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AP ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPOSITION 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES
Focus and Precision: How to Write Essays that Answer the 2009 ap lang synthesis Question. Stephanie Allen read Classics and English at aqa coursework gcse St Hugh’s College, Oxford, and is currently researching a PhD in Early Modern Academic Drama at the University of Fribourg. We’ve all been there. Essay. You’ve handed in penalty an essay and you think it’s pretty great: it shows off all your best ideas, and contains points you’re sure no one else will have thought of. You’re not totally convinced that what you’ve written is relevant to 2009 synthesis, the title you were given but it’s inventive, original and good. In fact, it might be better than anything that would have responded to the question. But your essay isn’t met with the lavish praise you expected. When it’s tossed back onto your desk, there are huge chunks scored through with red pen, crawling with annotations like little red fire ants: ‘IRRELEVANT’; ‘A bit of a tangent!’; ‘. Penalty Research Paper. ’; and, right next to your best, most impressive killer point: ‘Right… so?’.
The grade your teacher has scrawled at 2009 synthesis the end is nowhere near what your essay deserves. Death Penalty Research. In fact, it’s pretty average. Synthesis Essay. And the comment at the bottom reads something like, ‘Some good ideas, but you didn’t answer the question!’. If asked a question about Keats, you should write about Keats. If this has ever happened to you (and it has happened to me, a lot), you’ll know how deeply frustrating it is – and diversity how unfair it can seem. This might just be me, but the exhausting process of researching, having ideas, planning, writing and re-reading makes me steadily more attached to the ideas I have, and the things I’ve managed to put on the page. Each time I scroll back through what I’ve written, or planned, so far, I become steadily more convinced of 2009 ap lang essay, its brilliance. What started off as a scribbled note in the margin, something extra to think about hbs essay 2012, or to pop in if it could be made to fit the argument, sometimes comes to be backbone of a whole essay – so, when a tutor tells me my inspired paragraph about Ted Hughes’s interpretation of mythology isn’t relevant to 2009 synthesis, my essay on Keats, I fail to english, see why. Or even if I can see why, the synthesis thought of gcse, taking it out is wrenching.
Who cares if it’s a bit off-topic? It should make my essay stand out, if anything! And an examiner would probably be happy not to 2009, read yet another answer that makes exactly the same points. If you recognise yourself in how to write ad the above, there are two crucial things to realise. The first is that something has to ap lang, change: because doing well in high school exam or coursework essays is almost totally dependent on geography being able to pin down and 2009 ap lang synthesis essay organise lots of ideas so that an examiner can see that they convincingly answer a question. And it’s a real shame to work hard on something, have good ideas, and not get the marks you deserve. Writing a top essay is a very particular and actually quite simple challenge. It’s not actually that important how original you are, how compelling your writing is, how many ideas you get down, or how beautifully you can express yourself (though of course, all these things do have their rightful place). What you’re doing, essentially, is using a limited amount of time and knowledge to really answer a question. It sounds obvious, but a good essay should have the title or question as its focus the whole way through . It should answer it ten times over – in every single paragraph, with every fact or figure. Treat your reader (whether it’s your class teacher or an external examiner) like a child who can’t do any interpretive work of their own; imagine yourself leading them through your essay by the hand, pointing out that you’ve answered the question here , and london writing course here , and here.
Now, this is all very well, I imagine you objecting, and much easier said than done. But never fear! Structuring an essay that knocks a question on the head is something you can learn to do in a couple of ap lang synthesis essay, easy steps. Distinction. In the ap lang synthesis next few hundred words, I’m going to share with you what I’ve learned through endless, mindless crossings-out, rewordings, rewritings and hbs essay 2012 rethinkings. I’ve lost count of the essay number of times I’ve been told to ‘write the question at the top of every new page’- but for some reason, that trick simply doesn’t work for geography aqa coursework me.
If it doesn’t work for you either, use this three-part process to allow the ap lang synthesis question to structure your essay: 1) Work out exactly what you’re being asked. Distinction Between Diversity And Dependency. It sounds really obvious, but lots of students have trouble answering questions because they don’t take time to figure out exactly what they’re expected to do – instead, they skim-read and then write the essay they want to write. Sussing out synthesis, a question is a two-part process, and the first part is easy. It means looking at the directions the question provides as to what sort of essay you’re going to write. I call these ‘command phrases’ and will go into more detail about what they mean below.
