resume writing you have putted here. It was all useful and helpful stuffs.

Thank you for your comment! I#8217;m so glad you found this post to be useful and helpful. Methods! Well explained about how to construct an argument. Wow nice post ! Will definitely use it when I write again #128578; Fantastic! Glad you found it useful. Blind Resume! #128578; Wow nice post ! Thank you for sharing this #128578; Very nice article. Thank for sharing this. You#8217;re welcome! Glad you found it useful. Essay! I really appreciate your post. Structure is the soul of any essay and you describe it in a great way. Thanks for your kind comments!

Great question! Here is a good blog post that covers alternative structures: http://thelamppost.ca/alternatives-to-the-five-paragraph-essay/ Thank you very much for the article is very important information! I especially liked the point Step Seven: Step Seven: Develop Your Conclusion clearly we need to develop this part of the Essenes.

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Essay mills: university course work to order. David Matthews investigates the scale and essay methods threat of the custom essay industry. The damage contract cheating can inflict on society is sixty lights, clear. Graduates emerge from university with huge (and in some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in their learning and methods of development knowledge. Picture the about following scenario: marking an essay by one of essay methods of development, your more underwhelming students, you grow suspicious. You would like to blind resume, be pleased by the unexpected quality of the work, but instead you feel “a twinge that a sentence is too neatly framed”, as one scholar who has found herself in this position puts it. The analysis is methods of development, superb, the writing style good - but is it too good?

It bears little resemblance to previous work by native the same student: indeed, it is in essay a different league. But it has been through Turnitin, the academic plagiarism checker, and activities come back clean. Has the student miraculously improved, or are you looking at a particularly pernicious problem afflicting today’s higher education sector: the paid- for, custom-written essay? Custom essays, usually bought through websites known as essay mills, are in some ways an academic’s worst nightmare. Unlike standard examples of essay of development, copy-and-paste plagiarism, they cannot be detected using software because they are “original” pieces of work - just not the student’s. They also arguably represent an college video even more cynical form of cheating than, for example, regurgitating unattributed passages in a piece of submitted work.

For many years, essay mills have been brazenly advertising their wares online, although they are always careful not to condone customers handing in bought pieces of methods, work, arguing that the essays purchased are intended simply as useful guides or reference material. No one knows how big the market in custom essays is, or whether universities are managing to detect those students who do hand them in. There are also concerns that in an age of mass higher education and high student-to-staff ratios, lecturers are less able to get to know their students’ work, making this form of cheating more difficult to detect. And there are fears that the college video pressures of the job might encourage some academics to turn a blind eye to the practice. But perhaps the essay methods of development most important question is whether it is possible to prevent this form of cheating in the first place.

Asking how many custom-written essays are being bought and sixty sold in the UK is a bit like asking “how long is essay methods of development, a piece of on man, string?”, argues Thomas Lancaster, senior lecturer in computing at Birmingham City University. For obvious reasons (including the fact that cheats do not want to be caught, essay mills operate online, and there are no official statistics), it is difficult to come by reliable figures. However, Lancaster, along with his former colleague Robert Clarke, has attempted to quantify the scale of the of development problem. The pair studied a large sample of essay mill sites between March 2005 and June 2013, and sixty lights essay identified nearly 19,000 attempts at methods, contract cheating by students. While they examined websites that could be used by anyone anywhere in lights the world, a more detailed study of 59 postings in 2011 on one website, vworker.com, found 18 references to assignments at essay methods of development, UK universities. “What we detected is the tip of the lights essay iceberg,” cautions Lancaster.

No one even knows how many essay ghostwriting sites there are on the web, but five years ago Lancaster and Clarke listed 158. In addition to the online activity, there is an unknown number of essay writers who advertise their work offline - even on essay of development campus. “You get flyers pinned up on blind resume university noticeboards that say: ‘We’ll do your work’,” Lancaster explains. Then there are those who arrange contract essays socially, for friends, family members or students one or two years below them, who leave no public trace at essay of development, all. Prices vary dramatically. Sixty Lights Essay! An upper-second, five-page undergraduate history essay will set you back ?70 at essay of development, the cheaper end of the market, but some sites charge in online activities the region of ?150-?160. One website, which sells itself as a “premier” service, charges ?50 an hour.

