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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Blaise Pascal was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, inventor, and theologian. In mathematics, he was an early pioneer in the fields of game theory and probability theory. In philosophy he was an from lord flies early pioneer in existentialism. Phdthesis. As a writer on theology and religion he was a defender of from Christianity. Despite chronic ill health, Pascal made historic contributions to mathematics and to sections physical science, including both experimental and theoretical work on hydraulics, atmospheric pressure, and the existence and nature of the vacuum. As a scientist and philosopher of science, Pascal championed strict empirical observation and the use of controlled experiments; he opposed the rationalism and logico-deductive method of the on simon lord Cartesians; and he opposed the metaphysical speculations and reverence for authority of the theologians of the Middle Ages. Although he never fully abandoned his scientific and mathematical interests, after his uncanny “Night of Fire” (the intense mystical illumination and midnight conversion that he experienced on the evening of November 23, 1654), Pascal turned his talents almost exclusively to religious writing. It was during the period from proposal, 1656 until his death in 1662 that he wrote the Lettres Provinciales and the Pensees . The Lettres Provinciales is a satirical attack on Jesuit casuistry and on simon of the a polemical defense of Jansenism.
The Pensees is a posthumously published collection of unfinished notes for what was intended to be a systematic apologia for the Christian religion. Along with his scientific writings, these two great literary works have attracted the admiration and foucault essays governmentality critical interest of philosophers and serious readers of every generation. “Pascal’s life is inseparable from his work.”—A. J. Krailsheimer. Pascal’s life has stirred the same fascination and on simon from lord of the flies generated as much lively discussion and learned commentary as his writings. Thesis On Autism. This is largely attributable to his intriguing, enigmatic personality. To read him is to come into on simon from, direct contact with both his strangeness and his charm. It is also to encounter a tangle of incongruities and seeming contradictions. For Pascal himself – humble yet forceful; fanatical as well as skeptical; mild and popular writers empathetic, yet also capable of withering scorn – personified the very “chimera” he famously declared man to be ( Pensees , 131/164). [Note: Throughout this article, fragments of the from lord flies Pensees are identified first (that is, before the slash) by the numeration system of Lafuma and second (after the phdthesis slash) by that of Sellier – L/S.] Interest in his life is also due to our natural desire to learn more about on simon of the this “scary genius” , or effrayant g enie – Chateaubriand’s memorable phrase, whose unique combination of talents enabled him to make revolutionary contributions not only to mathematics and physical science but also to the theology and literature of his age. Merely to list his achievements is once again to encounter Pascal the “chimera,”— the human riddle who was both an avant-garde crusader for empirical science as well as an avid supporter of ancient prophecy, mysticism, miracles, and phdthesis Biblical hermeneutics.
Modern readers are usually shocked to from lord of the flies discover that the father of essays governmentality gambling odds and lord flies the mechanical computer wore a spiked girdle to chastise himself and further mortify a body already tormented by recurrent illness and chronic pain. He has been the subject of dozens of biographies, beginning with La Vie de M. Pascal , the brief hagiographic sketch composed by his sister Gilberte Perier shortly after his death in 1662 and first published in 1684. New treatments of the author’s life have appeared in both French and for dissertation English with remarkable regularity ever since. Perier’s memoir established a precedent by applying an underlying pattern and symmetry to her brother’s life. The implied form is that of a well-made play with classic five-act structure. In Perier’s treatment this life-drama is a divine comedy showing the spiritual rise and essays flies eventual salvation of a distressed soul who, after a series of trials and setbacks, reunites with God.
Meanwhile Pascal’s secular biographers and commentators, beginning with Voltaire, offer an opposite view. They portray Pascal’s career as essentially a tragedy, a descending arc tracing the decline into how to write ad, timidity and superstition of a once bold and independent thinker. Nietzsche’s characterization of Pascal as “the most instructive victim of essays from lord Christianity, murdered slowly, first physically, then psychologically” is a typical summation ( Ecce Homo , II, 3, p. 243). Both views are oversimplified. First of all, at no point during his lifetime was Pascal ever a libertine or libre-penseur . So portraying his life as though it consisted of two sudden and powerful “conversions,” with an intervening slide into worldliness and sins of the flesh, seems a bit too pat and sections melodramatic. Similarly, since Pascal was a lifelong supporter of the Catholic faith, and since he also maintained an interest in scientific and mathematical problems well after his commitment to Jansenism and Port-Royal, it seems unfair to portray his final years as a betrayal of his scientific principles rather than as an essays from lord intensification or culmination of his religious views. Despite these and other distortions, the traditional division of Pascal’s biography into five stages or periods remains a convenient way of in the of essay reviewing his career.
Blaise Pascal was born on June 19, 1623, in Clermont (now Clermont-Ferrand) in the Auvergne region of central France. His parents were Etienne Pascal (1588 – 1651), a magistrate, civil servant, and member of the aristocratic and professional class known as the noblesse de robe , and Antoinette Begon Pascal (1596-1626), the daughter of a Clermont merchant. Pascal was named for his paternal uncle as well as for St. Blaise, the 3rd-century Armenian saint martyred by on simon of the having his flesh flayed by iron carding combs as his namesake would later punish his own flesh by wearing a belt studded with sharp nails. The Pascal family, including Pascal’s older sister Gilberte (b. 1620) and younger sister Jacqueline (b. 1625), enjoyed a comfortable, upper-bourgeois lifestyle. Etienne, in addition to being a lawyer, public official, and tax administrator, was proficient in Latin and Greek, a dabbler in natural philosophy, and foucault essays an expert mathematician.
He was also a demanding but loving father who took great pride in his children’s accomplishments. Gilberte would go on to become Pascal’s first biographer and serve as a fierce guardian of his reputation. Jacqueline displayed an early literary genius and earned acclaim as a poet and dramatist before becoming a nun at Port-Royal. Pascal’s mother, who was known for her piety and charitable work, died when Pascal was only three years old and Jacqueline was but an essays on simon from infant. Pascal was a sickly child who suffered various pains and diseases throughout his life. According to a family anecdote related by his niece, at age one he supposedly fell victim to a strange illness. His abdomen became distended and swollen, and proposal the slightest annoyance triggered fits of crying and screaming. This affliction supposedly continued for lord more than a year, and the child often seemed on phdthesis, the verge of death.
Hearing of the essays from lord boy’s condition, neighbors attributed it to witchcraft and blamed a poor elderly woman who occasionally performed household chores for the Pascal family. Etienne, as an educated gentleman, at first scoffed at the accusation, but when his patience eventually wore thin he confronted the thesis on autism woman and threatened her with hanging if she didn’t come forward with the truth. The woman reportedly fell to essays on simon from lord flies the floor and promised to divulge everything if her life would be spared. She confessed that in a moment of thesis on autism anger and resentment she had cast a spell on the child – a fatal spell that could be undone only by having it transferred to essays on simon from some other living creature. Thesis Papers On Autism. Supposedly the family cat was given to her and made a scapegoat for the otherwise doomed child. The old woman then prescribed that a poultice of essays from special herbs be applied to Pascal’s stomach. Essays Governmentality. After an intense crisis, during which he appeared to be comatose and close to death, Pascal awoke from his “spell” and essays on simon from lord flies eventually recovered his health.
This strange and improbable “witch” tale is scarcely credible today. But that Pascal endured a serious and potentially fatal childhood illness during which his parents desperately tried all kinds of fanciful cures and treatments seems very likely. In fact, the anecdote is perfectly consistent with the wild and paradoxical world of 17 th_ century culture and especially the medical practice of the time – a time when empirical science and natural magic, enlightened new techniques and thesis papers on autism antique superstitions, were routinely intermingled and practiced side by essays lord of the side. The exact cause and basis of popular writers Pascal’s lifelong health problems have never been fully settled or accounted for. According to Gilberte, after his 18 th birthday Pascal never lived a day of on simon from lord of the flies his life free from pain or from popular writers, some sort of essays from lord of the flies illness or medical affliction. How To Write Ad. The most common medical opinion is that he contracted gastrointestinal tuberculosis in on simon from of the early childhood and that manifestations of the disease, along with signs of how to write ad possible concurrent nephritis or rheumatoid arthritis, recurred periodically throughout his lifetime. The accounts of from his pathology are also consistent with migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, and fibromyalgia – a complex of illnesses often found together and which also frequently occur in thesis papers on autism combination with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and emotional distress. Scholarly interest in this matter involves more than just idle curiosity and medical detective-work. Essays On Simon From Lord Of The Flies. The question of Pascal’s physical and mental health goes to the heart of desires to learn more about the conditions and proposal sections for dissertation circumstances that produce extraordinary genius.
Affliction and disease, physical or emotional trauma, a natural disadvantage or disability have often served as an added motive or accelerator for high-level creative achievement. Examples abound – from the ancient legend of the blind and vagabond Homer to the documented histories of modern creative figures like Isaac Newton, Van Gogh, Stephen Hawking, and Christy Brown. We can only essays on simon from flies, speculate whether and to what extent Pascal’s physical ailments and disabilities, instead of retarding his career, may have actually spurred and thesis papers given rise to his intellectual triumphs. In 1631, a few years after the essays on simon from lord flies death of his wife, Etienne sold his government post (a common practice of the day) along with most of his property and moved with his children to Paris. Over the next nine years he devoted himself to his amateur scientific and mathematical pursuits and took personal charge of his children’s education. Recognizing early on phdthesis, his son’s exceptional intellectual gifts, Etienne designed and supervised a special program and curriculum for the boy based on his own anti-scholastic and from of the progressive educational principles. Young Pascal was taught Latin and Greek as well as history, geography, and philosophy – all on an impromptu schedule, including during meals and at various hours throughout the day.
Science, or natural philosophy as the discipline was then known, ignited Pascal’s imagination, and he demonstrated an early inquisitiveness about natural phenomena and a fondness for devising experiments. Civil and how to write ad canon law were also part of a varied curriculum that included study of the Bible and the Church Fathers. The latter studies were in accordance with Etienne’s personal religious views, which were plain and respectful and from lord as progressive as his views on education. He taught his son his own cardinal principle that whatever is a matter of faith should not also be treated as a matter of how to write ad reason; and vice-versa. On Simon From Lord Of The. It is a tenet that Pascal took to heart and followed throughout his career.
In the sections for dissertation belief that, once exposed to mathematics, his son would be so captivated by it that he would forsake or ignore his other studies, Etienne determined to withhold instruction in math and lord of the geometry until Pascal had completed the rest of his training. In The Life Of Essay. However, upon on simon of the, discovering that the boy had already achieved an intuitive understanding of the discipline including his own independently worked out demonstration of a proof in Euclid, Etienne acquiesced. The pages of popular writers Euclid were finally opened to the youth, and thus began Pascal’s belated introduction to essays flies mathematics – the subject with which he would conduct, at times guiltily, a lifelong love affair. Pascal’s education was unique for foucault essays his own time and would be unusual in any era. A passionate student who delved earnestly into essays on simon from of the flies, each new subject, he absorbed new material, including, at how to write ad, a later period, the most arcane and technical components of on simon lord of the flies theology quickly and phdthesis effortlessly. However, his learning, while deep in a few areas, was never broad and was in some ways less remarkable for what it included than for essays from lord what it left out.
For example, due to his assorted maladies, Pascal’s regimen included no physical training or any form of exercise. In addition, because of the how to write ad sequestered, hermetic, entirely private form of his schooling, he never experienced any of the personal contacts or opportunities for social development that most young people, including even novice monks in monastic schools, commonly do. To what extent this may have deformed or limited his social and interpersonal skills it is hard to say. He was known to be temperamentally impatient with and demanding of others while sometimes seeming arrogant and of the self-absorbed. At a later point in his career, he fully acknowledged his deficiencies and indeed chastised himself for his social ambition and intellectual vanity. Pascal was not widely read in foucault essays the classics or in contemporary literature. Though he was well acquainted with Aristotelian and Scholastic thought, philosophy for him consisted mainly of Epictetus, Montaigne, and the traditional debate between Stoicism and Epicureanism. Profane literature was foreign to him, and given his tastes and habits it’s impossible to imagine him reading, say, Ovid or Catullus, much less Rabelais. In fact it’s uncertain whether he had even read Homer or Virgil or for that matter any verses other than the Psalms and his sister Jacqueline’s religious poems. As for lord of the drama, Corneille was a family friend who at one time personally championed Jacqueline’s poetry and dramaturgy, and the young Racine studied classical literature and rhetoric at thesis on autism, the school at essays from flies, Port-Royal while Jacqueline and how to write ad Pascal were also there.
Yet Pascal never mentions the work of either great writer and indeed – other than to refer to essays on simon flies the stage as a “dangerous diversion” ( Pensees , 764/630) – seems to have taken little interest at all in contemporary French theatre, which was then at phdthesis, its artistic zenith. But whatever he may have lacked in physical education, humanistic studies, and art appreciation, Pascal more than made up for in his favored pursuits. In fact, so rapidly did he advance in physics and mathematics that Etienne boldly introduced the of the boy at the age of only thirteen into his small Parisian academic circle known as the Acad emie libre. The central figure of this group was the polymathic philosopher, mathematician, theologian, and music theorist Pere Marin Mersenne, one of the leading intellectuals of the age. Mersenne corresponded with Descartes, Huygens, Hobbes, and thesis on autism other luminaries of the period and actively promoted the work of controversial thinkers like Galileo and Gassendi. The Mersenne circle also included such notable mathematicians as Girard Desargues and Gilles de Roberval. These inspirational figures served the young Pascal as mentors, examiners, intellectual models, and academic guides.
It was during his involvement with the on simon of the Mersenne circle that Pascal published, at age sixteen, his Essai pour les Coniques , an important contribution to the relatively new field of projective geometry. The essay includes an original proof concerning the special properties of hexagons inscribed within conic sections that is still known today as Pascal’s Theorem. Around the same time that Pascal was working on his Theorem, Etienne, who had at one time served as an adviser to Cardinal Richelieu, incurred the wrath of the First Minister by leading a protest over a government bond default. Threatened with prison, he sought refuge in Auvergne. He was eventually restored to the Cardinal’s good graces by the intervention of his daughter Jacqueline. (The Cardinal, a patron of the theatre, was charmed not only by Jacqueline’s poetic and dramatic skills but also by her beauty and foucault governmentality courtly manners.) It’s also likely that Richelieu had an essays on simon flies additional motive for welcoming Etienne back. Thesis On Autism. For no sooner was Etienne returned to royal favor than Richelieu appointed him the essays on simon of the chief tax administrator for Rouen. At the thesis papers Cardinal’s behest, the Pascal family moved from Paris to Rouen in early January of 1640. Rouen was a city in crisis, beset by street violence, crop failures, a tax revolt, and an outbreak of plague. On Simon Of The. It was Etienne’s job to handle the phdthesis taxpayer revolt, which he eventually managed to do by working with the local citizens and earning their confidence and respect. Pascal meanwhile seems to have been little affected by the change of scene and continued with his mathematical studies.
He also undertook a new project. Impressed by flies the massive number of calculations required in popular writers his father’s work of accounting and tax assessment, he wondered if the drudgery of such labor might not be relieved by some type of mechanical device. Setting to work on the idea in 1642, he eventually conceived, designed, and essays from of the flies oversaw the construction of what was presented to the public in 1645 as la machine arithmetique , later known as the Pascaline. His simple design consisted of a sequence of interconnected wheels, arranged in such a fashion that a full revolution of one wheel nudged its neighbor to the left ahead one tenth of a revolution. The Pascaline thus became the a day in the life of essay world’s first fully functional mechanical calculator, and in 1649 Pascal received a royal patent on the device.
Over the next five years he continued tinkering with his design, experimenting with various materials and trying out different linkage arrangements and gear mechanisms. Nine working models survive today and serve as a reminder that Pascal was not just a mathematical Platonist absorbed in a higher world of pure number but also a practical minded, down-to-earth engineering type interested in applying the insights of essays on simon flies science and mathematics to proposal the solution of real-world problems. On an icy day in January of essays from of the 1646, Etienne Pascal, in proposal sections for dissertation his capacity as a public official, was summoned to prevent a duel that was to take place in a field outside Rouen. While en route, he slipped on the ice, fracturing a leg and injuring his hip. The family called in two local bonesetters, the brothers Deschamps, who moved into the Pascal household for essays on simon from a period of three months to proposal for dissertation care for Etienne and oversee his recovery. The brothers turned out to be members of the small, saintly community of Augustinian worshippers established at Port-Royal by the Jansenist priest Jean du Vergier de Hauranne, more simply known as the abbe Saint-Cyran.
The Jansenists (named for the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen) accepted the strict Augustinian creed that salvation is achieved not by human virtue or merit but solely by the grace of God. At Port-Royal they practiced an ascetic lifestyle emphasizing penance, austerity, devotional exercises, and good works. While treating Etienne, the essays on simon of the flies Deschamps brothers shared their stringent, exacting, and somewhat cheerless religious views with the Pascal family. A Day Of Essay. Pascal himself, along with his father and sisters, had never displayed much in the way of genuine religious fervor. They were good upper-middle-class Catholics, mild and respectful in their beliefs rather than zealous, neither God-fearing nor, to any extraordinary degree, God-seeking. Yet the flies ardor of the Deschamps brothers proved contagious. Pascal caught the fire and read with avidity the Jansenist texts that were given to popular writers him – sermons by Saint-Cyran along with doctrinal works by Augustine, Antoine Arnauld (Saint-Cyran’s successor), and Jansen himself. Gradually, with growing assurance, and eventually with complete sincerity and conviction, Pascal embraced the on simon from lord Jansenist creed. According to Gilberte’s account, he was the first in the family to how to write ad convert to the new faith, and essays lord of the flies no sooner had he done so than he set about to convert the rest of family, first Jacqueline, then Etienne, and finally Gilberte and her husband Florin Perier. It should be added, however, that from proposal sections for dissertation, Pascal’s own point of essays of the flies view he wasn’t so much “converting” to Jansenism, or any particular group or sect, as he was declaring or reaffirming his commitment to the true faith.
In her memoir, Gilberte refers to the events of life this period as Pascal’s “intellectual conversion,” distinguishing it from his later, more emotional, and traumatic “second conversion” of 1654. She also asserts that at this time Pascal formally renounced all his scientific and mathematical researches and ever afterward devoted himself entirely and exclusively to on simon from lord of the flies the love and service of God. This claim is a day in the, inaccurate and indeed hard to fathom given that only a year later Florin Perier, Gilberte’s own husband, assisted in what is probably Pascal’s most famous scientific investigation, the celebrated Puy-de-Dome experiment measuring air pressure and proving the existence of the vacuum. In fact, despite Gilberte’s claim, it would probably be closer to the truth to say that, shortly after his conversion to Jansenism, Pascal resumed his scientific endeavors with even more zest and energy than before. In the spring of 1647, partly on the advice of his physicians, he returned to essays of the Paris where he linked up once again with former colleagues and how to write ad began organizing several new essays and treatises for publication. His supposed renunciation of essays on simon flies natural philosophy and the bright world of Parisian intellectual life had lasted all of six months. Contrary to Gilberte’s account, most biographers have accepted the years 1649 -1654 as a periode mondaine in thesis papers on autism Pascal’s career – that is, as a time when he retreated from his pledge to serve only God and resumed to a significant degree the life of lord a gentleman-scientist. It was not a period of debauchery and how to write ad libertinism or anything of the kind. Although he showed an occasional weakness for essays on simon from lord of the flies silk and brocade and enjoyed the amenities of popular writers both a valet and a coach-and-six, Pascal did not become a salon habitue or even much of a bon vivant. He was simply a young man who sought the essays on simon flies company of fellow experts, savored the spotlight of recognition for popular writers personal achievement, and delighted in the social world of learned conversation and sparkling intellectual debate. His lapse or personal failing, if it can be called that, was what the Port-Royalists referred to as libido excellendi – a concupiscence of the mind rather than of the flesh and an example of the natural human desire for fame that his contemporary, John Milton, called “that last infirmity of noble mind.”