The second part involves identifying key words and phrases. Use forceful, persuasive language to show how the points you’ve made do answer the question. My main focus so far has been on death paper tangential or irrelevant material – but many students lose marks even though they make great points, because they don’t quite impress how relevant those points are. Again, I’ll talk about how you can do this below. 3) Be brutally honest with yourself about whether a point is relevant before you write it. It doesn’t matter how impressive, original or interesting it is. It doesn’t matter if you’re panicking, and you can’t think of any points that do answer the question.
If a point isn’t relevant, don’t bother with it. It’s a waste of time, and might actually work against you- if you put tangential material in an essay, your reader will struggle to follow the thread of 2009 essay, your argument, and aqa coursework lose focus on your really good points. #8216;Macbeth and Banquo meeting the ap lang witches on london writing course the heath#8217; by Theodore Chasseriau. Let’s imagine you’re writing an English essay about the 2009 ap lang synthesis essay role and importance of the three witches in Macbeth . You’re thinking about the different ways in writing which Shakespeare imagines and presents the witches, how they influence the synthesis essay action of the tragedy, and perhaps the extent to which we’re supposed to believe in them (stay with me – you don’t have to know a single thing about Shakespeare or Macbeth to understand this bit!). Now, you’ll probably have a few good ideas on this topic – and whatever essay you write, you’ll most likely use much of the same material. However, the gcse detail of the phrasing of the question will significantly affect the way you write your essay.
You would draw on similar material to address the following questions: Discuss Shakespeare’s representation of the three witches in 2009 synthesis essay Macbeth . How does Shakespeare figure the supernatural in Macbeth ? To what extent are the three witches responsible for Macbeth’s tragic downfall? Evaluate the essay importance of the ap lang essay three witches in bringing about Macbeth’s ruin. Are we supposed to london creative writing course, believe in the three witches in Macbeth ? “Within Macbeth ’s representation of the 2009 ap lang synthesis witches, there is profound ambiguity about the actual significance and power of their malevolent intervention” (Stephen Greenblatt). Discuss. I’ve organised the examples into three groups, exemplifying the english essay different types of questions you might have to 2009, answer in an exam.
The first group are pretty open-ended: ‘discuss’- and ‘how’-questions leave you room to set the scope of the essay. Hbs Essay Questions 2012. You can decide what the focus should be. Beware, though – this doesn’t mean you don’t need a sturdy structure, or a clear argument, both of which should always be present in an essay. The second group are asking you to evaluate, constructing an argument that decides whether, and how far something is true. Good examples of hypotheses (which your essay would set out to prove) for these questions are: The witches are the 2009 ap lang synthesis essay most important cause of tragic action in Macbeth.
The witches are partially, but not entirely responsible for english essay Macbeth’s downfall, alongside Macbeth’s unbridled ambition, and 2009 ap lang synthesis that of his wife. We are not supposed to believe the how to write ad witches: they are a product of Macbeth’s psyche, and his downfall is his own doing. The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is deliberately unclear. 2009 Ap Lang Synthesis Essay. Their claim to reality is shaky – finally, their ambiguity is part of an uncertain tragic universe and the great illusion of the theatre. (N.B. It’s fine to conclude that a question can’t be answered in black and white, certain terms – as long as you have a firm structure, and keep referring back to how to write ad, it throughout the essay).
The final question asks you to respond to a quotation. Students tend to find these sorts of questions the most difficult to answer, but once you’ve got the hang of them I think the title does most of the ap lang essay work for you – often implicitly providing you with a structure for your essay. English. The first step is breaking down the quotation into its constituent parts- the different things it says. I use brackets: ( Within Macbeth ’s representation of the witches, ) ( there is profound ambiguity ) about the ( actual significance ) ( and power ) of ( their malevolent intervention ) Examiners have a nasty habit of 2009 ap lang essay, picking the most bewildering and terrifying-sounding quotations: but once you break them down, they’re often asking for something very simple. This quotation, for example, is death penalty research, asking exactly the same thing as the other questions. The trick here is making sure you respond to all the 2009 ap lang essay different parts. You want to make sure you discuss the following: Do you agree that the status of the witches’ ‘malevolent intervention’ is ambiguous? What is its significance?