This may sound expensive, but it is loose change compared with the cost (particularly for international students) of having to retake a year. At the top end of the scale, postgraduate dissertations of 25,000 words cost in the region of ?2,800. Some essay writing companies are willing to provide more specific estimates of the scale of demand for their services, although the figures are self-reported and some academics say that the essay methods firms may exaggerate their popularity to attract publicity and gain more custom. Jennifer Wiss, business development manager at All Answers (which trades under a number of names on the web, including UKessays.com), says that the company dispatched 11,470 custom essays in 2012, of which three-quarters were ordered from UK IP addresses. This figure is difficult to online essays, verify, but the firm’s accounts appear to be consistent with a company selling essays in such quantities. Wiss estimates that a further 4,000 custom essays are written in the UK by rival agencies each year (although students at British universities can also order from abroad). In 2005 Barclay Littlewood, who was then chief executive of essay of development, All Answers (which promoted itself as UK Essays), estimated that the business was worth ?200 million a year and boasted that it had allowed him to buy a Ferrari and a Lamborghini. Robert Eaglestone, professor of contemporary literature and resume style thought at essay methods of development, Royal Holloway, University of essay, London, believes that custom-written essays are a problem, but thinks that some essay mills choose to exaggerate their size through the of development press “because it’s good advertising. It’s a very media- friendly problem.” Whatever the number of essays being commissioned and the scale of the companies involved, information gathered by Times Higher Education under the Freedom of Information Act suggests that the number of blind resume, custom-written essays being detected and officially reported is tiny. THE asked UK universities to provide details of the number of students they had disciplined in the academic years 2011-12 and 2012-13 for handing in custom essays or assignments bought from essay mills.

Among the universities that responded to the request within 20 days, just 29 students were disciplined in 2011-12; in 2012-13, 30 students from methods of development, 15 institutions were penalised. More than half the offenders hailed from resume style, outside the UK. Some argue that the methods of development high fees paid by lights essay international students and the need to of development, write in English (if this is not their first language) create greater incentives to cheat. Chasing plagiarists can be ‘too much effort’, Carroll says. In any case, she is unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Wiss reports that for a significant number of essay machine, All Answers’ customers, English is a second language. Essay! She claims that “many of these struggle to put their thoughts and ideas across, or to interpret their course material and lectures. College Admissions! I believe this is why they choose to use a service like ours.”

In Lancaster’s experience, both domestic and methods international students use essay writing services, but he believes that a particularly serious and related issue is the matter of students paying for the translation of an essay written in a foreign language before handing it in, a practice that can obscure plagiarism. On Man! As THE reported in August, some universities still lack clear policies on whether international students may use proofreaders or translators to help them with their work. The damage contract cheating can inflict on society is essay, clear. Graduates emerge from university with huge (and in some disciplines, potentially dangerous) gaps in their learning and knowledge. Lancaster even discovered one student who had attempted to outsource an assignment on nuclear engineering. One of the scholar’s presentations on the subject asks: “Do you want to live within five miles of this person?”

But there is also a more specific form of damage to the university. You need only blind resume, one student to go “to a job and not be able to do it” for essay of development, an employer to sixty lights essay, “write off” other graduates of methods, that university, Lancaster argues. He believes that employers have long memories and will warn other companies that certain alumni are not to blind resume, be trusted. So contract cheating “has the effect of penalising honest students”, he adds. Given the ethical issues, who agrees to work for essay methods, the sites? The companies advertise themselves as employing graduates with good qualifications: an anonymous essay writer who wrote for THE in August says he is a recent Oxbridge graduate who was asked to provide evidence of his qualifications and samples of his writing when applying for blind resume, the job. Some companies claim to employ staff with at essay methods of development, least 2:1 degrees, interview potential candidates and blindness ask them to complete trial assignments. Many contract essay companies justify their trade by arguing that they are simply showing uncertain students how to write. “Many students just want to see how it’s done,” says Wiss, who also claims that the “vast majority” of All Answers’ customers do not hand in their purchased essays. This might be more convincing if All Answers did not run its essays through plagiarism checkers before sending them on methods to clients - a common practice in the industry.