Pascal’s companions during this period included such stars of the Paris social scene as Artus Gouffier, the Duc de Roannez, a former military officer, noted courtier, and amateur dabbler in science and mathematics; Antoine Gombaud, the Chevalier de Mere, a soldier, gambler, author, and paragon of honnetete (more than mere “honesty,” this term connotes an entire code of conduct and the gallant, cheerful lifestyle of an from lord of the independent-minded man of the world); and Damien Mitton, another champion of honnetete whose name became a byword for debonair charm and colorful raconteurship. Several commentators on the Pens ees argue that the work is directly aimed at the culture of honnetete and that it specifically targets figures like Mere and Mitton, that is, persons who seek a life of virtue and happiness apart from God. Shortly after his return to Paris in phdthesis 1647 and during a turn for the worse in his health, Pascal reunited with his old circle of friends and fellow intellectuals and was also introduced into polite society. Descartes himself paid a visit (and according to reports wisely suggested that Pascal follow a regimen of bed-rest and lord bouillon rather than the steady diet of enemas, purgings, and blood-lettings favored by his doctors). The historic meeting between the two scientific and in the of essay philosophical rivals reportedly did not go well. Pascal’s new life in Paris was interrupted in 1648 by the outbreak of the Fronde , the violent civil clash that began as a power struggle between Chief Minister Mazurin and leaders of Parliament and essays on simon from which continued as a conflict between the crown and various aristocratic factions over the next five years. To escape the mob havoc and pervasive military presence in Paris, Pascal returned to Clermont along with his sisters, brother-in-law, and father. There he effectively inserted himself into the Auvergne equivalent of Parisian high society and resumed his temporary infatuation with la vie honnetete . Thesis. He returned to Paris in 1650, reconnected with his old friends, and began revising and essays on simon from of the flies polishing several scientific papers, including portions of a never completed or partially lost version of his Treatise on the Vacuum . On September 24, 1651, Etienne died; he was 63.
Pascal and Jacqueline were at his bedside. Proposal. Gilberte was in essays on simon from lord Clermont awaiting the birth of papers a child who would be named Etienne Perier in honor of his grandfather. Pascal’s letter of consolation to Gilberte, preserved among his complete works, has disappointed some of his admirers due to on simon from flies its austere tone and cold Jansenist view of death (we should not grieve but rejoice at God’s will; the deceased is now in a better world; and so forth.). However, the letter includes a note of affection for the man who had taken personal charge of his education and who was the first to introduce him to the world of science and mathematics. Pascal ends the letter with a pledge that he, Gilberte, and Jacqueline should redouble on one another the love that they shared for their late father. A few months later, Jacqueline finally made good on her determination (long postponed in obedience to her father’s and essays brother’s wishes) to essays on simon of the dedicate her life to holy service and enter Port-Royal as a nun. In the summer of a day in the 1654 Pascal exchanged a series of letters with Fermat on the problem of calculating gambling odds and probabilities. It was also at this time (although many have doubted his authorship) that he completed his Discourse on essays on simon of the, Love . And according to at least two of his biographers (Faugere and Bishop) it was during this same period (1653-54) that Pascal himself fell victim to amorous passion and even contemplated marriage (supposedly to the comely Charlotte de Rouannez, his frequent correspondent and the sister of his good friend the Duke). On the other hand, Gilberte in her account of her brother’s life makes no mention whatsoever of a love affair, and the evidence that Pascal ever succumbed to romance or became a suitor remains sketchy at best. One other oft-cited, but dubious and unverified, event in Pascal’s life also dates from this period. According to various sources, none wholly reliable, in October of 1654, Pascal was supposedly involved in a nearly fatal accident while crossing the Pont de Neuilly in his coach.
His affrighted horses reportedly reared, bolted, and plunged over the side of the bridge into the Seine, nearly dragging the coach and Pascal after them. Fortunately, the main coupling broke and the coach, with Pascal inside, miraculously hung on to the edge and in the life stabilized. The commentators who credit this tale attribute Pascal’s “second conversion” to it and view his return to from of the flies Jansenism as an sections immediate and direct consequence of his near-death experience. Sigmund Freud accepted the story and even used it as an example of essays how severe trauma can trigger an obsessive or phobic reaction. However, there is no conclusive evidence that the event ever happened.
The crucial event of Pascal’s life and career occurred on November 23, 1654, between the hours of 10:30 pm and phdthesis 12:30 am. Pascal lay in bed at his home in on simon from lord of the flies the Marais district in Paris when he experienced the religious ecstasy or revelation that his biographers refer to as his “second conversion” or “night of phdthesis fire.” He produced a written record of this momentous experience on a sheet of on simon lord of the flies paper, which he then inserted into a piece of folded parchment inscribed with a duplicate account of the same vision. This dual record, known as the Memorial, he kept sewed into the lining of his jacket as a kind of secret token or private testament of his new life and total commitment to Jesus Christ. No one, not even Gilberte or Jacqueline, was aware of the existence of this document, which was not discovered until after his death. The text of the sections for dissertation Memorial is essays from lord of the flies, cryptic, ejaculatory, portentous. At the top of the sheet stands a cross followed by a few lines establishing the time and date, then the word FEU (fire) in a day of essay all upper case and centered near the top of the page. Then:
Dieu d'Abraham, Dieu d'Isaac, Dieu de Jacob, non des philosophes et des savants. Certitude. Certitude. Sentiment. On Simon From Lord. Joie. How To Write Ad. Paix. Dieu de Jesus-Christ. Deum meum et Deum vestrum. Ton Dieu sera mon Dieu. (God of Abraham, God of Isaac, God of Jacob, not of the philosophers and from of the scholars.
Certitude, certitude, feeling, joy, peace. God of sections Jesus Christ. My God and your God. Essays On Simon Lord Of The. Thy God will be my God.) And so on, in a similarly ecstatic vein for about eighteen more lines. The parchment copy ends with the solemn pledge: “Total submission to Jesus Christ and to my director. Eternally in joy for a day’s trial on earth. I shall not forget thy word.” As the name Memorial implies, Pascal’s words were written down to preserve them indelibly in his memory and to bear tangible witness to what was for him a soul-piercing and how to write ad truly life-altering event. Essays On Simon. His account, despite its brevity and gnomic style, accords closely with the reports of conversion and mysticism classically described and how to write ad analyzed by William James. In the weeks leading up to essays from lord flies November 23, 1654, Pascal had on several occasions visited Jacqueline at Port-Royal and had complained, despite his active social life and ongoing scientific work, of how to write ad feelings of dissatisfaction, guilt, lack of from of the purpose, and ennui.
As in foucault essays governmentality the story of his carriage accident by the Seine, he seemed to be a man teetering on the edge – in essays from flies this case between anxiety and hope. His “Night of Fire” dramatically changed his outlook and brought him back from the brink of despair. After his conversion Pascal formally renounced, but did not totally abandon, his scientific and mathematical studies. He instead vowed to dedicate his time and talents to the glorification of God, the edification of phdthesis his fellow believers, and the salvation of the larger human community. From Flies. It wasn’t long before he got an early test of his new resolve. In fact, hardly had Pascal committed himself to how to write ad Port-Royal than the Jansenist enclave, never secure and essays on simon of the flies always under the watchful suspicion of the how to write ad greater Catholic community, found itself under theological siege.
Antoine Arnauld, the spiritual leader of Port-Royal and the uncompromising voice and authority for on simon lord its strict Augustinian beliefs and values, was embroiled in a bitter controversy pitting Jansenism against a day of essay, the Pope, the Jesuit order, and a majority of the bishops of France. In effect, opponents charged that the entire Jansenist system was based on on simon from, a foundation of in the of essay error. At issue were matters of Catholic doctrine involving grace, election, human righteousness, divine power, and essays from flies free will. Proposal Sections For Dissertation. Arnauld denied the essays lord of the charges and published a series of on autism vehement counter-attacks. Unfortunately, these only served to make the hostility towards himself and the Port-Royal community more intense. From Flies. He ended up being censored by the Faculty of Theology at the Sorbonne and stood threatened with official accusations of heresy. He sought sanctuary at Port-Royal-des-Champs and awaited the judgment of Paris and Rome. With the official voice of foucault essays Port-Royal effectively muted, the cause of essays lord flies Jansenism needed a new champion.
Pascal stood ready to fill the role. During the of essay period 1656-57, under the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, he produced a series of 18 public letters attacking the Jesuits and defending Arnauld and Jansenist doctrine. The Lettres provinciales , as they became known, introduced an essays of the entirely new tone and style into contemporary theological debate. A Day In The Life Of Essay. From time to time, the genre had served as a forum for obfuscation, vituperation, abstruse technical language, and stodgy academic prose. Essays On Simon Of The. Pascal’s Lettres injected a new note of wit and humor and ran the gamut from light irony and sarcasm to outright mockery and scorn. They also featured a popular idiom and conversational tone and made use of literary devices such as characterization, dialog, dramatization, and narrative voice. They became a sensation and attracted the amused attention of readers throughout France. Who, people wondered, is this clever fellow Montalte? The Jesuits, stunned and slow to how to write ad respond, seemed to have met their intellectual match. During the same week that Pascal’s fifth provinciale (a polemic against Jesuit casuistry) was published, and just when rumors of new antagonism and royal disfavor with Jansenism began to circulate, an extraordinary event occurred at on simon lord flies, Port-Royal.
As a gift from a benefactor, the community had accepted and agreed to display a holy relic – a true thorn, so it was claimed, from the Savior’s crown. Partly as an act of faith and partly out of desperation, Pascal’s ten-year-old niece Marguerite, Gilberte’s daughter, was put forward to receive a healing incision from the holy object. Popular Writers. For more than three years she had suffered from a lacrimal fistula, a horrible swelling or tumor around her eye that, according to her physicians, had no known cure and on simon of the flies was thought to be treatable if at all only by cauterization with a red hot stylus. Yet remarkably, within a few days of being pricked by the sacred thorn, Marguerite’s eye completely healed. Proposal Sections. The seeming miracle excited the Pascal family and the entire Port-Royal community; news of the event soon spread outside the essays from flies walls of Port-Royal and around the foucault governmentality nation.
After an inquiry, the cure was confirmed as a bona fide miracle and officially accepted as such. Port-Royal rejoiced, and for a while the antagonism against it from the larger Catholic community abated. Pascal regarded the miracle as a sign of divine favor for lord his Lettres project and for the cause of Jansenism in general. It also confirmed his belief in miracles, a belief that would form part of the phdthesis foundation for his view of religious faith as set forth in the Pens ees . Despite the essays lord auspicious sign of heavenly favor, and even though the Lettres were brilliantly successful in the short term, they failed in their ultimate goal of vindicating Arnauld and Port-Royal. A papal “bull” condemning Jansenism was issued by Alexander VII in October of 1656 and approved in France in December of 1657.
An official oath decreeing that Jansenist doctrine was contaminated by heresy was circulated and all French priests, monks, and nuns, including the Port-Royalists and Pascal’s sister Jacqueline, were compelled to sign. In 1660 the proposal sections for dissertation “little schools” of Port Royal, renowned for on simon from of the excellence and models of progressive education, were closed. In 1661 the monastery was no longer allowed to accept novices. Early in the next century the abbey would be abolished, the governmentality community of worshippers disbanded, and the buildings razed. Overwhelmed by a combined force of royal politics and papal power, Port-Royal would lie in ruins and Jansenism, though it would inspire a few random offshoots and latter-day imitations, would find itself largely reduced to an interesting but brief chapter in the history of French Catholicism.
Meanwhile, in the spring of 1658, as he was studying the essays on simon from Bible and doing preparatory work for what was to be his magnum opus – the great Apology for phdthesis Christianity that would become the Pensees – Pascal turned his attention once again to mathematics and to the problem of the on simon from lord of the flies roulette or cycloid. Gilberte blames this “reversion” to worldly pursuits on Pascal’s physicians, who recommended that he leave off his serious theological investigations for lighter activities. She also claims that the solution to the problem, which had challenged the popular writers likes of Galileo, Torricelli, and Descartes, came to him almost despite himself and during a bout of sleeplessness caused by a toothache. She finally alleges that Pascal decided to make his discovery public only from lord of the, when he was at length persuaded by popular writers others that it was God’s will. Gilberte’s claims are questionable. What is known is that when Pascal, under the essays lord flies pseudonym Amos Dettonville, actually did publish his solution, which was done within the context of a contest or challenge that he had thrown out to life of essay some of the best mathematical minds of Europe, the result was a controversy that occupied his time and energy for several months and which distracted him from working on his new project. The Pensees occupied Pascal’s final years and were undertaken at a time when his health, which was never robust, deteriorated and grew progressively worse. Originally conceived as a comprehensive defense of the Christian faith against essays, non-believers, the work in its existing form is a rich assortment of notes, fragments, aphorisms, homilies, short essays, sermonettes, and apercus that even in their disorganized and unfinished state constitute a powerful and fascinating contribution to how to write ad philosophy, theology, and literary art. Pascal worked determinedly on the Pensees to the extent that his health permitted him, which was unfortunately not very often or for very long. By early 1659 he was already seriously ill and could work for only short spurts before succumbing to mental and physical exhaustion.
His condition improved somewhat a year later when he was moved from Paris to his native Clermont, but this relief lasted only a few months. When he returned to Paris he mustered enough energy to work out his plan for a public shuttle system of omnibuses for the city. When this novel idea was realized and put into actual operation in 1662, Paris had the first such transit system in the world. The last two years of Pascal’s life were spent in Paris under the care and supervision of Gilberte and Florin, who had taken a home nearby. It was a grim period for all the Pascals; Jacqueline died in lord flies 1661, only a few months after being forced to subscribe to the formulary condemning Jansen’s Augustinus as heretical. As Pascal’s physical health declined, his mental powers weakened and a day life his personal habits and spiritual outlook became even more harsh and austere. According to essays of the Gilberte, he regarded any sort of dining pleasure or gastronomic delight as a hateful form of sensuality and adopted the (very un-Gallic) view that one should eat strictly for nourishment and not for enjoyment. He championed the ideal of poverty and claimed that one should prefer and use goods crafted by the poorest and most honest artisans, not those manufactured by how to write ad the best and most accomplished.
He purged his home of lord of the luxuries and how to write ad pretty furnishings and essays on simon from took in a homeless family. He even cautioned Gilberte not to be publicly affectionate with her children – on grounds that caresses can be a form of sensuality, dependency, and self-indulgence. In his opinion, a life devoted to God did not allow for close personal attachments – not even to family. During his last days he burned with fever and colic. His doctors assaulted him with their customary cures. He wavered in and out of consciousness and suffered a series of recurrent violent convulsions. However, Gilberte attests that he recovered his clarity of mind in time to make a final confession, take the Blessed Sacrament, and receive extreme unction.
His last coherent words were reportedly “May God never abandon me.” He died at 1:00 AM August 19, 1662, at the age of 39. Even post-mortem Pascal was unable to escape the thesis papers curiosity and on simon from lord intrusiveness of his physicians. Life. Shortly after his death an autopsy was performed and revealed, among other pathologies, stomach cancer, a diseased liver, and brain lesions. Nor after death, was he granted peace from the still ongoing crossfire between Jesuits and Port-Royal. Was Pascal, it was asked, truly orthodox and a good Catholic? A sincere believer and supporter of the powers of the essays on simon lord Pope and the priesthood and the efficacious intervention of the Saints? Did he reject the Jansenist heresy on his deathbed and accept a more moderate and forgiving theology? Those questions have been taken up and debated by a succession of biographers, critics, latter-day devil’s advocates, and posthumous grand inquisitors. His works have fared better, having received, during the three and a half centuries since his death, first-rate editorial attention, a number of superb translations, and an abundance of expert scholarly commentary.
The Pensees and the Provincial Letters have earned him a place in the pantheon of French philosophical non-fiction alongside names like Montaigne, Descartes, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Sartre. Pascal’s Provincial Letters (henceforth Letters or provinciales ) are a series of 18 letters plus a fictional “Reply” and life an unfinished fragment composed and published between January, 1656, and March, 1657. Their aim was to defend the essays of the flies Jansenist community of popular writers Port-Royal and its principal spokesman and spiritual leader Antoine Arnauld from defamation and accusations of heresy while at the same time leading a counter-offensive against the accusers (mainly the Jesuits). Polemical exchanges, often acrimonious and personal, were a common feature of the 17 th -century theological landscape. Pascal ventured into this particular fray with a unique set of weapons – a mind honed by on simon from flies mathematical exercise and how to write ad scientific debate, a pointed wit, and sharp-edged literary and dramatic skills. In the background of the letters stand two notable events: (1) In May of 1653, Pope Innocent X in a bull entitled Cum Occasione declared five propositions supposedly contained in Cornelius Jansen’s Augustinus to be heretical. (2) In January of 1656, after a long and heated trial, Arnauld, who had repeatedly denied that the five propositions were in Jansen’s text, was officially censured and expelled from the Sorbonne.
The five propositions can be stated as follows: 1. Even the just, no matter how hard they may strive, lack the power and grace to keep all the commandments. 2. In our fallen condition it is impossible for us to resist interior grace. 3. In order to deserve merit or condemnation we must be free from external compulsion though not from internal necessity. 4. It is heresy to say that we can either accept grace or resist it. 5. Essays From Lord. Christ did not die for everyone, but only for the elect. Two separate questions were at stake: (1) Are the propositions actually in Jansen, if not explicitly and verbatim , then implicitly in meaning or intention?
This was the so-called question of fact ( de fait ). (2) Are the propositions, as plainly and ordinarily understood, indeed heretical? This was the question of right or law ( de droit ). The Port-Royal position was yes in the case of the second question, no in the case of the first. Arnauld claimed that the propositions do not occur, verbatim or otherwise, anywhere in how to write ad Jansen’s text, but he acknowledged that if they did occur there (or for that matter anywhere), they were indeed heretical. Despite the fact that he disavowed any support for the five propositions, he and of the flies the Port-Royal community as a whole stood under suspicion of secretly approving, if not openly embracing them. Such was the life of essay situation that Pascal found himself in essays from lord of the flies when he sat down to compose the thesis on autism first provinciale . What he produced was something utterly new in the annals of religious controversy. In place of the essays from lord of the flies usual fury and governmentality technical quibbling, he adopts a tone of easy-going candor and colloquial simplicity. He presents himself as a modest, ordinary, private citizen (originally anonymous, but later identified in the collected letters by the pseudonym Louis de Montalte) who is writing from Paris to from a “provincial friend.” “Montalte’s” purpose is to pass along his personal observations, insights, and commentary on the learned and mighty disputes that recently took place at the Sorbonne. In essence, via his fictional persona, Pascal provides an account of l’affaire Arnauld and popular writers the case against Jansenism as viewed by a coolly observant, playful outsider.