How powerful is it? James I, the King of aqa coursework gcse, England and Scotland at the time Macbeth was written, famously wrote ‘Daemonologie’, which encourages the synthesis essay practice of witch-hunting. Having worked out exactly what the question is asking, write out a plan (which should be very detailed in a coursework essay, but doesn’t have to be more than a few lines long in an exam context) of the material you’ll use in each paragraph. Make sure your plan contains a sentence at the end of each point about how that point will answer the question. A point from how to write ad my plan for synthesis one of the distinction and dependency topics above might look something like this: To what extent are we supposed to 2009 synthesis, believe in the three witches in Macbeth ? Hypothesis: The witches’ role in Macbeth’s downfall is deliberately unclear. Their claim to reality is uncertain finally, they’re part of an uncertain tragic universe and p.e.e.l the great illusion of the theatre. At the time Shakespeare wrote Macbeth , there were many examples of people being burned or drowned as witches There were also people who claimed to be able to exorcise evil demons from people who were ‘possessed’.
Catholic Christianity leaves much room for the supernatural to 2009 ap lang essay, exist This suggests that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might, more readily than a modern one, have believed that witches were a real phenomenon and did exist. My final sentence (highlighted in london creative writing course red) shows how the material discussed in the paragraph answers the question. Writing this out at 2009 synthesis essay the planning stage, in addition to clarifying your ideas, is geography gcse, a great test of whether a point is relevant: if you struggle to write the sentence, and make the 2009 ap lang synthesis connection to the question and larger argument, you might have gone off-topic. Step Three: Paragraph beginnings and endings. This 16th century English illustration shows a witch feeding her familiars. The final step to making sure you pick up all the death penalty research paper possible marks for ap lang ‘answering the question’ in an essay is ensuring that you make it explicit how your material does so. This bit relies upon thesis, getting the 2009 synthesis essay beginnings and endings of paragraphs just right. To reiterate what I said above, treat your reader like a child: tell them what you’re going to say; tell them how it answers the question; say it, and geography then tell them how you’ve answered the question. This need not feel clumsy, awkward or repetitive. 2009 Ap Lang Essay. The first sentence of each new paragraph or point should, without giving too much of your conclusion away, establish what you’re going to discuss, and how it answers the question.
The opening sentence from the paragraph I planned above might go something like this: Early modern political and religious contexts suggest that Shakespeare’s contemporary audience might more readily have believed in witches than his modern readers. The sentence establishes that I’m going to between diversity, discuss Jacobean religion and 2009 witch-burnings, and also what I’m going to use those contexts to death, show. I’d then slot in all my facts and examples in the middle of the 2009 paragraph. The final sentence (or few sentences) should be strong and decisive, making a clear connection to the question you’ve been asked: Contemporary suspicion that witches did exist, testified to by witch-hunts and exorcisms, is crucial to aqa coursework, our understanding of the witches in Macbeth. To the early modern consciousness, witches were a distinctly real and dangerous possibility – and the witches in the play would have seemed all-the-more potent and terrifying as a result. The best way to ap lang synthesis, get really good at making sure you always ‘answer the question’ is to write essay plans rather than whole pieces. Set aside a few hours, choose a couple of essay questions from past papers, and for each: Write a hypothesis Write a rough plan of hbs essay, what each paragraph will contain Write out the ap lang first and last sentence of how to write ad, each paragraph. You can get your teacher, or a friend, to look through your plans and give you feedback.
If you follow this advice, fingers crossed, next time you hand in 2009 synthesis an essay, it#8217;ll be free from red-inked comments about irrelevance, and instead showered with praise for the precision with which you handled the geography aqa coursework gcse topic, and how intently you focused on answering the synthesis essay question. It can seem depressing when your perfect question is distinction diversity and dependency thesis, just a minor tangent from the question you were actually asked, but trust me high praise and good marks are all found in answering the question in front of you, not the one you would have liked to see. Teachers do choose the ap lang questions they set you with some care, after all; chances are the question you were set is the more illuminating and how to write ad rewarding one as well. 40 Responses to 2009 ap lang, #8220;Focus and Precision: How to how to write ad, Write Essays that Answer the Question#8221; August 21, 2014 at 8:22 am, Kristen Webster said: I have been reading your articles on better essay writing and I am wondering whether you can provide an example of synthesis, a well written essay please? August 21, 2014 at 11:59 am, ORA Admin said: We haven#8217;t produced any sample essays ourselves. However, there is a huge amount available online the Student Room#8217;s sample essays might be a good place to start.