Why do this unless customers want to hand them in? Wiss claims that this is to make sure that its writers are “spending the time they are paid for on the project and not cutting corners”. In line with many in the business, All Answers tries to blind resume, blame universities for the rise of the essay mill. Essay Methods! Institutions admit international students who can “barely string a sentence together”, Wiss claims, while others are “thrown in at essay machine, the deep end” when they start university. However, claims that custom essays merely help students with their own original work are “disingenuous”, according to a spokesman for essay, Universities UK. “Such essays often cost several hundred pounds, will specify the grade they require [2:1, 2:2, etc] and are purchased invariably to sixty essay, meet clear deadlines,” he says. The anonymous essay writer offers a number of clues that he says may help to alert academics to essay, custom-written essays. Essay writing agencies generally require writers to submit their work in college essay a standard format, he explains, often including a contents page and chapter headings, regardless of length. “If you didn’t ask your students to submit a 2,000-word essay in this format and you get a contents page, etc, then this might raise an alarm,” he says.

Ghostwriters often lack access to full journal articles, and so rely heavily on first-page previews from journal sites or Google Books. “Really probe the references, because this is the weak part,” he advises. Jude Carroll, an education consultant at Oxford Brookes University and a plagiarism expert, thinks academics should not be afraid to be aggressively “investigative” if they smell a rat. If there are suspicions, she suggests, staff should call students in and ask them to explain unusually complex words or obscure references they have used. The “biggest worry” for of development, academics who have such suspicions is that they lack proof, she says - but that is no excuse for inaction. “There’s no support for the argument about proof. Students can’t question academic judgements.

You don’t have to be [100 per cent] sure, you have to weigh the balance of probabilities - and be at least 65 per online essays activities cent sure,” she thinks. But for another academic, who asks to remain anonymous, launching an investigation is not that simple. “I’m ashamed to admit it but you simply don’t have the methods of development time to launch a plagiarism case,” she says. One colleague, the same academic recalls, had to “almost google every line” of a suspect essay and make several trips to the library to ascertain whether her fears about a piece of work were genuine. In a competitive research excellence framework environment, chasing plagiarists can be “too much effort”, she says. In any case, she is sixty essay, also unsure if her institution would back her up if she uncovered cheating. Universities have a “real anxiety about the litigation culture” and are “anxious” about academics exercising their judgement. When offenders do get caught, Carroll says, the punishments for handing in contracted essays are “highly variable”.

She finds this worrying because penalties are a major determinant of of development, how likely students are to cheat. “I believe students should be thrown out” if caught, she says. “It’s fraud.” However, according to the results of THE ’s FoI request, most students who cheat in this manner can expect to remain on resume style their courses. Of the 59 students who were caught handing in bought essays in 2011-12 and 2012-13, just 13 were expelled. In one case at Newcastle University, for example, an international student suspected of handing in work purchased from the site Essays.uk.com was given a “final written warning” but no other punishment. Many believe that academics’ first line of defence against custom essays is to essay methods, set assignments that are difficult, if not impossible, to outsource. The anonymous ghostwriter advises scholars to ask their students to draw on lectures and class discussion when setting essays. “This is something that is either less visible or invisible to resume style, the ghostwriter,” he explains, and therefore much more difficult to achieve.

Questions that require close engagement with a particular text are also more difficult to outsource, he says. “Chances are I won’t be able to do this as well because I won’t have that book to hand. If asked to, I have a problem.” He also cautions against sending out lecture notes in electronic formats or putting them online, because this only makes it easier for methods, ghostwriters to give the impression of having attended courses. However, the online essays about activities Equality Challenge Unit points out that students with disabilities might find taking notes during lectures difficult or even impossible, and methods of development some departments require academics to provide lecture notes to all students for this reason.

Some essay questions appear time and time again, making them easier for contract writers to complete, so one obvious piece of advice from plagiarism experts is to avoid setting assignments on predictable topics such as “women in Dickens”. Scholars might also set students presentations or tests based on college admissions video their written submissions, which can identify those who have not done the methods of development work themselves. In 2007, Google banned advertisements for essay writing services on its website, a move welcomed by UUK. Video! Couldn’t the government introduce a blanket ban on the companies? A spokeswoman for the Department for essay methods, Business, Innovation and Skills suggests that this would be impossible under current law. “Whether a student and/or ‘writing service’ have committed an offence would be for a court to decide and blind resume depend on the individual circumstances of the case,” she says. Of Development! “There is no action BIS could take to address this.”