In the course of the essays on simon from lord of the letter, Pascal/Montalte introduces a series of fictional interlocutors who explain or advocate for the Jansenist, Jesuit, and how to write ad Thomistic views on a range of theological issues, most notably the doctrines of sufficient grace vis-a-vis efficacious grace and the notion of proximate power. Essays From Lord Flies. These happen to be exactly the sort of deeply esoteric, highly technical, theological matters that “Montalte” and his “provincial friend” (and thus, by extension and more importantly, his target audience of plain-spoken, commonsense, fellow citizens) were likely to find strained, incomprehensible, and somewhat silly. Through devices of interview and thesis papers dialogue Montalte manages to from lord present these issues in relatively clear, understandable terms and persuade the reader that the Jansenist and Thomist views on each are virtually identical and perfectly orthodox. He goes on to show that any apparent discrepancy between the two positions – and in popular writers fact the whole attack on of the, Jansenism and Arnauld – is of essay, based not on doctrine, but is entirely political and personal, a product of Jesuit calumny and conspiracy. In effect, a complicated theological conflict is presented in essays from lord flies the form of a simple human drama. Irony and thesis stinging satire are delivered with the suave aplomb of a Horatian epistle. Not all of the provinciales deal with the same issues and concerns as the first.
Nor do they all display the same playful style and tone of “ plaisanterie ” that Voltaire so much admired. In fact some of the later letters, far from being breezy and affable, are passionate and achieve sublime eloquence; others are downright vicious and essays on simon from lord of the blistering in their attack. Letters 1-3 offer a defense of Arnauld, challenging his trial and censure. Thesis Papers. Letter 4, pitting a Jesuit against essays, a Jansenist, serves as a bridge between provinciales 1-3 and 5-10. How To Write Ad. Letters 5-10 attack Jesuit casuistry and doctrine; in essays on simon from lord flies them Montalte accuses the Society of hypocrisy and foucault essays governmentality moral laxity and of placing ease of conscience and the glory of the Order above true Christian duty and love of God. Letters 11-16 are no longer addressed to the “provincial friend,” but instead address the Jesuit fathers directly. Essays On Simon Lord. Letter 14 includes an extended discussion of both natural and divine law and makes an important ethical distinction between homicide, capital punishment, and suicide.
Letter 16 ends with Pascal’s famous apology for prolixity: “The present letter is a very long one, simply because I had no leisure to make it shorter.”) Letters 17 and 18 are addressed to Father Annat, SJ, confessor to the King, and are direct and personal. Here Pascal virtually abandons the artifice of “Montalte” and seems almost to come forward in his own person. In Letter 17, a virtual reprise and summation of the case of the five propositions, he repeats once again that he writes purely as a private citizen and denies that he is a member of Port Royal. Since Pascal was neither a monk nor a solitaire within the community, the claim is technically accurate, though it arguably leaves him open to the same charges of truth-bending and casuistry that he levels against the Jesuits. Although the Letters gained a wide readership and papers enjoyed a period of popular success, they failed to achieve their strategic goal of preserving Port-Royal and Jansenist doctrine from external attack. They also had a few unfortunate, unintended consequences. They were blamed, for instance, for stirring up cynicism, disrespect, and even contempt for from of the flies the clergy in the minds of phdthesis ordinary citizens. Quickly translated into English and Latin, they also became popular with Protestant readers happy to extend Pascal’s wounding attack on Jesuit morality into a satirical broadside against Catholicism as a whole.
After the publication of the provinciales , the term Jesuitical would become synonymous with crafty and subtle and the words casuistry and casuistical would never again be entirely free from a connotation of essays on simon lord of the flies sophistry and excuse-making. Banned by order of Louis XIV in a day in the life 1660 and placed on the Index and burned by the Inquisition, the provinciales nevertheless lived on underground and abroad with their popularity undimmed. Today, the provinciales retain documentary value both as relics of Jansenism and as surviving specimens of 17 th -century religious polemic, but modern readers prize them mainly for their literary excellence. They represent the original model not only for the genre of satirical non-fiction, but for classic French prose style in all other genres as well. Rabelais and Montaigne were basically inimitable and on simon from far too quirky and idiosyncratic to serve as a style model for later writers.
Pascal’s combination of brisk clarity and concise elegance set a pattern for French authors from La Rochefoucauld, Voltaire, and popular writers Diderot to Anatole France. Even Paul Valery, arguably Pascal’s most severe critic, excoriated his predecessor in essays on simon of the a prose style heavily indebted to him. Boileau claimed to base his own terse and vigorous poetic style on the prose of the provinciales : “If I write four words,” he said, “I efface three,” which had been Pascal’s habit as well. Voltaire declared the collected Letters to be “the best-written book” yet to appear in France. D’Alembert also cherished the work but wished that Pascal had aimed his sharp wit and irony at his own absurd beliefs. He argued that Jansenism is thesis on autism, every bit as “shocking,” and as deserving of scorn and ridicule, as the doctrines of Molina and essays on simon from lord flies the Jesuits. Of Pascal’s modern readers only the arch conservative Joseph de Maistre, spearhead of the counter-Enlightenment, utterly scorned the work, calling Jansenism a “vile” and “unblushing” heresy and phdthesis finding the style of the Letters rancorous and on simon from flies bitter. In the end, it’s unfortunate that the principal debate in proposal sections for dissertation the provinciales was theological rather than philosophical, for it would have been useful and interesting to have Pascal’s candid discussion of free will vs. psychological determinism, instead of a tortuous doctrinal showdown between efficacious and sufficient grace. Jansen’s own formula – that “man irresistibly, although voluntarily, does either good or evil, according as he is from of the, dominated by grace or by concupiscence” – is paradoxical and tries to have it both ways. (Can an act be both voluntary and irresistible?) Pascal also seems equivocal on the issue, though he insists that his views are consistent with Catholic orthodoxy.
He wrestled with the problem of grace and free will not only in the Letters, but also in portions of the Pensees and especially in his Ecrits sur la grace (1657-58), where he offers an extensive commentary on Augustine and compares the Calvinist, Jansenist, and Jesuit views. Popular Writers. However, even there his account is essays from flies, abstruse and theological rather than blunt and foucault essays philosophical and is thus of essays lord of the flies interest mainly to specialists rather than general readers. i. Plan and Purpose of the how to write ad Work and its Textual History. The Pensees are a rarity among literary and philosophical works – a magnum opus by on simon from lord a major author that has achieved classic status despite being unfinished, fragmentary, and almost scrapbook-like in form. Phdthesis. The Aeneid , The Canterbury Tales , De Rerum Natura , Kafka’s manuscripts all had work remaining or were incomplete when their authors died, but they seem like final drafts compared to the Pensees . Sainte-Beuve compared the work to a tower in which the essays on simon from of the stones have been piled up but not cemented. The text, as we have it today, represents the assembled notes, fragments, miscellaneous aphorisms, and short essays-in-progress of what was to be a detailed and sections comprehensive Apology for Christianity – a defense of the faith against atheism, deism, libertinism, pagan philosophy, and from of the the cult of honnetete . Inspired by thesis the force and certainty of his own conversion and by the late excitement of the Holy Thorn, Pascal was further encouraged by from lord flies the recent success of the popular writers provinciales . Confident in his powers of argument and persuasion, both logical and on simon from lord flies literary, he felt called upon to undertake a bold new project. The new work was to sections be nothing less than a definitive affirmation and justification of Christianity against its detractors and critics. It would also be an exercise in essays lord flies spiritual outreach and proselytization – an earnest appeal, addressed to both the reason and the heart, inviting scoffers, doubters, the undecided, and the lost to join the Catholic communion.
In the Pensees , Pascal would assume the on autism role of both Apologist and Apostle. In the spring of 1658, he presented a detailed outline of his project, explaining its scope and goals, to essays from lord flies an audience of proposal sections friends and members of essays from of the flies Port-Royal. The plan was greeted enthusiastically and given the group’s full approval and endorsement. The work would be unified, but layered and textured, with multiple sections and two main parts: First part : Misery of man without God. Second part : Happiness of man with God. First part : That nature is corrupt. Proved by nature itself. Second part : That there is thesis papers on autism, a Redeemer. Proved by essays on simon from lord Scripture. (6/40). The project was designed as an example of what is today termed immanent apologetics . In simple terms, this means that Pascal won’t base his presentation on objective argument, systematic logic, and metaphysical proofs of for dissertation God’s existence.
Indeed, except for on simon from lord of the flies a few instances, such as 135/167, where he finds evidence in nature for a Being who is foucault essays, “necessary, infinite, and eternal,” Pascal eschews most of the traditional proofs of God, even Augustine’s. Essays Of The Flies. He will instead appeal to the unfolding history of the Christian faith from a day in the life of essay, its roots in Old Testament prophecy through its early development to the modern Church. Further, he will appeal directly to the subjective human spirit and to each reader’s personal experience, emphasizing our existential human need for God and our feelings of incompleteness and wretchedness apart from Him. In essence, Pascal will leave it to readers to decide whether his account of the human condition and his descriptions of essays of the flies their social and physical worlds (not as they might wish them to be, but as they actually experience them in our daily lives) are credible and persuasive. If the reader accepts his accounts, Pascal will be halfway to his goal.
It will remain for thesis papers on autism him to further convince readers that the flies solution to our wretchedness, to how to write ad the disorder and unfairness of life, is acceptance of Jesus Christ. He will argue that not only is belief in Christianity not contrary to lord flies reason, but that it’s the only religion that is fully compatible with it. To support this claim, he will offer historical evidence in its favor from the authority of phdthesis Scripture and ancient witnesses, and also in the form of miracles, prophecies, and figural (typological) hermeneutics. On Simon From Of The. However, he admits that this evidence will not be conclusive – for Christianity can never be proved by reason or authority alone. It must be accepted in phdthesis the heart ( coeur – a special term in lord of the flies Pascal’s vocabulary that includes connotations of “spirit,” “soul,” “natural human instinct,” and even “love,”): “It is the heart which experiences God, and not the reason. This, then, is faith: God felt by the heart, not by the reason” (424/680). Such in essence was the plan. Its execution, limited by Pascal’s nearly constant illness and fatigue, continued off and on over his remaining four years. Essays Governmentality. Upon his death, his manuscripts were placed in the custody of Arnauld and a committee of fellow Jansenists.
While transcribing the manuscripts, the committee produced two variant copies. The original Port Royal edition of Pascal’s works came out in 1670, incomplete and essays on simon lord of the carefully screened to avoid offending the government. A Day In The Life. Prosper Faugere brought out a revised and authoritative edition of the work in 1844. Several new editions, with different arrangements of the material, appeared over the next century. Essays On Simon From. The numerical ordering used in phdthesis Leon Brunschvicg’s 1897 edition became standard, but was superseded first by the 1951 edition of Louis Lafuma (which was based on the First Copy) and then again by the 1976 edition of Phillipe Sellier (which was based on the Second Copy). The publication of Jean Mesnard’s 1993 edition gives French readers yet another excellent text. Death, God, infinity, the nature of the universe, the essays on simon from lord of the limits of reason, the foucault essays meaning of life – these are just a few of the big ideas and philosophical topics that Pascal reflects on in the lord of the flies short space of the a day of essay Pensees . Indeed, other than the gnomic fragments of on simon from flies Heraclitus or the terse aphoristic texts of Wittgenstein, it’s hard to think of a work that packs as many provocative philosophical musings into so few pages. Yet even with its multiple subject headings and wide range of how to write ad topics, the work can still be read as the deep exploration of a single great theme: the Human Condition, viewed under its two opposing yet interrelated aspects – our wretchedness without God, and our greatness with Him. Pascal argues that without God our spiritual condition is essays from of the flies, essentially a state of misery characterized by thesis papers anxiety, alienation, loneliness, and ennui. He suggests that if we could only sit still for an instant and honestly look within ourselves, we would recognize our desperation. However, we spend most of our time blocking out or concealing our true condition from ourselves via forms of self-deception and amour-propre. (Like Augustine before him, Pascal accurately describes mechanisms of essays on simon of the flies denial and ego-defense long before they were clinically and technically defined by Sigmund Freud).
Chief among these ego-protective devices is divertissement (distraction or diversion), Pascal’s term for our continual need and almost addictive tendency to seek out mindless or soul-numbing forms of entertainment and amusement. Thesis. Such “distractions” may sometimes involve behavior that is immoral or culpable, for example, prostitution, drunkenness, sexual promiscuity, but more often take the form of habits and activities that are merely wasteful or self-indulgent, like gaming or the salon. They may even consist of essays on simon from lord pastimes that are basically innocent, but which are nevertheless vain, trivial, or unedifying, for example, sports like tennis and how to write ad fencing. From Pascal’s severe point of view, even the arts, and especially dance and theatre, are but species of essays on simon from lord of the flies divertissement . Foucault Essays. So are all the luxuries, consumer goods, and worldly delights with which we proudly surround ourselves. According to Pascal, we use these goods and lord activities not, as we self-flatteringly suppose, to certify our achievements or add a touch of bonheur to our inner life. On the contrary, we use them mainly as a way of concealing our bleak inner reality from ourselves and from one another. They are a means of denying our own mortality and how to write ad hollowness. (136/168; 139/171.) In effect diversions prevent us from acknowledging our essential misery. Of The Flies. They create a false sense of security that hides the abyss or vacuum within.
On the other hand, wretchedness and insecurity are only part of our nature. Our condition, as Pascal points out popular writers repeatedly in the Pensees and also in his “conversation” with Sacy, is dual. We are one part misery and one part grandeur; and alongside our feelings of isolation and destitution we also have a profound sense of our intrinsic dignity and worth. Pascal calls us “thinking reeds,” though his stress is on thinking . For thought, he argues, is the whole basis of our dignity, the of the flies attribute of our nature that elevates and in the separates us from the rest of the on simon from lord flies material universe. It’s an accident of how to write ad history that Pascal’s collection of notes came to be called Pensees . But the title is appropriate, since the work as a whole could well be described as an extended meditation on human consciousness, on what it means to think . iv. Critical Approaches and Interpretation. Criticism and interpretation of the Pensees have followed two main approaches. The first, which could be called the conventional or historical approach, is the one favored by most literary scholars and historians of essays on simon lord flies religion, including most notably Philippe Sellier, David Wetsel, and Jean Mesnard. According to this view the Pensees are to be understood within the context and framework of on autism traditional Christian apologetics. Moreover, the author’s original design and purpose (so far as modern scholarship can determine them) are to be carefully reconstructed and fully respected.
Most of the biographers and critics who follow this approach agree that Pascal’s primary purpose was to articulate and defend Christianity – and from lord of the flies especially the proposal sections Augustinian-Jansenist form of Christianity practiced at essays from lord flies, Port-Royal – against its skeptical, atheistic, and deistic opponents. In particular, they argued, Pascal aims to convert the contemporary free-thinker and honnete homme – that is to say, a figure much like his friends Mitton and Mere and indeed not unlike a secular, rationalistic, and worldly version of himself. The work is thus understood to essays governmentality be not an inner drama enacting Pascal’s own personal struggles with religious belief but rather an artfully contrived dialog with and rhetorical proselytization of an imagined adversary. The “I” of the work, in this view, is not Pascal himself in lord of the flies propria persona but a polyphonic fiction – a range of literary voices and masks adopted by Pascal strictly as a rhetorical device and as a means of persuasion. Thus, any time we seem to hear the narrative voice of the Pensees expressing fear, doubt, conflict, or existential agony we are to understand that voice not as Pascal’s own, but as that of a literary creation or persona whose utterances are to be interpreted ironically or as presented for dramatic or rhetorical effect.
Although he was neither a literary scholar nor a historian of religion (but more like a cantankerous version of each), Voltaire seems to have read and understood the essays Pensees in this traditional way. That is, he interpreted the work as an example of Christian apologetics aimed at a scoffer or doubter pretty much like himself. Needless to say, he was not swayed by Pascal’s arguments. To the essays on simon from of the claim that the human condition is one of anxiety and wretchedness, he responds that we are neither as wicked nor as miserable as Pascal says. As for phdthesis Pascal’s extensive discussion of miracles, prophecy, the figurative interpretation of Scripture, and on simon flies the like, Voltaire regards the popular writers effort as so much wasted breath. He even suggests that Christianity would be better off without such strained and overwrought apologetics, which he compared to trying to prop up an oak tree by surrounding it with reeds. The poet and critic T. S. Eliot, in his 1933 introductory essay to the Pensees , also interprets the work in this traditional way. However, in direct opposition to on simon flies Voltaire, whom he acknowledges to be Pascal’s greatest critic, he finds Pascal’s arguments on the whole sincere and psychologically persuasive. He departs from the traditional reading only to the extent that he considers the Pensees not only as a work of foucault Christian apologetics but also as an example of spiritual biography, an expression of Pascal’s forceful and idiosyncratic personality and unique combination of passion and intellect (360). In opposition to this essentially historical and from of the flies scholarly way of reading the Pensees , several critics and commentators, from Chateaubriand and Walter Pater to sections for dissertation Paul Valery, AJ Krailsheimer, and essays of the Lucien Goldmann, have offered versions of what might be called a “romantic,” “confessional,” or “phenomenological” approach.
According to this line of interpretation, Pascal’s fragmentary narrative represents either a fictional portrait of a soul in crisis or a true personal confession in the manner of Augustine (and later Rousseau). That is, it presents a cri de coeur or cri de triomphe that provides a direct look into the heart and soul of a penitent former sinner who, after a long and agonizing struggle, finds Christ and renounces the in the life of essay world. Romantic readers themselves disagree on the extent to which this exercise in self-revelation is a conscious product – that is, a carefully arranged and skillfully made artifact – or, in a more psychoanalytic vein, the from of the flies expression of the author’s actual inner conflicts and unconscious motives and intentions. They also offer different interpretations of the audience or addressee of the work. Popular Writers. Are the Pensees a dramatic monologue?
A private confession addressed to God? A dialog between Pascal and the reader? Between Pascal and himself? Are they truly intended to convert a Mere or a Mitton, and are they addressed only to skeptics and those lacking faith? Or are they meant also as a meditative exercise and inspiration for active Christians, a spiritual tool to help guide believers and strengthen their faith? Or perhaps Pascal, in on simon the manner of St. Paul, is trying to a day in the be all things to all people and thus to essays lord a certain extent trying to do some or all of the above at the same time? The great Victorian critic Walter Pater compares the Pensees to Shakespearian tragedy and notes that Pascal is not a converted skeptic or former infidel who has seen the foucault essays governmentality light. Instead, he seems caught “at the very centre of a perpetually maintained tragic crisis holding the essays on simon lord of the faith steadfastly, but amid the popular writers well-poised points of essential doubt all around him.” The Pensees , Pater goes on to claim, dramatize an intense inner dialectic: “no mere calm supersession of a state of doubt by a state of faith; the doubts never die, they are only just kept down in a perpetual agonia .”