We hope this helps. January 20, 2015 at 1:54 am, kot said: Thank you this was very helpful! March 18, 2015 at london beginner writing 7:56 am, Kos cahe said: How do you answer a #8220;to what extend#8221; essay question? March 18, 2015 at 12:34 pm, ORA Admin said: A #8216;to what extent#8217; essay question is effectively a #8216;yes or no#8217; essay question that#8217;s phrased in a more helpful way. For example: To what extent did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII#8217;s decision to synthesis essay, break from the death penalty outline research paper Catholic Church? Did his desire for a son influence Henry VIII#8217;s decision to 2009 synthesis, break from the p.e.e.l essay Catholic Church? You can see that both questions will get a very similar answer, only #8220;to what extent#8221; gives you a hint of what sort of answer is expected that it played some role, but that there are other causes that need to synthesis essay, be considered.
In a #8216;to what extent#8217; essay, you should consider a variety of creative writing course, reasons, but in each paragraph return to the reason given in the question. In my Henry VIII example, you might write one paragraph on his desire to divorce Catherine of 2009 ap lang, Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, but connect this back to his desire for how to write ad a son, as he believed Anne Boleyn stood a better chance of giving him a son than Catherine of Aragon. In the 2009 ap lang synthesis conclusion, you could then assess whether the reason given in the question is in geography gcse fact the most important, or if there was a more significant reason that you have identified in the essay. We hope this helps, November 22, 2015 at 6:14 pm, Sarah said: How do I write an essay with keywords or key points already given in the question? For eg. If the question says to write an essay on some topic and below are some key points or key words.
November 23, 2015 at 10:25 am, ORA Admin said: Thank you for your comment. It is difficult to advise you on the specific essay in question, but we do have a large collection of essay-writing and study skills articles on the ORA website that may be of 2009 ap lang synthesis, use to questions, you. Hopefully you can find something that can help you in the following articles: March 29, 2016 at 9:47 am, Fay said: How do you answer a #8220;why#8221; essay question? May 29, 2016 at 2009 synthesis essay 8:16 pm, Aaliyah said: Hi, how do you answer a #8220;what does so and so contribute to geography aqa coursework gcse, physics?#8221; Is this simply a descriptive essay? June 27, 2016 at 3:04 am, Dutta the One said: Thank you for ap lang synthesis essay this amazing article. I feel so much more confident now! Just coincidentally, I happen to have an how to write ad essay on Macbeth this Friday! Wish me luck! June 27, 2016 at 6:38 am, ritchie said: Great article, thanks!
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Graffiti Art: An Essay Concerning The Recognition of Some Forms of Graffiti As Art. Phil 651 Aesthetics. Graffiti art is an 2009 synthesis essay art form. The reasons, including aesthetic criteria, as to london beginner course why it is an art form far outweigh the 2009 synthesis essay, criticism of illegality, incoherence, and nonstandard presentation. Writing. The objective of this paper is to explain how graffiti art overcomes these concerns and thereby can be considered as an art form. Suppose that Leonardo, Monet, Picasso, or any of the 2009 ap lang synthesis essay, recognized artisans of Western European culture were alive in the present day. Then, suppose that one of these famous artists decided to paint a masterpiece on the side of questions 2012 your house or on your front door or on a wall in your neighborhood. Would Picasso or Monet's markings be graffiti or art or vandalism or graffiti art? The answer may vary across people, but I would claim that those markings are art in 2009, the form of graffiti. Their markings would qualify as vandalism only if they appeared on private or public property without permission. How To Write Ad. The same answer holds for the present day, genre of graffiti known as graffiti art.
Graffiti art originated in the late 1960's, and it has been developing ever since. 2009 Synthesis. However, it is not readily accepted as being art like those works that are found in a gallery or a museum. It is not strictly denied the status of genuine art because of a lack of form or other base aesthetic elements. Most of the opposition to graffiti art is due to its location and bold, unexpected, and unconventional presentation, but its presentation and often illegal location does not necessarily disqualify it as art. In this paper, I elucidate how some forms of london beginner writing course graffiti can be accepted as art. This type of graffiti is known as graffiti art, subway art, or spraycan art. The arguments of vandalism and unconventional presentation as negating the 2009 ap lang, ability of some graffiti to be art is usurped by an explanation of those properties apparent in some forms of graffiti that do qualify it, aesthetically, as art.
To show this, I provide a historical context of graffiti, and then I provide persuasive evidence that graffiti art is between, art. The origins of graffiti go back to ap lang the beginnings of human, societal living. Graffiti has been found on uncovered, ancient, Egyptian monuments, and graffiti even was preserved on walls in Pompeii. Graffiti is the plural form of the Italian word grafficar. In plural, grafficar signifies drawings, markings, patterns, scribbles, or messages that are painted, written, or carved on a wall or surface. Grafficar also signifies to scratch in reference to different wall writings ranging from cave paintings, bathroom scribbles, or any message that is scratched on distinction thesis walls. In reference to present day graffiti, the 2009 ap lang essay, definition is qualified by adding that graffiti is also any unsolicited marking on a private or public property that is usually considered to be vandalism. There are various forms of graffiti.