Another drastic option is suggested by the tale of a US professor, recounted by Lancaster, who set himself up as a contract essay writer to test the waters, only to find one of his own assignments out to tender. He wrote it, and when one of his students handed it in, he revealed himself as the author. Wiss maintains that All Answers is “very keen to sixty, work with universities to methods, provide a service that can’t be abused in native son essay the first place” - but only if universities agree that the company is “a legitimate source of academic help”. The UUK spokesman declines to comment on essay this and college admissions says: “More should be done to clamp down on these essay companies.” He adds that the body does not have any specific proposals to tackle the essay methods of development problem (although suggestions are welcome).

So there does not appear to be any systematic solution to essay mills on the horizon, and responsibility for detecting and dealing with the issue continues to essay on man versus machine, rest with individual academics and of development their universities. “If academics really want to catch these essays, they are going to native blindness, have to spend more time engaging with their students’ submitted work,” concludes the essay of development anonymous essay writer. Some may be left wishing that they had more time to do just that. Nothing to admissions essay, hide (except your details) “Although using our service is methods, not cheating, and you have nothing to hide if you use the service responsibly, we still take your privacy very seriously … We never share details of your order with your university.” “First class in my chemistry coursework was unbelievable. thanks.” - Theo, Manchester. “Universities sometimes warn students against using companies like ours, which goes back to the days when the custom essay industry was underhand and untrustworthy. We’re actively involved in re-educating them and changing their perspective.” “Just wanted to send a note to blind resume, say thanks.

Your paper helped me get a 2:1 for of development, my degree!! I can now apply for blind resume, my Masters! Thanks ever so much!! Do you write to Masters level?” - Lucy, Stratford-upon-Avon. Set students short tests or presentations based on their essays.

Ask students to write their essays with reference to essay of development, lectures or class discussions. Sixty! Set unusual questions or ask for analysis of set texts as this could put off potential ghostwriters. If you suspect an essay may not be a student’s work, ask them to methods, explain the key words, concepts and research. Check references: ghostwriters often do not have access to online essays about, full journals or books, so may be able to reference only the preview pages of online articles. If an essay seems overly formatted, for example, with a contents page and essay methods of development chapters, this could be because of a standard format used by essay companies. Google your assignment questions: you may find that they are out to resume style, tender. Click here for essay, more on preventing plagiarism. Registration is free and only takes a moment.

Once registered you can read a total of 3 articles each month, plus: Sign up for the editor's highlights Receive World University Rankings news first Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and save job searches Participate in reader discussions and post comments Register. Or subscribe for unlimited access to: Unlimited access to resume style, news, views, insights reviews Digital editions Digital access to THE’s university and college rankings analysis Unrestricted access to the UK and global edition of the methods THE app on IOS, Android and Kindle Fire Subscribe. Already registered or a current subscriber? Sign in now.

Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research)/Vice-President. Research Assistant/Research Fellow in Modelling Root Traits to Bio-engineer Soil. Lecturer in Data Science - Data Sciences with Analytics. Digital Marketing and Recruitment Executive. Last week, the UK’s universities minister threatened to resume style, fine institutions that pay their v-cs more than the essay of development prime minister without a strong justification. We present three perspectives on the debate. The bullying and subsequent suicide of a talented Ivy League scientist exposes ugly truths about the cruelty and about activities dysfunction at the heart of essay methods of development, academic science. No tax inspector or police officer can claim rights over college admissions video essay, what they write for methods of development, their jobs, so why should academics, asks Gabriel Egan. We need to call off the witch-hunt and trust in native blindness the capacity of our students to learn, says Bruce Macfarlane. Lack of essay of development, job security, limited support from management and weight of work-related demands on time among risk factors.

If you like what you're reading online, why not take advantage of our subscription and get unlimited access to all of native son essay blindness, Times Higher Education 's content? You'll get full access to our website, print and digital editions, and methods the Times Higher Education app for iOS, Android and native blindness Kindle Fire devices.