This view of the Pens e es as an interior dialogue or psychomachia dramatizing Pascal’s own personal struggle between faith and doubt is thoroughly rejected by Jean Mesnard and other scholars who insist that any hint of such a struggle is merely a rhetorical pose on Pascal’s part and essays on simon from lord flies employed for dramatic effect. Pascal was proclaimed a heretic and a Calvinist during his lifetime and has been called everything from a skeptic to a nihilist by modern readers. So to a certain extent Paul Valery in his controversial essay “Variations on a Pens e e ” was for of essay the most part only repeating criticisms of the on simon flies author that earlier critics, many of them Catholic clergymen, had made before (for example, that he was a poor theologian, that he was insensitive to natural beauty and to art, and so forth). Valery seems to recognize a distinction between Pascal the author and the “I” of the Pensees , but he finds the “I” of the work so artificial and overwrought that he accuses the thesis papers on autism author of being hypocritical and insincere. Thinking of the passage in the Pensees about the terror induced by “the eternal silence” of infinite space (201/233), he says, here is a “strange Christian,” who gazes upon essays on simon lord flies, the starry heavens yet fails to discover his Heavenly Father.
Echoing a criticism formerly made by Voltaire, Valery likens Pascal to a tragic poet who portrays the human condition as much bleaker and harsher than it actually is; who describes the fears and torments of life vividly, but who depicts its delights and joys, its moments of popular writers excitement and intensity, hardly at all. Lucien Goldmann has argued that the fragmentary form of the on simon lord flies Pensees may be an papers on autism accident due to Pascal’s death, but it also qualifies as a brilliantly achieved creative product, an aesthetically and psychologically appropriate form that not only reflects the true style and state of mind of Pascal himself and of his narrative persona but also captures the lord of the mood and temper of his time. Writing from a Lukacsian-Marxist and evolutionary perspective that he calls “genetic structuralism,” Goldmann views Pascal as both a cutting-edge, creative force and at the same time a product of his personal circumstances and thesis on autism historical era. In this interpretation, Pascal sets up dialectical polarities in the Pensees –man’s wretchedness vs. his greatness; concupiscence vs. godliness and sacrifice; Old Testament type vs. New Testament antitype; reason vs. the heart; and so forth, all of which are polarities that are supposedly resolved and reconciled in the person of Jesus Christ. Those polarities are homologous with and paralleled by the larger historical oppositions of the period: the flies new science vs. ancient philosophy and essays governmentality traditional theology; Cartesian rationalism vs. skepticism; the administrative class ( noblesse de robe ) and bourgeoisie vs. the nobility; Protestantism and on simon from of the Jansenism vs. Phdthesis. Catholicism; and so forth. Viewed in this way, the Pensees can be seen to encapsulate and effectively dramatize the main intellectual and social dynamics of an entire era.
One of the more remarkable developments in Western philosophy is the fact that one sliver of the Pensees , a single fragment of a fragmentary text and but a small portion of the untidy, multi-part, unfinished work that contains it, has achieved a full literary life of from lord of the flies its own, with its own lively history of foucault commentary and criticism. This is the famous fragment (418/680) known as Le Pari de Pascal , or “Pascal’s Wager.” Extensive discussions of the Wager can be found both in print and online, including an article in this encyclopedia. These discussions address a range of issues relating to the Wager, such as its status in the development of decision theory and probability theory, the on simon lord of the various objections that have been made against how to write ad, it, and from of the flies the numerous revised or alternate versions and applications that have been derived from it. This section will take up only two matters related to the topic: (1) the question of whether or not Pascal himself sincerely approved the Wager and popular writers believed that it presents a legitimate and persuasive argument for faith in essays lord of the flies God; (2) the thesis papers response to the Wager on the part of a few selected philosophers and critics along with a glance at some of its precedents in literary history. Simply characterized, the Wager is a second-person dialog in which Pascal imagines an individual forced to choose between belief in God and disbelief in Him. He analyzes the situation as if the essays on simon lord flies reader-protagonist (the “you” of the imaginary dialog) were involved in a great existential coin-toss game. The conditions and possible outcomes of the Wager are presented in the following table: Pascal argues that given the terms of the Wager it is how to write ad, not simply prudent, it is essays lord of the, practically obligatory to bet on God’s existence and essays governmentality illogical and lord of the flies utterly foolish to bet against Him. For consider: if you bet on His existence, you stand to win an infinite reward (an eternity in proposal sections for dissertation paradise) at the risk of only a small loss (whatever earthly pleasures you would be required to forego during your mortal life). On the other hand, if you bet against on simon flies, His existence, you risk the possibility of an infinite loss (loss of paradise – along with the possibility of an eternity in Hell) for on autism only a limited gain (the opportunity to enjoy a few years’ worth of essays on simon worldly delights). Pascal was a lifelong Catholic whose personal conversion from lukewarm to whole-hearted faith was accomplished not by rational argument but by a life-changing mystical experience.
So it’s unlikely that he himself ever gave serious personal consideration to an argument like the Wager. He simply didn’t need any further incentive or rational inducement to belief other than the passionate conviction within his own heart. How To Write Ad. On the other hand, it’s not unlikely that he thought the Wager might appeal to and perhaps even sway a libertine, a skeptic, or a Deist who might be teetering on the brink of belief. And that goes even more for a figure like a Mere or Mitton or any of the other young gallants and connoisseurs of essays flies honnetete whom Pascal came to know in the salons and foucault governmentality gaming rooms of Paris. After all, what better than a wager to entice a gambler? “Follow me,” Jesus had said to the fishermen Peter and Andrew, “and I will make you fishers of men” (Matthew 4:19). Similarly, Pascal, in the role a latter-day apostle, uses a game of on simon flies chance as a net to bring sinners to salvation.
The concept of the for dissertation Wager was by no means original with Pascal. Versions of it can be found as far back as Euripides’ The Bacchae . In the essays lord of the flies play, when Dionysus proclaims himself a deity and demands to be worshipped, Cadmus argues that it’s prudent, even if we don’t believe him, to honor him like a god since there’s no harm in doing so. (On the other hand, we risk a great deal of proposal sections personal hardship by failing to show him proper reverence if he truly is a god.) Sir Thomas More’s anecdote of the Gallant and the Friar presents in from lord of the an inverted form a similar conflict and moral: When a gallant sees a friar walking barefoot in popular writers the snow, he asks him why he endures such pain. Essays From Flies. The friar responds that the papers on autism pain is trivial, if we remember Hell. “But what if there is no hell?” inquires the amused gallant, adding “then art thou a great fool.” “Yes, master,” the essays lord of the flies friar replies, “but what if there is a hell? Then art thou a greater fool.”
A comical modern parody of the Wager occurs in the 1951 Broadway musical Guys and Dolls . Professional gambler Sky Masterson challenges a group of fellow professionals with a proposition: on a single roll of a pair of dice, he’ll pay each player $1000 if he loses. Papers On Autism. But if he wins, the gamblers will have to attend a midnight revival meeting at flies, the Save-a-Soul mission. As in phdthesis Pascal’s Wager, the essays from lord of the flies bet seems irresistible: there’s a large payoff if you win, with only a small sacrifice, and even a shot at salvation, if you lose. Sky wins his wager. Foucault Essays. The gamblers are “saved.”
Voltaire called the Wager “indecent and childish” and essays from thought it strange that Pascal reduced questions of the how to write ad highest gravity to the mathematics of games of chance. As for the Wager itself, he points out that just because someone promises me that I shall enjoy a great benefit doesn’t mean that it’s true. For example, suppose a fortune-teller tells me that she has a strong presentiment that I’ll win the lottery. Of course I hope she’s right, but should I be willing to wager on her presumed foreknowledge? If so, how much? In the end, Voltaire claims that Nature offers far more evidence for God’s existence than Pascal’s mathematical subtleties. Following up on Voltaire’s objections, Diderot pointed out that Pascal’s same basic argument (better to believe than not to believe) would apply equally well to any other religion: “An imam could argue just as well this way.” Indeed, by this logic, it could be argued that the more fanatical the religion, and from flies the more extreme its promised rewards for belief and punishments for non-belief, the more powerful the argument in its favor. Although he doesn’t specifically address the issue raised by Pascal’s Wager, John Stuart Mill in his essay “Theism” provides a utilitarian defense of the concept of religious hope. In effect, he argues that in a case where the truth is uncertain and the alternatives, immortality of the soul vs. extinction; existence of how to write ad God vs.
His non-existence, appear equally probable, it is legitimate to prefer the more hopeful option as being the choice more likely conducive to overall happiness. In his essay “The Will to Believe” William James offers a sharp critical assessment of the Wager and finds Pascal’s basic argument to be weak, sophistic, and insincere: . . . When religious faith expresses itself thus, in the language of the gaming-table, it is put to essays on simon lord its last trumps. Surely Pascal's own personal belief in governmentality masses and essays of the flies holy water had far other springs; and this celebrated page of governmentality his is but an argument for others, a last desperate snatch at a weapon against essays on simon from lord, the hardness of the foucault essays governmentality unbelieving heart. We feel that a faith in masses and holy water adopted willfully after such a mechanical calculation would lack the inner soul of faith's reality; and if we were ourselves in the place of the Deity, we should probably take particular pleasure in on simon from of the cutting off believers of this pattern from their infinite reward (224). However, having said this, James goes on to makes a pragmatic case for voluntary belief similar to Mill’s utilitarian defense of “hope” and to some extent comparable to Kierkegaard’s “leap of faith”. He argues that there are matters where the truth is in doubt and science is incapable of passing judgment as in the question of whether God exists. Where that choice is, in his terms, live (meaning that it seems of vital interest and value to us and engages us emotionally), momentous (meaning that it is non-trivial and has serious consequences), and of essay forced (meaning that we must choose one way or the other and cannot simply sit the fence or stand aside), then it is lawful, indeed even necessary for us to weigh the risks and evidence and choose . In the end, James basically recasts Pascal’s Wager in on simon from lord a new form, re-focusing on its existential and foucault essays governmentality psychological dimensions and dispensing with what he regards as its stagy and cheapening gambling metaphors. Besides his two major works (the Pensees and the Provinciales ), Pascal also wrote several shorter works touching on a wide range of topics – from political legitimacy and social order to on simon flies Stoicism and romantic love. Phdthesis. A brief overview and on simon lord of the flies precis of some of the how to write ad better known and more important of these minor works follows.
Essentially an extensive commentary on human nature and the doctrine of divine grace, the Ecrits represent Pascal’s most ambitious venture into the arena of lord of the flies Catholic theological debate. First published in 1779, the work was written at the same time as the provinciales and covers much of the same ground (proximate power, concupiscence, free will, and so forth), though in a more serious and less cavalier manner and in a more direct and methodical form. Along with other deep matters, Pascal here explicates Augustine’s distinction between human nature in its unfallen state as pure, innocent, and naturally just, though capable of choice and error, and our postlapsarian condition, which is in thrall to concupiscence and naturally prone, indeed practically bound to do evil if it were not for God’s prevenient grace. Adam was upright but free to fall; we children of Adam are weighed down by sin, and incapable of rising by our own effort. But, we are free to accept grace and can therefore be lifted up. Pascal dissects the proposal problem of lord of the flies free will in a similarly Augustinian fashion. Governmentality. Adam had free will in the sense that he could freely choose either good or evil, though he naturally inclined to the former. We, in on simon from lord flies our concupiscent state, are also free to choose. However, we are naturally inclined to prefer evil, which in our ignorant, fallen condition we commonly mistake for foucault essays good. Pascal also points out that through the grace of Jesus Christ, a grace instilled by the Holy Spirit, we can achieve a redeemed will – a will sufficient to overcome concupiscence and capable of recognizing and choosing good.
Commentators on the Ecrits have questioned whether its depiction of grace (which is presented as something largely mysterious yet vital for from lord flies salvation) is consistent with the rational apologetic approach and systematic style of sections for dissertation argument that Pascal sought to use in the Pensees . Pascal’s essay on the “geometric spirit” outlines both a theory of knowledge and an intellectual capability or logical mental faculty. He asserts that geometry and mathematics are the only areas of human inquiry that provide knowledge that is both certain and infallible. He then supports this claim with arguments and demonstrations. From. He goes on to describe a certain quality or faculty of popular writers mind that he calls l’esprit geometrique , which he defines as the ability to take known or perceived truths and to present them in such a way – with such precise steps, perfect elegance, and logical rigor – that their truth cannot help but be recognized and approved by others. Lord. Such an irrefutable and triumphant persuasiveness – the ability to vanquish all doubt and counter-argument – seems to have been Pascal’s goal in all his writings, whether on scientific subjects or in matters of how to write ad theological dispute. In any case, the essays on simon from lord “geometric spirit” is both a prominent characteristic of phdthesis Pascal’s own genius as well as an important epistemological idea (illustrating both the powers and limitations of the human mind) that he returns to repeatedly throughout his writings. iii. From Lord Of The Flies. Discourse on the Passions of in the life of essay Love. Pascal’s authorship of the “Discourse on essays lord, the Passions of Love” has been disputed for the obvious reason that its subject (romantic love) and sentiments (that love exalts the soul, that those with the greatest souls make the phdthesis truest lovers, that secret or undeclared love entails both exquisite joy and essays on simon from of the flies agonizing pain, and so forth) are highly uncharacteristic of the writer and would seem to be far outside his range of interest and expertise.
Yet the style of the Discourse is a day in the, distinctively Pascalian and some of the ideas contained in it (such as the distinction between the “geometric” mind and the spirit of “finesse”) are certifiably his own. Thus his authorship, while dubious, is at least possible, and so the essays on simon of the question for his critics and biographers becomes: how to account for papers on autism a work that seems so utterly contrary to Pascal’s own modest habits and reputation, so much more in the spirit of the salons of Paris rather than the essays on simon of the cells of Port-Royal? The most popular way of dealing with the Discourse has been simply to dismiss it as uncanonical and regard it as, at life of essay, bottom, some kind of essays on simon lord of the anonymously composed pastiche that incorporates bits and echoes of Pascal along with selections from other sources. Alternatively, it could be argued that the Discourse is written in a day in the life of essay the style and spirit of the on simon from of the flies Paris salons because Pascal himself intentionally wrote it in that vein, possibly as a kind of literary exercise or demonstration on his part for the amusement of his friends Mere and popular writers Mitton and their circle. (One can indeed easily imagine the pair challenging their shy friend to attempt such an exercise and then delighting in his successful performance.) So even though the Discourse may indeed be Pascal’s, its content and sentiments are for the most part artificial and essays on simon flies insincere, many of the how to write ad expressed opinions being mere restatements or variations of age-old commonplaces and platitudes about romantic love taken either from the pr ecieuse poetry of his own era or from earlier literature. (See, for example, the medieval Rules of Courtly Love of Andreas Capellanus, a compendium of witty, lofty, acerbic, or tongue-in-cheek observations about on simon from lord of the love very similar to Pascal’s.) iv. Discourses on the Condition of the Great. Despite its minor status, the “Discourses on the Great” is popular writers, nevertheless of interest since it is the only work of Pascal’s that attempts to formulate something like a social or political philosophy. The work (which is addressed to a young man of essays lord high degree) begins with a parable about a castaway on an island whom the inhabitants (owing to his close physical resemblance) mistake for their long-lost king. Such, Pascal argues, is the condition of those born to nobility or wealth within society: it is only by coincidence or lucky accident and by the power of custom and convention, not by nature, that they have their status. From this it follows that persons of rank are obligated to proposal sections conduct themselves with due humility and must never allow themselves to treat those on society’s lower rungs with insolence or disrespect. Pascal concludes the Discourses by reminding his young learner of his true condition and enjoins him to essays from lord of the flies rule and lead with beneficence. Simply stated, the political philosophy expressed in foucault the Discourses is on simon from flies, noblesse oblige . Pascal acknowledges that the origins of human inequality are of two kinds, natural and institutional.
The former arise from relative abilities or deficiencies of mind or body. For instance, A has better eyesight than B; X is taller and stronger than Y).Institutional inequalities, unless they are sanctioned by divine law, are entirely conventional and sometimes even arbitrary and thesis can be rescinded or overturned. That, as far as social theory is concerned, is about as far as Pascal goes in the Discourses. Lord Of The. Since his primary purpose is to offer moral instruction to a young nobleman, he doesn’t address topics like property, the social contract, divine right theory, which was a view recently and avidly affirmed by Louis XIV, or the phdthesis ethics of revolt. Essays From Of The. From scattered comments in the Pensees , we know that he was politically conservative and despised violence. Apparently his experience during the Fronde led him to believe that even oppressive order is better than anarchy and how to write ad that there is no worse social evil than civil war (see Pensees 94/128, 81/116, 85/119).
v. Prayer on essays lord of the, the Proper Use of Sickness. Pascal’s “Prayer to God on the Proper Use of Sickness” is a striking work that has perplexed and offended some readers while stirring sympathy and admiration in others. Readers of the first sort, knowing of Pascal’s persistent illnesses and chronic pain, are disturbed to how to write ad find him here not only begging forgiveness for the few pleasures he enjoyed during his brief intervals of of the flies health, but even thanking God for his lifetime of afflictions and earnestly beseeching Him for more of the popular writers same. Essays Lord. These readers view the “Prayer” as an expression of almost pathological morbidity and thesis on autism the testament of a fanatic. Interpreted in this way, Pascal’s portrayal of the pleasures of life as cruel and on simon of the flies deadly and of disease and affliction as salutary and healing seem not so much holy paradoxes as evidence of the essays governmentality extent to on simon from lord flies which the gloom of Jansenism had darkened his entire outlook. This reading is defective in at least two ways. First, it ignores the fact that the how to write ad paradoxes invoked in the “Prayer”—life is death; death is life; health is illness, illness is health; pain is pleasure, pleasure is pain; and so forth — are Christian commonplaces and that the rhetorical use of such figures had long been a standard feature of Christian discourse. From Lord Of The. (See, for example, the writings of Augustine or John Donne’s sermons and Holy Sonnets.) Second, any accusation of exaggerated melodrama or overstatement in the “Prayer” also overlooks the degree to which serious illness and devastating rates of mortality – plagues, deaths, executions, amputations – were an everyday part of life in Europe during the 17th century. Viewed in popular writers this context, the “Prayer” may still strike modern readers as unnaturally bleak, but it expresses sentiments and feelings that many of Pascal’s contemporaries would have been familiar with and shared. The “Prayer” can be more accurately characterized as a simple statement of faith and humility and a plea for essays on simon lord of the patience and proposal sections for dissertation courage. It expresses the blend of neo-stoicism and contemptus mundi that was common in lord prayers and sermons of the day. Christian stoicism had been recently introduced into French literature via the essays governmentality writings of Guillaume du Vair, and Pascal had likely read Epictetus’s Enchiridion in du Vair’s translation.
Although he remained critical of classical stoicism, he was apparently more accepting of du Vair’s version – a philosophical and theological view that holds that we should willingly accept, as a revelation of divine will, whatever fate God bestows on us. Far from being a fanatical doctrine, this was a code that even non-believers found agreeable. Indeed most of us find it admirable when individuals who are sorely afflicted with a disease or who have suffered the loss of an from lord of the flies organ or limb accept their condition with fortitude and equanimity. vi. Pascal’s Conversation with M. de Saci on Epictetus and Montaigne.
The minor work Entretien avec M.de Saci is not actually Pascal’s, but was composed by Nicolas Fontaine, a member of the Port-Royal community. It is the phdthesis record of essays from lord of the flies a conversation that took place between Pascal and his spiritual director Lemaistre de Sacy shortly after Pascal took up residence at Port-Royal in 1654. In The Life. The work wasn’t published until 1736, but it’s an of the important document nevertheless since it represents the thesis papers on autism fullest discussion that we have of Pascal’s views on Western philosophy. The portrait of Pascal that emerges from the Conversation is well drawn and essays on simon lord seems authentic, and thesis the words and style are recognizably his own. Many of the ideas presented in the work can be found scattered throughout the Pensees , where they are expressed in nearly similar language and where once again Epictetus and Montaigne stand as mighty opposites: the former championing but over-estimating the essays flies greatness and nobility of humankind, the latter recognizing but exaggerating our folly and ignorance. Pascal praises Epictetus as a brilliant philosopher whose knowledge of a day in the life of essay our essential moral duties and especially of our need for on simon from of the patience, courage, faith, and humility is unsurpassed.
Unfortunately, the sections philosopher’s “diabolic pride” leads him astray. For example, Epictetus wrongly supposes that human reason is a perfectly reliable guide to essays from truth. He also errs in holding that the mind and foucault the senses are sufficient for perceiving and understanding the true nature and overall justice of the cosmos. Of Montaigne, Pascal remarks that although he was a professed Catholic he nevertheless chose to forego Christian doctrine as a source of moral law and turned instead to his, admittedly fallible, personal judgment and natural instinct as ethical guides. Pascal then goes on to criticize Montaigne for his utter and thoroughgoing Pyrrhonism symbolized by the device of a scales that Montaigne had emblazoned on the ceiling of his study with his famous motto Que sais-je? (What do I know?) inscribed beneath.
Pascal argues that, in contrast to on simon from of the Epictetus, Montaigne’s error consists not in glorifying or over-estimating human reason and popular writers knowledge but rather in denying them any credit or status whatsoever. Pascal confesses that it is pleasant sport to watch Montaigne poke holes in the arguments of his opponents and see “proud reason so irresistibly baffled by its own weapons.” Of course, ironically, Montaigne’s skepticism effectively undermines not just his opponent’s views but his own arguments as well. Near the end of the conversation, Pascal launches into an oratorical peroration describing how the errors, imperfections, and opposing polarities represented by the two philosophers are ultimately mediated and reconciled in the person of Jesus Christ. @ It is therefore from this imperfect enlightenment that it happens that the one [that is, Epictetus] knowing the duties of man and being ignorant of his impotence, is lost in presumption, and from lord that the other [that is, Montaigne], knowing the impotence and being ignorant of the duty, falls into laxity; whence it seems that since the one leads to truth, the other to error, there would be formed from their alliance a perfect system of on autism morals. But instead of this peace, nothing but war and a general ruin would result from their union; for the one establishing certainty, the other doubt, the one the greatness of man, the other his weakness, they would destroy the truths as well as the falsehoods of each other. So that they cannot subsist alone because of their defects, nor unite because of their opposition, and thus they break and destroy each other to give place to the truth of the Gospel. This it is that harmonizes the contrarieties by a wholly divine act, and on simon from flies uniting all that is true and expelling all that is false, thus makes of them a truly celestial wisdom in which those opposites accord that were incompatible in human doctrines. . . . Such is the marvelous and novel union which God alone could teach, and popular writers which He alone could make, and which is only a type and essays on simon of the flies an effect of the ineffable union of two natures in essays governmentality the single person of a Man-God. No single paragraph better summarizes Pascal’s philosophical and theological views than this climactic comparison. 3. Mathematical and Scientific Works. Pascal made his first important mathematical discovery and published his first article, the Essay on Conics (1640), at the age of sixteen. Barely an essay at all, the work is a one-page document consisting of three diagrams, three definitions, and two lemmas.
Although it had little immediate impact beyond a small circle of mathematicians, it was nevertheless a breakthrough contribution to the emerging new field of projective geometry. His discovery (which he referred to as his “Mystic Hexagram”) is essays on simon from lord of the flies, known today as Pascal’s Theorem. It states that if six points are situated on a conic section (an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola), and popular writers if these points are then joined by on simon lord of the line segments to form a hexagon, then if the sides of this hexagon are projected beyond the section, the pairs of opposite sides will meet in three points all of which lie on a straight line. Figure 1: Pascal's Mystic Hexagram. This illustration shows that when the opposite sides of a hexagon inscribed within a ellipse are projected, they will intersect at three points along a straight line. (In this case all the thesis points lie entirely outside the ellipse.) After his death, Pascal’s unpublished mathematical papers (including what seems to have been a full treatise on conics) were collected by his nephew Etienne Perier. Eventually these manuscripts were turned over to the great German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz for from lord his evaluation and thesis use. Leibniz left behind an essays on simon from lord flies extensive set of notes on phdthesis, the collection and essays from of the registered his admiration for Pascal’s genius.
Unfortunately Pascal’s original papers have all been lost. In 1644 the Italian physicist Evangelista Torricelli, testing a hypothesis suggested by Galileo, took a glass tube closed at how to write ad, one end and filled it with mercury. He then inverted the tube, open end down, into a bowl also containing mercury and watched as the mercury in the tube dropped slightly leaving a vacant space at from lord flies, the top. Contrary to the prevailing scientific view upheld by Aristotelians and Cartesians alike according to a day in the life of essay which a vacuum in nature is a physical impossibility, Torricelli surmised that the essays on simon lord of the space at the top of the tube was indeed a vacuum and that it was created by the pressure of the external air, which exactly balanced the essays pressure exerted by the column of essays on simon lord mercury inside the in the life of essay tube. Pascal learned of the experiment from from lord flies, his former mentor Pere Mersenne. Excited by the controversial scientific issues at stake, he set to work devising his own experimental test of Torricelli’s results.
Just obtaining the governmentality required apparatus posed a huge challenge. On Simon From Flies. Scientists of the era typically had to design, specify, oversee the production of, test, and governmentality of course pay for their own equipment. Essays On Simon From Lord. Pascal did all that and sections for dissertation then went to work conducting his own experiments and demonstrations. Confident of his results, he went on tour to demonstrate his hypothesis, which he was able to do using tubes of different length and diameter and a variety of liquids. He published his findings in a short pamphlet New Experiments concerning the Vacuum (1647). The decisive experiment, proving that the level of essays on simon lord mercury in the tube was due to external air pressure, was conducted at the Puy-de-Dome, the proposal for dissertation mountainous lava dome near Pascal’s native Clermont. Pascal designed and of the flies organized the experiment, but because of his health issues it was actually conducted by his brother-in-law Florin Perier along with a team of observers, clerics, and local officials. Using two identical tubes, the team measured the levels of mercury at a base point in the town. Then, with a portion of the party staying behind to monitor the mercury level in one tube, which remained at popular writers, the home base, Florin and the rest of the party ascended the on simon of the flies mountain with the other tube and measured the mercury level at various elevations. It was found that the level of mercury in the mobile (or test) tube varied inversely with the altitude. Popular Writers. Meanwhile, the essays from lord mercury level in the stationary (or control) tube never varied.
Repeated experiments produced the same conclusive results: the level of mercury was due to thesis on autism air pressure, which also has the essays from lord of the flies ability to create a vacuum. Pascal published a record of the experiment in a short document entitled “The Account of the Great Experiment of the Equilibrium of proposal sections Fluids.” to which he appended a closing note that deserves quotation since it marks a historic turning point in the advance of modern science vis-a-vis ancient authority. On the basis of on simon from lord flies his experiments, he asserts “that nature has no repugnance for the vacuum” and “makes no effort to avoid it”: . . Foucault Essays Governmentality. . all the effects that have been attributed to her horror have their origin in the weight and pressure of the air, that it is their sole and essays true cause. . . Popular Writers. . It is not on this occasion only that, when the weakness of men has been unable to of the flies find the true causes, their subtlety has substituted imaginary causes to which they have given specious names filling the ears and not the mind. Thus it is said that the papers sympathy and antipathy of natural bodies are efficient causes, responsible for many effects, as if inanimate bodies were capable of sympathy and antipathy; it is the same with antiperistasis and with many other chimerical causes, which but give a vain solace to man’s hunger to on simon from lord of the know hidden truths, and a day in the life which, far from revealing them, serve only to cover up the on simon of the flies ignorance of such inventors and to feed that of their followers. One other document relating to the vacuum that dates from this period (October 29, 1647) and which bears special mention is Pascal’s reply to (the felicitously if improbably named) Pere Noel. A Jesuit priest who embraced the widely accepted doctrine (approved by both Aristotelian and Cartesian physicists) that nature is a material plenum and will not permit a vacuum, Noel had written a letter to proposal for dissertation Pascal defending the horror vacui viewpoint and arguing that the empty space that Pascal claims to have observed at the top of the tubes in his experiments was not empty space at on simon of the, all but a space necessarily filled with “rarified air” or some other subtle form of substance . Pascal’s response is a perfect specimen of understatement and polite forbearance in which the tone often approaches but never quite crosses over into condescension or ridicule. The provinciales are usually cited as the original instance of classic French prose style, but the letter to Noel and sections for dissertation indeed a number of Pascal’s scientific papers – all notable for their force, clarity, concision, and elegance as well as for their utter absence of bombast, fustian, and needless adornment – could also lay claim to setting the model.
An early paragraph in Pascal’s letter succinctly defines his criteria and standards of truth in matters of scientific investigation; two later paragraphs illustrate his tactful but forceful way of dealing with the kind of learned ignorance that Sir Francis Bacon had referred to as “vain imaginations” and the “idols of the theatre”: The rule [of scientific method] is never to make a decisive judgment, affirming or denying a proposition, unless what one affirms or denies satisfies one of the two following conditions: either that of itself it appear so clearly and distinctly to sense or to reason, according as it is subject to one or the other, that the mind cannot doubt its certainty, and this is of the, what we call a principle or axiom, as, for essays example, if equals are added to equals, the results are equal; or that it be deduced as an from of the flies infallible and on autism necessary consequence from such principles or axioms . . On Simon. . . Everything satisfying one of these conditions is certain and true, and everything satisfying neither is considered doubtful and uncertain. We pass decisive judgment on things of the first kind and leave the rest undecided, calling them, according to their deserts, now a vision , now a caprice , occasionally a fancy , sometimes an idea , and at the most a happy thought ; and since it is rash to affirm them, we incline rather to the negative, ready however to a day in the life return to the affirmative if a convincing demonstration brings their truth to light…. For all things of this kind [that is, hypothetical entities] whose existence is not manifest to essays on simon from sense are as hard to believe as they are easy to invent. Many persons, even among the phdthesis most learned men of the day, have opposed me with this same substance [that is, rarified air or some comparable ethereal matter] before you (but simply as an idea and not as a certain truth), and essays on simon flies that is why I mentioned it among my propositions. Others, to fill empty space with some kind of matter, have imagined one with which they have filled the entire universe, because imagination has this peculiarity that it produces the greatest things with as little time and trouble as little things; some have considered this matter as of the thesis papers on autism same substance as the essays on simon lord sky and the elements, and others of a different substance, as their fancy dictated, for phdthesis they disposed of it as of their own work. But if we ask of them, as of you, that you show us this matter, they answer that it cannot be seen; if we ask that it make a sound, they say it cannot be heard, and so with all the essays on simon from flies remaining senses; and they think they have done much when they have convicted others of powerlessness to show that it does not exist by depriving themselves of all power to show that it does.
Pascal later composed, but never published, two detailed monographs that were discovered among his manuscripts after his death: a Treatise on popular writers, the Equilibrium of Liquids and a Treatise on the Weight of the of the Mass of Air . These two treatises represent seminal contributions to the sciences of hydraulics and a day life of essay hydrostatics and include the discovery that if no other forces are acting on a fluid, the pressure will be the same throughout the fluid and the same in all directions – an observation that is known today as Pascal’s Principle. It is in recognition of essays on simon his important work in the study of fluid mechanics that a standard unit of pressure is today known as the pascal (Pa), defined as a force equal to 1 Newton per phdthesis square meter. c. Pascal’s Triangle and Probability Theory. In 1654, Pascal responded to a series of problems posed by his friend Antoine Gombaud, the self-styled Chevalier de Mere, an amateur mathematician and essays on simon from lord of the noted gambler. Suppose, Pascal was asked, that you are given 24 rolls of proposal for dissertation a pair of dice. What is the essays lord of the flies probability of your throwing double sixes at least one time? Mere also asked a related question known as the “problem of the points” (also known as the problem of the division of the stakes). This problem asks, if a wager game is terminated before it has been completed, how should the contestants divide the stakes?
For example, suppose that A and B are playing a winner-take-all game in proposal for dissertation which a point is scored on every try and the winner is the first player to reach ten points. How should the essays of the flies stakes be divided if the phdthesis game is terminated after A has 7 points and B has 5? Pascal developed solutions to these and other problems relating to the calculation of gambling odds and in an exchange of letters shared his insights with the great Toulouse mathematician Pierre de Fermat. Together the two correspondents effectively founded the modern theory of probability. Part of the foundation for the modern theory is provided in Pascal’s “Treatise on on simon flies, the Arithmetical Triangle,” which he composed in 1653. (He sent a copy of how to write ad this document to Fermat during their correspondence, but it was never published until after his death.) The Treatise explains how to construct and essays from lord flies apply the remarkable configuration (in essence a triangular array of binomial coefficients) known today as “Pascal’s Triangle.” The array had been generated and used previously by Chinese, Indian, Persian, and thesis papers on autism European mathematicians, and from Pascal never claimed to have discovered or originated it.
He was simply interested in demonstrating its fascinating properties and powers. Figure 2. Pascal's Triangle. Pascal calls the sections for dissertation square containing each number in the array a cell . The numeral 1’s at the top of his triangle head perpendicular rows ; those on on simon from, the left side of the triangle head parallel rows . How To Write Ad. He calls the third (diagonal) side of the triangle the base. Cells along any diagonal row are called cells of the same base . The first diagonal row (consisting of the number 1) is row 0. The second diagonal row (1, 1) is essays on simon from lord flies, row 1; and so on. The number value of each cell is equal to the sum of its immediately preceding perpendicular and parallel cells. For example, 120 in the base diagonal (item 4 in row 7) = 36 + 84.
Furthermore, the number value of how to write ad each cell is also equal to the sum of all the cells of the preceding row (from the first cell to the cell immediately above the essays on simon from lord flies target cell). For example, 126 (the number value of cell 6 in row 5) = 1 + 4 + 10 + 20 + 35 + 56 (the sum of cells 1-6 of row 4). Pascal explains in detail how the Triangle can be used to calculate combinations (that is to compute C in cases where n C r = n things taken r at how to write ad, a time). As Pascal demonstrates, to essays on simon from of the find the answer we would move perpendicularly down to the nth row and proposal then move diagonally r cells. For example, for 5 C 4, we would go perpendicularly down to row 5 and then move diagonally 4 cells and find that the number of essays from of the combinations is 5. Similarly, if we calculate for 6 C 3 ,we would move down 6 rows and then diagonally 3 cells and find that the answer is 20. Papers. And so on. In another section of the Treatise, Pascal explains how to lord of the flies use the proposal sections for dissertation Triangle to solve the Problem of Points. Solutions to Mere’s problems: 1. Probability of at least one double-six in 24 rolls of two dice: 1 - (35/36) 24 = 0.4914.
2. Problem of points: A needs 3 more points, B needs 5 more points. (Game will end after seven more tries since at that juncture one of the players must reach ten points.) Count 3 + 5 rows on the Triangle; then sum the first 5 items. That sum divided by the sum of all items in the row is on simon lord of the, A’s portion of the stakes. Then sum the papers remaining 3 items in the row and divide that total by the sum of all the items in the row. That will be B’s portion. From the Triangle: (1+7+21+35+35) ? (1+7+21+35+35+21+7+1) = 99/128 = A’s portion. (1+7+21) ? (1+7+21+35+35+21+7+1) = 29/128 = B’s portion. Expressed as a percentage, A receives 77.34375 percent of the stake; B receives 22.65625 percent of the stake. The idea of mathematical infinity – of essays on simon from flies a number that can be vaguely conceived but whose properties and nature can never be fully understood – has strong affinities with Pascal’s idea of God and also relates to his Wager and to his personal anxiety as he contemplates the “eternal silence of these infinite spaces” (201/233). Imagine Pascal’s Triangle.
Now realize that there are an infinite number of such triangles, each stretching out vertically and horizontally to infinity, with each diagonal base in the structure containing within it a theoretically infinite subset of ever-smaller triangles. Such is the paradoxical notion of governmentality infinity, a concept that astounded and haunted Pascal, and which has teased, baffled, and intrigued a long list of essays on simon lord flies theorists and how to write ad commentators from Nicholas of Cusa and Giordano Bruno to Bertrand Russell and David Foster Wallace. Although the idea of infinity can fill the imagination with dread, it can also, as Pascal points out at the conclusion of his treatise Of the Geometrical Spirit , provide us with a true understanding of nature and of our place in it: But those who clearly perceive these truths will be able to essays admire the grandeur and power of nature in this double infinity that surrounds us on phdthesis, all sides, and to learn by on simon from lord of the this marvelous consideration to know themselves, in regarding themselves thus placed between an infinitude and a negation of extension, between an infinitude and a day life a negation of number, between an infinitude and a negation of movement, between an infinitude and on simon from lord flies a negation of time. From which we may learn to estimate ourselves at our true value, and to form reflections which will be worth more than all the rest of geometry itself. A discovery that should have been Pascal’s final mathematical triumph wound up instead creating acrimony and papers controversy. In the spring of 1658, supposedly as a diversion while contending with a toothache, he took up the problem of the roulette or cycloid, a problem that had puzzled some of Europe’s best mathematicians, including Galileo and Descartes, for nearly a century. Figure 3: Cycloid. Imagine a point P on the circumference of a revolving circle. A cycloid is the curve described by P as it rolls along a straight line. The challenge is to discover and prove the area of this curve geometrically.
Pascal worked out his own solution and then, as was common practice at the time, issued a public challenge to fellow mathematicians. Under the name Amos Dettonville, an anagram of the pseudonym Louis de Montalte, which he had used to write the provinciales (an anagram of the motto Talentum Deo Soli – “My talent for God alone”—according to on simon of the flies Morris Bishop), Pascal drew up a list of six problems relating to phdthesis the cycloid and offered a prize of 600 livres to the first person to essays on simon from of the flies solve them (Bishop 222). If after a specified time limit, no solutions were reported, “Dettonville” would reveal his own. A problem arose almost immediately when Pascal discovered that his first four questions had in effect already been solved by his friend Roberval. The contest was therefore reduced to the final two questions, a change that, unfortunately, was not made clear to governmentality all the contestants. Flies. In addition, some contestants protested that the time limit was unreasonably short.
Christian Huygens and phdthesis Christopher Wren published solutions, but did not compete for the prize. On Simon From Lord Of The. A few other eminent mathematicians participated and submitted answers. However, Pascal, finding none of the proposal sections for dissertation submissions fully satisfactory, eventually revealed his own solutions and declared himself the winner. Predictably, this provoked bitterness and suspicions of plagiarism or misrepresentation on all sides. Though the controversy left a blemish on Pascal’s reputation, his work on the cycloid has been admired by later mathematicians for its ingenuity and elegance, and he is credited, alongside his great contemporaries Galileo, Torricelli, Descartes, Mersenne, Roberval, Fermat, Wren, and Huygens, as having helped to solve the curve once known for its power to attract and captivate all who studied it as the essays from of the flies “Helen of geometers.” In 1672, after having obtained and reviewed copies of Pascal’s papers on conics and the cycloid, Leibniz attested to their brilliance and phdthesis concluded that were it not for essays from of the flies an “evil fate” (by which phrase it’s unclear whether he meant their author’s short lifespan or his absorption in foucault Jansenist theology) Pascal would have almost certainly gone on on simon lord of the, to make further and deeper mathematical discoveries. Summarizing Pascal’s scientific and mathematical achievements, it can be said that in an age of amateurism, when everyone from priests and popular writers attorneys to soldiers and salonnieres dabbled in on simon lord of the “natural philosophy,” he was a marvel who often found himself in a position analogous to that later experienced by sections for dissertation Newton and Leibniz: that is, he had to communicate dramatically new, highly complex and on simon lord flies abstract concepts to readers who lacked his extraordinary mathematical imagination and foucault essays facility. Having made his discoveries more or less instinctively, using his own private mathematical inventions and methods, he then found he had to “translate” his ideas into the conventionally accepted language and procedures of his peers and fellow numerophiles. Applying his own terminology, one can say that he made his discoveries through what he called l’esprit de finesse , that is, the intuitive mind, with its instinctive twists and turns, lucky hunches, and inspired guesswork. He found, however, that in of the flies order to communicate his findings to others he had to turn to what he styled l’esprit geometrique that is, the geometric mind, which he defined as the skill or capacity for a day of essay “demonstrating truths already found, and of elucidating them in such a manner that the proof of them shall be irresistible”.
Excellence in on simon from lord of the science and mathematics, he argued, requires both capabilities. It was Pascal’s good fortune to possess both l’esprit de finesse and l’esprit geometrique in rare and powerful abundance. 4. Philosophy of Science and Theory of phdthesis Knowledge. Of the many great natural philosophers of the 17 th century – a group that includes both theoreticians and experimentalists and such illustrious names as Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Boyle, Huygens, and on simon from Gassendi – Pascal arguably was the one who came closest to how to write ad articulating a coherent, comprehensive, durable philosophy of essays from lord science consistent with and comparable to the standard view that prevails today, except that he came up short. As Desmond M. Clarke has argued, Pascal was torn between his love of geometric proof and pure logical demonstration on the one hand and his skeptical, pragmatic instincts in favor of down-to-earth experimentalism and empiricism on the other.
As a result he seemed trapped in popular writers a kind of philosophical limbo. (See “Pascal’s Philosophy of Science,” in Hammond, 118.) Similarly, although he seemed to recognize that our knowledge of the natural world is flies, only probable and can never be certain, a part of him nevertheless remained enthralled by phdthesis the “will-o-the-wisp” or “Holy Grail” of absolute certainty. In most other respects, Pascal’s outlook is ahead of its time and admirable in its self-restraint and in essays on simon its awareness of its own limitations. Unlike Bacon, he makes room for hypothesis and even imaginative insight and conjecture ( l’esprit de finesse ) and also allows a deductive component a la Descartes ( l’esprit geometrique ). He acknowledges that all hypotheses must be tested and confirmed by rigorous experiments, and even if he didn’t actually carry out his experiments exactly as described, he nevertheless accepts the necessity of such testing. Boyle in particular remained skeptical of Pascal’s experiments, calling them “more ingenious than practicable.” He especially marveled at how to write ad, the availability of 40-ft. Torricelli tubes and of brass fittings engineered to essays nearly microscopic precision. Attempting to reproduce one of Pascal’s hydrostatic tests involving a fly in how to write ad a chamber of from of the flies water, Boyle attests that “upon tryal with a strong flie” the phdthesis creature “presently drowned” (243.)
Pascal fully understood that once a hypothesis is from lord, tested and confirmed, the problem of determining the true cause of the phenomenon still remains and papers on autism becomes itself a matter for on simon from further conjecture. On Autism. For example, take his prediction, experimentally confirmed, that the level of from mercury in in the life of essay a Torricelli tube will decline as altitude increases. Pascal claimed that this phenomenon was due to the weight of air, though he knew that other factors might also explain the same effect. Indeed, for essays flies all he knew, an invisible emanation from the god Mercury may have influenced his results. (Ironically, the famous Puy-de-Dome experiment had been performed near an proposal sections ancient temple to that deity). As Pascal observed to essays on simon from lord of the flies Father Noel, fanciful explanations for phenomena are as easy to imagine as they are impossible to in the life disprove.
In his correspondence with Noel, Pascal at on simon lord of the, one point suggests that it is fatal for one’s hypothesis if an experimental test fails to confirm a predicted outcome. However, as he himself and his fellow experimentalists certainly knew, there can be nearly as many reasons why an expected result does not occur, such as defective apparatus, lack of proper controls, measurement errors, extraordinary test circumstances, etc, as there are explanations for phdthesis a result that occurs as expected. Apparently in his haste to champion the new science of experimentalism against its critics, both Cartesian and Scholastic, Pascal wanted to at least be able to say that if experiments cannot conclusively prove a given hypothesis, then they may at least be able to disprove it. If this was his intention, he was anticipating by essays on simon from lord nearly three centuries Karl Popper’s theory of popular writers empirical falsification and opposed to (and seemingly fearful at essays lord of the, the prospect of) any view similar to WVO Quine’s theory of essays governmentality confirmation holism, according to which all scientific claims are at best only probable and there is no such thing as a decisive experiment. Que-sais-je ? (“What do I know?”) asked the skeptical Montaigne, a question that in his case was more rhetorical than sincere. Que puis-je savoir ? (“What can I know?”) was Pascal’s more earnest if also slightly skeptical variation. Essays From Of The Flies. Anticipating Kant, he wondered with what limitations and with what level of for dissertation assurance we can confidently say we know what we believe we know. Pascal has been plausibly labeled an empiricist, a foundationalist, even a positivist and a skeptic.
The confusion is understandable and is due largely to essays on simon of the flies the fact that his epistemological views are complex and seem in certain respects equivocal or inconsistent. For example, he accepts the rule of authority in some areas of knowledge, such as ancient history, while opposing and even forbidding it in others, especially physical science. He also recognizes three different types or sources of knowledge related to his so-called “three orders”: body/sense; mind/reason; heart/will or instinct, each with its own domain or area of applicability, level of certainty, and tests of confirmation and reliability. In a perfect world human reason would be 100 percent reliable and hold sway. Presumably, Adam, prior to the Fall, had such a pristine and certain view of things, such that there was a perfect congruency or correspondence between his inner perceptions and the outer world.
Pascal believes that the axioms and popular writers first principles of math, geometry, and logic constitute knowledge of this kind. They are perceived directly by reason and (along with any consequences that we can directly deduce from them) represent the only knowledge that we can know infallibly and with certainty. It is with respect to such axioms and principles alone that Pascal accepts Descartes’ criteria of essays from of the clearness and distinctness as reliable evidence of truth. Everything else is subject to error and doubt. A critic of Cartesian rationalism and the deductive method, which he referred to as “useless and thesis uncertain” – 887/445, Pascal was for the most part an empiricist and experimentalist who held that our knowledge of the essays from lord natural world is acquired through the senses and must be tested and empirically verified by experiment. Reason also has a role in this process. It guides our observations and assists us in thesis papers the forming of hypotheses and from predictions. Papers. It is reason that also judges and essays on simon of the flies approves (or disapproves) the popular writers final results, though it does so on the basis of empirical evidence, not deductive logic or some preconceived system. In the on simon from of the Preface to his Treatise on the Vacuum , Pascal declares that reason and sense alone must rule and authority has no place in popular writers the establishment of scientific truth. On Simon Lord Of The. Authority is to popular writers be respected, he says, in history, jurisprudence, languages, and above all in on simon of the matters of theology, where the essays authority of essays on simon lord of the Scripture and phdthesis the Fathers is omnipotent.
But, he argues that in the case of physical science reverence for the ancients can actually cloud the flies truth and impede the proposal sections advancement of knowledge, especially when such reverence is, blind, misplaced, or overly devout. He concludes the Preface with a witty reversal of roles in the heated, ongoing debate between “ancients and from lord of the moderns”: Those whom we call ancient were really new in governmentality all things, and properly constituted the infancy of mankind; and as we have joined to their knowledge the experience of the essays on simon from of the centuries which have followed them, it is in ourselves that we should find this antiquity that we revere in others. If there is an element of mystery in Pascal’s theory of in the life knowledge, it is in the source of knowledge and inner being that he terms le Coeur . In scattered places throughout the Pensees he makes reference to a logique du coeur or an ordre du coeur . But what exactly he means by such phrases he never clearly explains. Essays On Simon Flies. The term coeur appears most famously in fragment 423/680: The heart has its reasons, which reason does not know. We feel it in a thousand things.
I say that the heart naturally loves the Universal Being, and also itself naturally, according as it gives itself to thesis on autism them; and it hardens itself against one or the other at its will. You have rejected the one, and kept the other. Is it by reason that you love yourself? “The heart has its reasons, which reason doesn’t know.” Not only on simon from of the, has Pascal’s famous aphorism become an oft-quoted cliche, it has also managed to enter and even permeate popular culture in the form of song lyrics, as the title of for dissertation a love memoir, and as a message of endearment or benediction on bumper stickers and essays from lord of the greeting cards. Even people who have never read a page of the Pensees are familiar with the quote, and phdthesis while it seems safe to say that Pascal had no such sentimental meaning in mind, amour , in its various senses from romantic love and self-love to charity and maternal instinct, seems an inescapable association when we hear the phrase “reasons of the on simon heart.” In fact, the Catholic scholar Romano Guardini has plausibly offered “love” and “charity” as appropriate translations or synonyms for coeur (133). It has also been suggested that by “heart” Pascal means something transcending reason and prior to it (Peters 168-171; Kearns 101-02), almost as if it were some kind of Kantian intuition, or as if it were a form of natural or divinely endowed intelligence on the very cutting edge of perception; some instinctive faculty that, without contradicting reason, can either surpass it or supplement it. (110/142). Such a faculty, if it is indeed instinctive, would presumably be inborn and phdthesis thus either a part of our basic nature and something that all humans share or a special gift or grace bestowed by God to the elect. And if it is on simon from lord flies, intuitive, then it possibly bears some relation to phdthesis what Pascal elsewhere terms l’esprit de finesse , the subtle or intuitive component of intellect that somehow “sees” or penetrates directly into truths that l’esprit geometrique , the logical or sequential intelligence, can arrive at from lord flies, only via incremental, deductive steps. Essays. Heart-knowledge would then be like some faint glimmer or trace of the essays of the instantaneous, clairvoyant understanding that the proposal for dissertation unfallen Adam was believed to enjoy in Paradise. In any case, the on simon lord flies notion of foucault governmentality a raison du Coeur remains a critical crux in on simon from flies Pascal studies and posed a mystery and challenge to his readers. Fideism can be defined as the view that religious truth is ascertainable by faith alone and that faith is phdthesis, separate from, superior to, and on simon lord of the generally antagonistic towards reason.
Whenever the term shows up in a religious or philosophical discussion, it is typically in conjunction with a list that includes names like Tertullian, Luther, Montaigne, Kierkegaard, Wittgenstein, and popular writers William James. Pascal’s name is often inserted into this group. Based on the foregoing definition of fideism, Pascal does not fit into from lord of the, such a list, though the tendency to include him is understandable. Perhaps the a day in the life of essay most compelling evidence in favor of labeling him a fideist is the striking fact of his midnight conversion and “Night of Fire,” the powerful, visionary experience, clearly more mystical than rational, on the basis of which he wound up explicitly rejecting “the god of the philosophers.” However, just because the medium or process through which a belief is achieved may not be rational, doesn’t mean that the belief itself is unreasonable. For Pascal, that belief was his acceptance of Jesus Christ as his Lord and Savior. Kekule discovered the essays on simon from lord of the flies shape and structure of the benzene molecule in a dream. How To Write Ad. Though his means of discovery was non-rational, what he discovered was quite reasonable and proved true.
Another reason why Pascal’s religious views are sometimes confused with fideism is his notion of an infinite and hidden God, who is essentially beyond our comprehension and understanding and whose existence and nature transcends the limited perspectives of reason and on simon from lord sense perception. However, once again, just because God surpasses or eludes empirical sense and reason doesn’t mean that He is for dissertation, contrary to or incompatible with them. Essays Lord Flies. “Faith,” Pascal writes, “indeed tells what the senses do not tell, but not the how to write ad contrary of what they see. From. It is above them, and not contrary to them” (185/265). As for God’s infinitude and incomprehensibility, they too surpass or confound reason, but aren’t necessarily contrary to it. The notion of mathematical infinity baffles us in the same way. As Pascal points out, just because something is proposal for dissertation, incomprehensible, for example, God, infinity, “a sphere whose center is everywhere and whose circumference is nowhere,” doesn’t mean that it can’t exist (149,230/182,262). Some critics have even used the Wager itself (418/680) as a basis for linking Pascal to fideism since that fragment sets forth and essays on simon from lord of the flies vividly illustrates the thesis on autism view that God’s existence is uncertain and can’t be proved. Of particular significance in this respect is the essays on simon lord of the flies paragraph in which Pascal, in phdthesis an observation that seems to echo Tertullian almost as much as St. Paul, candidly acknowledges the “foolishness” of the essays on simon lord Christian creed: Who then will blame Christians for not being able to give reasons for thesis on autism their beliefs, since they profess belief in a religion which they cannot explain?
They declare, when they expound it to the world, that it is on simon from lord, foolishness, stultitiam ; and how to write ad then you complain because they do not prove it! If they proved it, they would not keep their word; it is on simon of the flies, through their lack of how to write ad proofs that they show they are not lacking in sense. But, again, not being able to prove or give a convincing explanation for a belief is not quite the lord of the same thing as saying that the belief is incompatible with or contrary to reason. Governmentality. Conspiracy theories are typically lamely supported and impossible to prove, but they are seldom implausible or illogical. Moreover, it is not just a fideistic claim, but a perfectly orthodox Catholic view (and indeed a widely observable fact) that reason has limits; that it is on simon from lord of the, indeed, as Pascal claims, unreasonable to trust reason too much. Foucault Essays. “Reason's last step is the recognition that there are an infinite number of things which are beyond it.” (188/220.) Pascal eschewed metaphysical proofs of God’s existence not on fideistic grounds because he thought that, as rational constructions, they were contrary to faith, but because he felt they were emotionally sterile and too abstruse and technical to on simon from lord flies persuade a non-believer: The metaphysical proofs for the existence of a day life God are so remote from human reasoning and so involved that they make little impact, and, even if they did help some people, it would only be for the moment during which they watched the demonstration, because an essays from lord hour later they would be afraid they had made a mistake. Essays Governmentality. (190/222) And this is essays on simon from flies, why I shall not undertake here to prove by reasons from how to write ad, nature either the existence of God, or the Trinity or the immortality of the soul, or anything of that kind: not just because I should not feel competent to find in nature arguments which would convince hardened atheists, but also because such knowledge, without Christ, is useless and sterile. Even if someone were convinced that the essays lord flies proportions between numbers are immaterial, eternal truths, depending on a first truth in which they subsist, called God, I should not consider that he made much progress towards his salvation. Popular Writers. The Christian's God does not consist merely of a God who is the author of mathematical truths and essays the order of the elements.
That is the portion of the heathen and Epicureans. (449/690) In the end, the strongest reason for essays denying Pascal a place within fideism is essays on simon from lord, that he believed that even the most “irrational” proofs of Christianity – the prophesies, miracles, typological confirmations, and so forth – were not only not contrary to reason but were in fact perfectly compatible with it. (He declared the Old Testament and New Testament prophesies “the weightiest proof” of on autism Jesus’ divinity – 335/368.) That Christianity is reasonable though not provable by on simon lord flies reason effectively summarizes one of the central arguments of the entire Pensees . Pascal is how to write ad, frequently included in the ranks of “existentialist” philosophers, alongside names like Augustine, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and essays lord of the Sartre. Again it can be asked (as it was in the case of his alleged affiliation with fideism) whether he belongs in such a list . Once again, the strict, technical response would seem to be that he isn’t an existentialist–although in this case the label is arguably more appropriate and may even be justified. If a defining attribute of existentialism is proposal, endorsement of Sartre’s maxim that “existence precedes essence,” then Pascal doesn’t qualify. For in his view human beings enter the world with a largely defined and determined nature and a destiny that is partly charted, partly free. We are made in God’s image–and thus capable of rational thought and freedom of choice–butour reason is clouded, and our wills are depraved. Essays Flies. We are broken creatures and would be hopelessly lost if it were not for divine grace. If such a view of the human condition is incompatible with existentialism, then Pascal is no existentialist.
On the other hand, if Augustine and Kierkegaard (or for that matter any Christian thinker) can be considered existentialists in some broad sense, then it is hard to see why Pascal might not also qualify. Like Augustine and Kierkegaard, he emphasizes the priority of the individual and the deeply personal character of our choice to believe. Like them, he values and personally exemplifies an extreme inwardness , indeed at times displays an almost fanatical absorption in his mental and spiritual life. And even if he couldn’t fully accept the essays assertion that existence precedes essence , he could at least approve Sartre’s accompanying claim that even a tiny increment of on simon of the flies free will is phdthesis, decisive. As Sartre puts the case, “if we are not entirely determined, then we are in effect wholly free.” Pascal would agree, though he would attribute this freedom to essays of the divine grace rather than accepting it as a mere donnee or product of happenstance. The Confessions , with its focus on the self and personal identity, and especially on the self as a cumulative record, inscribed in memory, of popular writers our life-altering decisions and events, is conceivably the first existentialist text. And in their strange way Kierkegaard’s pseudonymous texts, despite being oblique and seemingly self-effacing, also represent a form of personal confession and spiritual autobiography. On Simon Lord Of The Flies. The Pensees stands as an intermediate text in this series, an experiment in autobiographical apologetics linking the direct, confessional style of in the life of essay Augustine with the multiple personae, lyrical vignettes, and pensive fragments typical of Kierkegaard.
That human life without God is wretched and that the human condition is marked by restlessness, ennui, and anxiety is an observation common to all three writers. Another common feature of their work is the recurrent image of a vast gulf or abyss. Augustine compares the human soul to a deep abyss and likens it to the Nothingness preceding the Creation (Genesis 1:2). Without the light of God, he suggests, we are but a dark emptiness. Kierkegaard argues that human freedom necessarily entails a constant sense of anxiety, and his image of our condition is essays on simon lord of the flies, that of a person standing on the edge of a dark precipice. Pascal’s dread of the essays governmentality silence of infinite space (201/233) and similar images in the Pensees of void and darkness echo these sentiments. And in the background of this imagery also stands the legend of his personal idee fixe – that is, his feeling that he was constantly shadowed by a personal abyss. (This legend relates to essays on simon from lord of the the aforementioned story of his accident on the Pont de Neuilly when his coach supposedly almost plunged into popular writers, the Seine – an unconfirmed but oft-retold event that has been perpetuated and basically permanently enshrined in Baudelaire’s poem “Le Gouffre” and in Freud’s writings on obsession.) In the Confessions Augustine describes the long ordeal that eventually leads to his conversion. But his narrative doesn’t end at that point. Instead, he must begin a new spiritual test and journey – that of actually living a Christian life.
Similarly, Kierkegaard never wrote of on simon of the flies being a Christian, but always of becoming one. He regarded an authentic Christian life as a constant trial and task. Like Augustine, Pascal places even harsher spiritual demands on himself after his conversion. And like Kierkegaard, he believes that true Christianity is an ever-striving imitatio Christi , a continual remaking of oneself in the image and popular writers spirit of Jesus. With these resemblances in mind, it’s hardly a stretch to say that entire portions of the Pensees , translated into Latin or Danish, could easily pass for an excerpt from Augustine or from Kierkegaard’s Training in Christianity or another of the author’s “edifying” texts. Similarly, if we place Pascal in a sequence of “Christian existentialist” writers, a line that arguably proceeds from Augustine to Kierkegaard and then on to, say, Unamuno and Berdyaev, we find the same emphasis on lord, personal experience and individual freedom and responsibility; the same rhetorical skill and verbal flourishes; the same flair for metaphor and proposal for dissertation self-dramatization. In short, if we accept existentialism as not so much a system or body of doctrine, but as more of a perspective or attitude towards life – an from of the flies exacting and indeed tragic sense of life (depicted graphically and with Dostoyevsky-like force in fragment 434/686) – then Pascal can be considered an existentialist philosopher.
7. Conclusion: Pascal’s Reputation and sections Cultural Legacy. “Pascal never loses his capacity to offend as well as to edify”—Harold Bloom (1). “How few,” wrote Walter Pater in what was to be his last work, a sparkling critical essay on Pascal, “how select, are the literary figures who have earned the honor of receiving regular ongoing criticism, both appreciative and deprecatory, from their successors.” Pascal has earned that honor and from of the flies is of that rare and select company, having acquired during the nearly four centuries since his birth a long line of admirers and detractors, including many of the leading names in world literature. How To Write Ad. Voltaire, Diderot, D’Alembert, Condorcet, Sainte-Beuve, Chateaubriand, Nietzsche, Tolstoy, T.S. Eliot, Borges, Bertrand Russell, Paul Valery, Harold Bloom – the list of on simon from lord flies important writers and thinkers who have studied Pascal and gone on to voice their appreciation or discontent could be extended literally for pages. In his introductory essay to governmentality the Pensees published in on simon lord of the flies 1933, Eliot referred to Pascal as “one of those writers who will be and who must be studied afresh by men in every generation. It is not he who changes, but we who change.
It is not our knowledge of him that increases, but our world that alters and our attitudes towards it.” (355) For some reason Eliot assumed that our knowledge of Pascal was basically complete eighty years ago and that modern scholarship would do little to alter or augment our understanding of his life and work. How To Write Ad. On this point he was quite mistaken. In fact, on the contrary, owing to the biographical and essays on simon from lord of the textual labors of popular writers scholars like Lafuma, Sellier, and Mesnard, students of Pascal today have a much fuller understanding of the author’s personal life, family, medical history, intellectual and religious development, and social milieu, as well as a far better sense of the likely order, design, and method of the Pens ees , than any previous generation of readers. Nevertheless, Eliot’s main point – that Pascal poses a unique challenge to essays from lord of the flies modern sensibilities – holds true. In this respect, Pascal stands as a kind of existential reference mark: a polestar in relation to which we as readers are able (and in Eliot’s opinion obliged) to locate ourselves.
He remains a fixed point against which we are challenged to popular writers measure the sincerity and durability of our own values and beliefs. Echoing what Pascal himself said about the experience of reading Montaigne, Pascal’s editor, translator, and commentator A.J. Krailsheimer has remarked that what we find when we read Pascal is on simon from of the flies, actually something that we discover about ourselves (76). In effect, what both Krailsheimer and Eliot are suggesting is that ultimately there is not one Pascal, but many – possibly as many as there are readers of his texts. For example, Voltaire’s Pascal – the scientific genius and Enlightenment wit turned sour religious fanatic – is the reverse image of the Pascal adored by the Port-Royal community – the gentle saint who abandoned frivolous worldly pursuits to take up the how to write ad Cross. Essays On Simon From. For Nietzsche, Pascal’s maxim “ il faut s’abetir ” (“one must become stupid”) is appalling, a crucifixion of the intellect; for Unamuno it is a profound paradox and the highest wisdom. Valery’s Pascal is popular writers, a sententious and badgering preacher, oblivious to the beauty of nature; the essays on simon of the Pascal of Sainte-Beuve is an “athlete, martyr, and in the hero of the invisible moral world.” What Gilberte Perier refers to as her brother’s “second conversion,” Bertrand Russell regards as an on simon from of the act of on autism “philosophical suicide.” And so on.
In short, Pascal’s writings, and especially the Pensees , have served less as a window into the author’s soul than as a kind of mirror or prism reflecting the different outlooks and opinions of lord of the flies his readers. Of course any proper summation of Pascal’s cultural legacy must include his contributions to probability theory and game theory and proposal sections his invention of the mechanical computer (in honor of on simon from lord of the flies which the thesis papers Swiss computer scientist Niklaus Wirth aptly named his new programming language Pascal ). And, one must include all the other eponymous scientific, mathematical, and on simon from lord theological concepts (Pascal’s Theorem, Pascal’s Principle, Pascal’s Triangle, Pascal’s Wager, and sections so forth) that bear his name. In addition, every modern system of intra-urban or inter-urban shuttle transportation also owes a debt to the philosopher, who first conceived such a system and essays lord flies oversaw its original implementation in essays the city of Paris. However, Pascal’s most valuable gift to modern readers is arguably his unique style. His combination of from of the flies wit, irony, and aphorism, his ease and clarity, his air of someone skilled both in urbane conversation and phdthesis erudite technical debate was to a large extent already present and on dazzling display in Montaigne. Essays From Lord Of The. The same features reappear in the writings of Voltaire and foucault governmentality the philosophes. On Simon From Lord Of The Flies. And today, thanks largely to Pascal, these attributes have become a part of French literary tradition.
However, what sets Pascal’s style apart, especially in the Pensees , is that supplemental to his characteristic elan and luster he adds a tone of existential angst: a visionary quality, together with an foucault essays governmentality element of strangeness that is utterly foreign to on simon flies the works of Montaigne and Voltaire but which appears powerfully in writers like Dante, Kafka, and popular writers Borges. Pascal’s imagination, like theirs, seems haunted by the notion of from lord infinity and by images of mystery and turmoil; by circles, mazes, precipices, and abysses: “At the phdthesis far end of an infinite distance a coin is being spun . . .” 418/680. “Nature is an infinite sphere whose center is everywhere and whose circumference is nowhere” 199/230. Relatively few writers, and certainly few philosophers, have his uncanny quality, using that term in Freud’s sense as the ability to make familiar ideas seem strange and strange ideas seem familiar. On Simon From Lord Flies. Pater rightly called him the intellectual equivalent of phdthesis lightning.
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Taj Mahal Dark Blue. White House Brick Red. Empire State Gray. Mount Rushmore Dark Blue. Are you having trouble separating yourself from your competitors? Have you been using the same resume format since you graduated college over a decade ago? Then it might be time to add some style to essays of the flies, your resume! We’ve come up with a new set of creative designs that are the popular writers, perfect blend of professionalism, personality, and just the right amount of essays flies style. These styles are great for proposal for dissertation graphic designers, artists, or anyone who wants to add a hint of character to their job search. Template Library 5: Career Life Situations. Job Hopper Original.
Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Whether it’s entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career. From Lord Of The Flies. Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on a resume. Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of a career. Remember: You can download any of these resume templates for free and add the bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius’ renowned resume builder software. It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster.
However, if you’d still like to in the life, make the resume on your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, don’t forget to check out on simon lord flies, our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to. Every person’s experience is unique, so you’ll need to choose a template that best reflects and proposal for dissertation, promotes your skills and experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the essays from, 3 resume formats. The fact is, the essays, web is filled with so many fantastic and essays on simon lord, creative template designs that there is how to write ad, undoubtedly something for you out lord, there. We are proud of the designs we’ve created, and have seen that they are effective at for dissertation landing interviews.
But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to essays on simon from of the flies, this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too. Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that it’s inappropriate to use a resume template. You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. Popular Writers. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before.
3. The hiring manager will be tired of on simon from lord of the flies looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired. It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the phdthesis, aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. From Lord Of The. We invite you to scroll back to of essay, the top and choose from one of essays from flies our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing.
Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is how to write ad, acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like.
With regards to your military experience, check out on simon from of the, our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in how to write ad, library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive.
I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Essays On Simon Flies. Good luck on popular writers, the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the lord of the flies, Company name and a day in the of essay, then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period.
Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck!
We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Essays Lord. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA.
I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to how to write ad, native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Good luck! Hello. Lord Flies. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. Phdthesis. So i want to highlight the essays from of the, other things. How To Write Ad. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information.
Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out essays on simon from lord of the, our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of phdthesis luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for essays on simon from of the flies a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the phdthesis, ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for essays from lord of the flies what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the thesis on autism, summer program. Hi!
Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and essays on simon from of the, accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the papers on autism, ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the essays lord, job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into foucault essays governmentality, the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to on simon from of the flies, earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template.
Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is thesis on autism, our project for the fourth quarter this year. Lord Of The Flies. I couldn’t find any clear examples on popular writers, the web, and I was hoping you could help me out essays lord flies, with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on in the, your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and from lord of the, click the download link for the template pack of your choice.
If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to popular writers, best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the essays on simon lord, templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on a day in the of essay, what job you’re applying for. Essays From. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and phdthesis, choose the of the flies, one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats.
Good luck on proposal for dissertation, the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on essays of the, your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to how to write ad, get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over from, the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. Phdthesis. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the essays, functional resume for popular writers sure. Good luck on the job hunt!
If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on lord, this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to how to write ad, choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and from lord of the, you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to sections, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. Essays On Simon From Flies. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to life of essay, MS Word and on simon from lord of the, PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.
See why. How to on simon from flies, Modify and in the life of essay, Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to on simon of the, make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.
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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the on simon from lord, most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, you’re really sending out papers on autism, a piece of yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for lord of the, an interview, it’s important to phdthesis give your resume the essays lord flies, same treatment — to make sure it’s polished and how to write ad presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of from lord of the flies styles, from a day in the life of essay, strictly businesslike to ultra creative — browse through them to get some ideas for essays on simon from lord of the, updating your own resume. Popular Writers! Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Click the image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate.
This chessboard-style layout is essays from lord of the certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the illusion of depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the how to write ad, colors of from lord flies his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and frames for emphasis.
You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to help them stand out. Proposal Sections! A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and from of the flies an orderly, coordinated look. Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in in the life of essay, terms of attracting attention. Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of essays on simon of the flies negative space. There seems to be a trend, at least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the piece of paper.
Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you. Here’s a little about popular writers me” header at the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of on simon from of the fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities). Foucault Essays Governmentality! Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is from of the flies something you can use over and over again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and whittles down the information to a day in the life only the basics (skills and lord past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style.
Printing your resume on textured paper can give an a day impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N. Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the on simon from of the flies, resume a custom, hand-printed feel. Phdthesis! When applying for a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. On Simon From Flies! Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an a day in the accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well.
But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the essays on simon of the flies, images should, at foucault governmentality a glance, tell something about you and essays on simon of the flies complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in governmentality, an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. It doesn’t have to on simon from lord be the center of popular writers attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by on simon from lord flies, using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out how to write ad, some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in on simon from lord flies, creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here.
If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is readable. You’ve only got one name. Make it memorable. How To Write Ad! If it’s unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume. Give the essays from lord of the, hiring manager something to zero in phdthesis, on. Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume. For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Essays Of The Flies! Need to show your qualifications on the run?
Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. Essays Governmentality! You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to networking platforms like LinkedIn. Essays On Simon From Lord! Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually. This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and foucault essays governmentality helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to from lord of the flies extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight.
Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to proposal separate her personal and contact information from her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to essays creatively represent the popular writers, breadth of his skills and experience. Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in various areas, such as management and design. The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of experience — a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the person looking at your resume an excuse to find out more about essays on simon lord of the flies you. How To Write Ad! Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. Essays From Lord Of The Flies! If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Tamas Leb has included space to do so on this resume template, and it makes an impressive statement, even at a glance.
For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to thesis papers build a one-of-a-kind design and think about essays on simon from of the flies innovative ways to how to write ad present your information. Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and on simon flies gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in thesis, a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to from lord showcase your experience and proposal sections for dissertation accomplishments, plus the extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. The vertical timeline on the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the essays from of the, candidate’s career history. This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and foucault governmentality simple, showing that resumes don’t have to essays on simon lord be fancy to make a good impression. If competition is stiff, try standing out phdthesis, with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the essays on simon from lord of the flies, limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and popular writers custom illustrations to stand out on simon, from the a day, crowd. This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch.
As if to say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the from of the flies, box. Phdthesis! This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for essays on simon from lord of the flies, a high-impact look that will make people take notice. How To Write Ad! There may be times when it’s ok to let your sense of humor shine through in on simon lord of the flies, your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. How To Write Ad! Sometimes you have to do what you can to get noticed. For an from lord illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at.
No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Just the essentials — enough to foucault get someone interested in wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the on simon of the flies, most relevant information. If you have a lot of on autism information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for each section. Need to keep your resume fairly conservative?
A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and essays on simon from lord of the her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Even if your industry doesn’t allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an life accent color. Resumes don’t always have to read from left to right, top to on simon from of the bottom.
You can play with the layout of your resume to proposal sections make the best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to navigate, similarly to how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from of the, your portfolio right on the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance). How To Write Ad! As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume. But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Essays On Simon From Lord Of The! Now it#8217;s your turn.
Put these skills into action! Bring great design to phdthesis your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. Essays From Lord! After college, she built on her background in popular writers, art to explore design. and essays on simon lord of the loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to thesis on autism combine the craftsmanship of essays lord traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design.
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chinatown film essay Film Guide to Chinatown (1974) by Mark Graves, SUNY Fredonia. United States. English. Color. 131 minutes. Available: VCR and DVD. Director: Roman Polanski. Screenplay: Robert Towne, Roman Polanski (uncredited) Cinematography: John A. Flies! Alonzo.
Editing: Sam O'Steen. Original music: Jerry Goldsmith. Production design: Richard Sylbert. Costume design: Anthea Sylbert. Producers: Robert Evans, C.O. Erickson. Jack Nicholson (Jake Gittes) Faye Dunaway (Evelyn Cross Mulwray) John Huston (Noah Cross) Perry Lopez (Lieutenant Lou Escobar) John Hillerman (Russ Yelburton)
Darrell Zwerling (Hollis Mulwray) Diane Ladd (Ida Sessions/Evelyn Mulwray Imposter) Roy Jenson (Claude Mulvihill) Roman Polanski (cameo as man with knife) Joe Mantell (Walsh)
Bruce Glover (Duffy) Belinda Palmer (Katherine Cross) Burt Young (Curly) Jake Gittes is an L.A. private eye who specializes in matrimonial strife and infidelity. He is called upon by a woman who falsely identifies herself as Evelyn Mulwray, wife of phdthesis wealthy landowner and city water commissioner Hollis Mulwray. The imposter has Gittes spy on her husband to find out if he is having an affair. Jake takes some pictures of Hollis with a young lady, but the photos are stolen and published, as a publicity attack on an already unpopular Hollis. (L.A. is in the middle of a water shortage as the result of a drought, and Hollis has become something of a scapegoat for the angry public.) Gittes soon comes to understand how he has been used, when the real Mrs. Mulwray appears in his office with her lawyer, trying to defend her husband's reputation. However, when Hollis Mulwray is essays flies, found murdered down by an L.A. river the foucault, next day, Mrs. Mulwray hires him to find the killer. Jake gradually uncovers a plot to buy unwatered land for low prices, divert the on simon from lord, city's water supply in order to water the land, and then sell the land off for millions of dollars.
The plot is masterminded by Noah Cross, Evelyn's father and Hollis' one-time business partner, who has a vast network of phdthesis corrupt city officials and landowners backing him up. While Gittes continues to from lord of the flies, unravel the details of this scandal, he falls for the recently-widowed Mrs. Mulwray, and slowly becomes aware of a second scandal involving the personal lives of her, her father, and the mysterious young lady he saw with Hollis. In the end, Jake's struggle to uncover the truth leads him into Chinatown (the site of a past failure during his years as a cop), and eventually results in Mrs. Mulwray's death at popular writers, the hands of the corrupt L.A. police. Noah Cross wins, and essays on simon from lord, Gittes walks away defeated. Summary of Critical Reviews. Cocks, Jay.
Lost Angelenos, Time , 1 July 1974: 42. In talking about Chinatown , Cocks continually refers to a predecessor in foucault governmentality, the private-eye genre: writer Raymond Chandler, and his own fictional detective Philip Marlowe. He does this by making Chandler's stories the essays from of the flies, standard by which this film is measured. He cites the movie's main strength as its setting, a 1930s Los Angeles which closely matches reality, or at phdthesis, least the most common images associated with that era, ranging from the standard joke, six suburbs in search of a city to Marlowe's description, a big dry sunny place with ugly homes and no style. In contrast, Cocks describes the characters as shallow and on simon from lord flies, unrealistic, once again naming Marlowe as the model of what Jake Gittes should be. While Cocks is thesis, correct about the way Jack Nicholson's and Faye Dunaway's acting do not meet the stereotypical roles of private eye and femme fatale, he has missed the point: they're not supposed to. Essays From Of The! Each character trait that Cocks calls a shortcoming (from Nicholson's simplicity to papers, Dunaway's feigned elegance) is not only intentional, but is also an integral part of the overall image being built in this movie. Gilliatt, Penelope. Private Nose, The New Yorker , 1 July 1974: 70.
Gilliatt's short review is almost sickeningly positive; there is not a negative phrase within it, as she applauds Chinatown for everything from flies, its wittiness to its characterization and even Gittes' wardrobe. This overbearing praise is life of essay, almost nauseating, a feeling which is augmented by lord her fascination with word games (both her own and the film's characters', particularly Noah Cross's). Also somewhat annoying is her obsession with pointing out all of foucault essays governmentality Polanski's hidden jokes and oblique farce, some of which are not quite believable in essays on simon lord of the flies, terms of their effectiveness or the probability of their actually having been intended by director Roman Polanski; she at one point suggests that Noah Cross's name is derived from the essays governmentality, way an from flies actor feigning a Chinese accent might say no cross me. The review also contains some very long, fragmented sentences and several distracting, irrelevant side comments (one of the few complete pairs of pajamas I have seen in the last twenty years) which do not make it a smooth read. How To Write Ad! All of these factors in combination do not give the on simon from, impression of its being a very credible review. Zimmerman, Paul D. Blood and Water, Newsweek , 1 July 1974: 74.
Although Zimmerman's review is life of essay, also predominantly acclaim of the movie, it is much more convincing because of the on simon lord flies, depth of his observations. He identifies Polanski's title and popular writers, setting as not only appropriate choices for the action, but also as a clever and effective metaphor for the moral climate that he believes is essays of the, Polanski's real underlying theme in foucault essays governmentality, this work: the Byzantine corruption and decadence of the 1970s. He makes further insightful and essays of the, congratulatory comments on Nicholson's and Dunaway's abilities to adapt their usual acting styles to meet their assigned characters, and how to write ad, also on Polanski's success at developing meaningful messages and from lord of the flies, parallels (like the one between a dam scandal in a fictional 1950s L.A. and the then-volatile Watergate scandal in real-life 1970s D.C.) despite the difficulty of adhering to the limitations of the gumshoe genre. Berardinelli, James. Chinatown. ReelViews . 2001.
James Berardinelli. Accessed 11 March 2002 . Berardinelli's opinion of Chinatown is that its success is born of the fact that it is the exception to how to write ad, so many rules and expectations. Not only does he cite this movie as the high-water point in the careers of both lead-actor Jack Nicholson and essays on simon from flies, director Roman Polanski, but also dubs it the finest color entry into the film noir genre. His main point is that the film takes all of the proposal sections, cliches and conventions of the stereotypical private-investigator movie and re-works them to give the story life and depth, establishing expectations early on and then breaking them as the plot unfolds. In keeping with this same line of thought, Berardinelli's one key disagreement with all three of the earlier reviews is his statement of how unrealistic Polanski's 1930s L.A. is (calling it the exaggerated stuff of of the dreams and movies). While this statement fits well into his argument (as another example of Polanski playing with the norms), one has to doubt the accuracy and/or credibility of such a statement, seeing as how Berardinelli is the most recent of the four reviewers and therefore the least likely to have actually experienced the '30s firsthand. In 1968 Polish-born film director Roman Polanski first came to Hollywood where he easily gained a reputation with the psychological thriller Rosemary's Baby.
However, after the brutal murder of his wife Sharon Tate by the infamous Charles Manson gang in 1969, Polanski decided to return to papers, Europe. Chinatown marked Polanski's 1974 return to the USA, and seemed to on simon from flies, foreshadow a promising Hollywood career in a day, store for from of the flies, him. but after his conviction for the statutory rape of a 13-year old girl, Polanski once again fled from America, this time in order to avoid imprisonment. (IMDb, Roman Polanski) Polanski has a cameo in the movie: he is the hood who slits Jake's nose. A Day Of Essay! This scene was actually extremely complex to film, and Polanski and Nicholson both got so tired of explaining how it was done that they simply began to essays from, claim Nicholson's nose was actually cut. Phdthesis! (IMDb, Trivia) Writer Robert Towne originally intended Chinatown to have a happy ending. However, during pre-production Polanski and Towne argued over it, with Polanski insisting on a tragic ending. Polanski won the argument and, when the picture was re-released in 1999, Towne admitted that he had been wrong. (IMDb, Trivia) With Chinatown , Robert Towne won the 1975 Oscar for Best Writing - Original Screenplay. Other 1975 Oscar Nominations for Chinatown were: Roman Polanski for Best Director; Jack Nicholson for on simon from lord, Best Actor in phdthesis, a Leading Role; Faye Dunaway for Best Actress in a Leading Role; Jerry Goldsmith for Best Music-Original Dramatic Score; Robert Evans for Best Picture; John A Alonzo for Best Cinematography; W. Stewart Campbell, Ruby R. Levitt, and Richard Sylbert for Best Art Direction-Set Decoration; Anthea Sylbert for Best Costume Design; Charles Grenzbach and Larry Jost for essays from flies, Best Sound; and Sam O'Steen for a day life, Best Film Editing.
The film fared better, actually, in the British Academy Awards; Robert Towne again won for Best Screenplay, joined this time by Roman Polanski for Best Direction and essays from of the flies, Jack Nicholson for Best Actor. The trio also won Golden Globes that year, with the film as a whole winning the award for Best Motion Picture - Drama. (IMDb, Awards) Chinatown was actually the essays, first part of a planned trilogy written by essays from of the flies Robert Towne about foucault essays Jake Gittes and Los Angeles. The second part, The Two Jakes , was directed by Nicholson in 1990. Neither Towne nor Nicholson won any awards for this sequel. (IMDb, Trivia) Los Angeles, the setting for essays on simon from lord flies, Chinatown , was actually one of the filming locations: Gittes spies on Mulwray while he is boating at Echo Park Lake. The other filming locations were all still in California: Avalon, Catalina Island; Big Tujunga Wash at Foothill Boulevard, Sunland; Canyon Drive, Hollywood; South Oakland Avenue, Pasadena; and phdthesis, Point Fermin, San Pedro (this last location is where Gittes' nose is sliced). (IMDb, Filming Locations) Jake Gittes was named after Nicholson's friend, a producer named Harry Gittes. (IMDb, Trivia) Some odd items are included in the contents of Ida Sessions' pocketbook when Jake Gittes rummages through it, specifically a $2 bill and a Screen Actors Guild membership card. (IMDb, Trivia)
The central conspiracy in Chinatown is on simon of the flies, actually based on a real historical event: the 1908 Owne River Valley Scandal. Thesis Papers! The name of the film's Water and Power Engineer, Hollis Mulwray, is a play on the name of the real-life head of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power during that scandal, William Mulholland (1855-1935). Essays On Simon Lord Of The! Mulholland brought the Owne River to the San Fernando Valley after cheating its residents out of their land. Robert Towne got much of his information regarding this scandal from Carey McWilliams' interpretive history entitled Southern California Country, an Island on the Land. How To Write Ad! (Ebert) Jerry Goldsmith scored the film for an odd combination of essays on simon lord of the instruments: two harps, one trumpet, a string section, and four pianos. The reason for using four pianos is in the life of essay, that Goldsmith had the essays on simon from lord, players use them in four different ways throughout the film: one was a standard performance piano, one was intentionally detuned, one was played by how to write ad the strings inside the piano (instead of by the keys), and one was prepared (a technique where the sounds produced are altered by placing various objects on the strings while playing). On Simon! (Davis, 58) The very name of the Roman Polanski's Chinatown is misleading. Without looking at a cast list or reading a review, you might even expect this to be another contribution to the massive martial arts genre, permeated with Oriental culture (or cliches thereof) and consisting of a string of endless fight scenes with some sort of loose plot leading from one to foucault essays governmentality, the next.
Even upon essays from lord flies digging as deep as the videocassette sleeve and discovering that Jack Nicholson plays an L.A. private investigator opposite popular writers femme fatale Faye Dunaway, you could still be quick to write this off as another murder-mystery flick. Essays From! At the very least, you would assume the story actually takes place in the Chinatown district of L.A. These, however, are just the first round of falsehoods and popular writers, fallacies you would encounter in the course of viewing this deceptive 1974 film. Chinatown , generally considered to be a revival of the film noir genre that dominated America cinema from the mid 1940s to the mid 1950s (Cook, 449-453), bears much resemblance to the classic private eye films that precede it. Jake Gittes (Nicholson) appears to be of the same brand of hard-boiled independent vigilante we are used to seeing in essays on simon lord flies, Sam Spade, Phillip Marlowe, and even Lieutenant Columbo. Gittes is an ex-cop who felt the need to operate outside the confines of the insincere and foucault essays, ineffective police department, and from lord, now earns his living gathering evidence for paying clients.
For a while, his role in the film is also consistent with that of the archetypal sleuth; he serves to gradually reveal small pieces of a larger puzzle that eventually all fall into place, at in the, which point the mystery is solved and the finger is pointed at the bad guy. Essays Lord Of The! The film even contains all the other typical players in your standard whodunnit mystery plot: the papers, seductive femme fatale Evelyn Mulwray (Dunaway), the always-suspicious antagonist Noah Cross (John Huston), the uncooperative lawman Lieutenant Lou Escobar (Perry Lopez), the inevitable murder victim Hollis Mulwray (Darrell Zwerling), and on simon from flies, the tough henchman Claude Mulvihill (Roy Jenson; also a nameless knife-wielding thug played by Polanski himself). The classic recipe has, in its simplest form, been fulfilled. (Man, 139-142) The success of Chinatown , however, lies in the ways in which it transcends the stock murder-mystery story. Even from the start, Gittes does not match the image of proposal past private-eyes.
Instead of the sparsely-furnished hole-in-the-wall office you would expect, Gittes works in an environment of style: an office building with brand-new venetian blinds in every room, three-piece designer suits and well-groomed facial features, a full liquor cabinet, and a small paid staff (two operatives and from, a secretary) at his command; certainly not the humble character usually associated with the gumshoe image. The irony of this clean-cut first impression, though, is obvious to the point of being humorous, as our first indication of governmentality Gittes's dirty line of work comes from racy pictures being flipped through by his distraught client Curly; Gittes is a muckraker, earning his living by essays from lord taking pictures of popular writers people engaged in extramarital affairs to essays on simon from, support his clients' divorce cases. A Day In The Life! By engaging in essays on simon, such low-brow activities in order to phdthesis, elevate his personal appearance to high-class, Gittes has shattered the wall of morality that usually separates the private-eye from the world he must investigate; he has bought right into commercial culture and become consumed by the same amoral greed that grips everyone else (Man, 140, 144). This image foreshadows Gittes' inability to essays of the, fulfill the role of the a day, ingenious private investigator when a real issue arises, because he is not distanced enough from the outside world to appropriately observe or change it. One could surmise, even, that Gittes is on some level aware of from this shortcoming, since he shows great reluctance to even tackle the simplest stage of investigation with regards to the high-profile water commissioner Hollis Mulwray; when a woman posing as Mulwray's wife hires Gittes to investigate him for evidence of adultery, Gittes instinctively tries to sidestep it by advising the woman to proposal, let the matter go if she truly loves her husband. Essays On Simon Of The Flies! Gittes, already as blind as he is to the whole situation, can perhaps already sense that he's getting in over his head. Chinatown 's reliance on murder-mystery cliches that get broken down is so effective, in fact, that Gittes himself can not escape the pre-established illusion. Gittes's primary downfall is that he is actually trying to live within the cliches, because the cliches are all he understands. The truth is continually clouded for him because he is always trying to fit new clues and information into predetermined categories that lead to given stock scenarios: Mulwray's involvement with the young girl must be adultery (he's really her stepfather), Mulwray's murder must have been committed by phdthesis Evelyn out of jealousy (despite all the evidence regarding his death as a way to keep the water scandal from getting out), the hidden Katherine must be a kidnapped murder witness (she's really being hidden from Cross by on simon from of the her protective mother/sister), the union between Evelyn and her father Noah Cross must have been rape (really just another of essays governmentality Cross's manipulative deeds, leading his daughter into sensual pleasures in an otherwise bleak existence), and Cross's water scandal must be about material greed (instead of the essays on simon from, power trip Cross has proven his lust for on countless occasions). Gittes falls into this trap more often than even the film's audience does (Man, 144-145).
He can't even view himself correctly; he is surprised when Evelyn calls him innocent (Slade, 91). Gittes tries so hard to fit the mold of the ideal detective, that he instead makes himself out to be a bumbling clown, an popular writers image made complete by the nose bandage he wears for most of the film; his lifestyle has made him far too innocent, so that he misperceives things continually (Lev, 56). Gittes' physical appearance, at the beginning and throughout the essays of the flies, course of the thesis papers, film, runs parallel to that of Chinatown 's 1930's L.A. Both are visually appealing on the surface. Southern California's weather is bright and sunny, the people are all as well-groomed as Gittes, and the general look of things in the early scenes of the film is clean and essays from lord flies, colorful. But, as with Gittes, all of L.A.'s dirt is beneath the surface, corrupting the city from within. This hidden ugliness seeping out into the city from its core is for dissertation, represented by a gradual shift of the visual representations of essays on simon from flies both the scenery and of Gittes himself. The lighting gets progressively darker as time passes, and the previously unspoiled appearance becomes soured.
When Gittes's nose gets sliced by the Roman Polanski character, ruining his pristine and unlined face, it is almost simultaneous with the ruining of the face of how to write ad L.A. (Lev, xxi, 55); the lord of the flies, same connection can be made of the flaw in Evelyn Mulwray's eye, which Jake discovers while alone with her in her stylish mansion. The discovery of each other's physical flaws - his sliced nose and phdthesis, her flawed eye - is essays on simon lord flies, a key moment in essays governmentality, the film, for (at least) two reasons. First off, this unfolding of their imperfections leads them to bed, much the from of the flies, same way that the movie as a whole suggests settling into sensual pleasures and sections for dissertation, personal luxury in on simon from lord, light of the hopelessness of morals and prosocial action against the mass corruption in capitalist society. Chinatown is markedly ant-icapitalist, showing without a doubt that money has far more power than government. Even Marxism is more hopeful in its message, suggesting an alternative solution, but this movie indicates there is no solution; an individual is far better off serving his own interests and minding his own business than trying to beat the system (Lev, xxi, 58-59) The scene where Gittes discovers the thesis, flaw in Evelyn's eye is also key because of the attention it brings to vision as a central theme in the movie.
It is a particularly ironic discovery because Gittes is the one with the consistently flawed vision. Another literal occurrence of this theme is the key piece of evidence Jake finds that eventually leads him to Noah Cross as Hollis Mulwray's killer: a pair of glasses in on simon flies, the pool behind Evelyn's house. Proposal Sections For Dissertation! But there are far more non-literal examples of this theme: the superficial cleanliness of L.A. and essays on simon of the flies, of Chinatown 's characters, the snooping and spying that Gittes does to earn his living, and Gittes' continual blindness to proposal sections for dissertation, the truth. Another sight reference is Cross's gigantic vision of incorporating the San Fernando Valley into Los Angeles, which Gittes never fully perceives. Gittes' shortsightedness comes into essays on simon lord play one last time in the closing sequence of the film: his faith in the law force that he has quit is still so strong (despite all his external convictions about its powerlessness and his continual defiance of its mandates) that he trusts that they can fix everything at the end once they hear the how to write ad, truth from his mouth (Slade, 91). Despite everything he has witnessed, Gittes is still surprised by Evelyn's desperate cry, He OWNS the police! And, just as they did in his days as a Chinatown cop, the police force lets him down by killing and convicting the wrong person - Evelyn Mulwray - so that Cross goes unharmed (Man, 145). On Simon From Of The Flies! This recurring vision motif plays itself out once again in the final scene of the film, with Evelyn bleeding from her eye after she is shot to death, and Cross covering the young Katherine's eyes to shield her from thesis papers, Evelyn's death (and lead her away into his world, where she is probably doomed to repeat the life of her mother/sister before her). The water scandal in Chinatown , made in essays from lord of the flies, 1974, can be seen to stand for in the, such then-current issues as they OPEC oil cartel, the Agnew bribery, and, most obviously, the Watergate scandal. The association of the threat from water motif with the fragility of human existence is a common archetype in essays on simon from of the flies, movies. In The Life Of Essay! The motif usually involves physical danger or death, whether in essays on simon from of the, the form of murder by drowning ( The Parallax View ), shipwreck disaster ( The Poseidon Adventure , Titanic ), or creatures from the sea ( Jaws , 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea ). Here, it is a deeper form of fragility; the whole city is falling prey to a behind-the-scenes political/business scandal.
Even the how to write ad, man perpetrating the scandal, Noah Cross, has a sort of moral fragility that allows the greed and power from the scandal to consume him. Cross thinks he is doing good in essays on simon lord of the flies, all his evils; in his mind, he is helping L.A. by how to write ad expanding it into essays on simon from lord flies the valley and bringing it to the water, and he is protecting and raising Katherine like a good father should. What even he doesn't see, in popular writers, all his power and influence, is that his treatment of Evelyn and Katherine is an extension of his exploitation of the essays from lord, business world - the popular writers, water scandal - to a more personal/intimate/sexual level (Lev, xxi, 54, 56-58). In the end, we finally see why Chinatown is named as it is, despite the fact that only the on simon lord flies, last five minutes or so takes place in that location. The Chinatown district's lawlessness and thesis on autism, political immunity has extended to encompass all of essays lord of the L.A. (Slade, 91), and its inscrutability due to prevailing ignorance (of its dominant foreign [Oriental] culture, as demonstrated by thesis papers on autism Gittes's' tasteless Chinaman joke from the barber shop) has extended to encompass human existence as a whole. Rendered virtually helpless to change all this, Gittes causes Evelyn's death by meddling in things he can't understand or control (Lev, xxi, 57). On Simon Lord! Gittes' failure to save Evelyn and Katherine is phdthesis, a reenactment of an earlier failure during his career as a cop in Chinatown - driving home the futility of an individual trying to beat the prevailing evil in the world around us (Man, 142-143).
Hence the big picture is this: Chinatown intentionally alludes to the classic gumshoe genre - basically saying wouldn't it be nice if all man's evils were actually that simple? - and then capsizes those established expectations as a way of on simon from lord of the portraying the loss of faith in American society (Man, 139). How should we, the audience, respond to for dissertation, this? Perhaps it should be the same way Gittes's operative Walsh does with the movie's closing statement: Forget it. Essays Flies! it's Chinatown. Cook, David A. A History of Narrative Film , 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1996. Davis, Richard. Complete Guide to proposal sections, Film Scoring . Ed.
Jonathan Feist. Boston: Berklee Press, 1999. Ebert, Roger. Chinatown . The Chicago Sun-Times . 6 February 2000. Accessed 11 March 2002 . The Internet Movie Database. Accessed 8 April 2002: Awards: Chinatown (1974) Filming Locations for from lord, Chinatown (1974) Roman Polanski Trivia for sections for dissertation, Chinatown (1974) Lev, Peter. American Films of the70s: Conflicting Visions . From Flies! Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000. Man, Glenn. Phdthesis! Radical Visions: American Film Renaissance , 1967-1976.
Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994. Slade, Tony. Chinatown . The International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers . Ed. Christopher Lyon and Susan Doll. Volume I: Films. Chicago: St. James Press, 1984.