One of the simplest forms is that of individual markings such as slogans, slurs, or political statements. Distinction Between Thesis. Examples of this type of graffiti commonly are found in bathrooms or on exterior surfaces, and this graffiti is usually handwritten. Another simple form is that of the tag which is a fancy, scribble-like writing of ap lang synthesis essay one's name or nick-name. Geography. That is, tag signifies one's name or nick-name. Both the tag or individual mark have little or no aesthetic appeal. 2009. While they might suggest a flair or style of writing, these forms fail to qualify as example of superb graffiti art because of a lack of aesthetic qualities and inability to produce a maximal aesthetic feeling in the viewer. In fact, the tag or individual mark is not produced for artistic purposes. It is basically a means to indicate the writer's presence, i.e., the age old statement of I was here.
Gang markings of essay territory also fit the definition of graffiti, and 2009 ap lang essay they mainly consists of tags and messages that provide news of happenings in hbs essay 2012, the neighborhood. Ap Lang Essay. Murals for community enhancement and p.e.e.l english beautification are also a form of graffiti even though they are not usually thought of this way because most murals are commissioned. These are more colorful and synthesis essay complex. They take considerable amount of skill to complete, and murals can be done in a graffiti art style or a traditional pictorial scene. The last form of geography aqa coursework gcse graffiti is graffiti art which is the creative use of spraypaint to produce an artwork that is graffiti or done in a graffiti-like style, and 2009 ap lang synthesis this the is the concern of this discussion. Modern graffiti art originated in New York City, and geography aqa coursework it was known first as New York Style graffiti. This art form began in the late 1960's when teens used permanent markers to tag or write their names, followed by the number of the street on which they lived, in subway cars. This trend originated with the appearance of 2009 synthesis essay Taki 183 which was the tag of a Greek American boy named Demitrius.
Tagging soon became a way to get one's name known throughout the death penalty outline paper, city. However, it should be noted that tagging appeared in Philadelphia before New York. The monikers, Cornbread and ap lang synthesis Top Cat were well known in Philadelphia, and london beginner creative writing course when Top Cat's style appeared in New York, it was dubbed as Broadway Style for its long skinny lettering. The advent of the spraypaint allowed for the tag to develop in size and color. For it was not enough just to have one's name scrawled over any available and visible surface because everyone was doing this. The spraycan separated the taggers from the ap lang essay, artists in that color, form, and style could be emphasized creatively with this new tool to produce s tag as a part of an overall artistic production. The tag which is how to write ad, monochromatic and a writing style that just about anyone can do, gave way to the throw-up, which is synthesis essay, a two color tag usually in outline or bubble-like lettering. Again this style is not too difficult, but soon more complicated styles evolved.
The stamp is a little harder and involves the use straight letters to produce a 3-D effect. The piece, which is short for death research paper masterpiece, appeared next, and it is a large multicolor work. A production is a piece that is ap lang, usually on the scale of a mural, and it involves original or familiar cartoon characters in essay, addition to the writer or graffiti artist's name. It should be noted that every graffiti form listed involves the artist's name, whether as the central feature or as an ornament within the piece because writers want to 2009 synthesis essay be known. Gcse. Hence, finding new and creative ways to display one's tag in a highly visible place, as opposed to 2009 synthesis just scribbling it everywhere, was the fundamental force spurring the development of modern graffiti art. In the middle to late 1970's, writers started painting subway trains; thus the name, subway art. Train painting was instrumental to the development of graffiti art because the trains became the stage for the style wars which was a time when everyone who wanted to be recognized as the best artist or the King or Queen of gcse a subway line got- up, i.e., painted trains as often as possible.
If one's name was on a train in ap lang synthesis essay, a colorful and unique style, it was guaranteed to hbs essay questions 2012 be seen by many people; most importantly by the other writers, because the subway trains in New York City travel in circuits throughout different boroughs. To be a King or Queen one could not just get-up or simply paint his or her name in a thousand different places. On the synthesis essay, contrary, style and artistic talent were and continue to be extremely important. The goal was and is to create burners which are pieces that stand out because of creativity, color, vibrancy, crisp outlines, i.e. no drips, and overall artistic appeal. It is the recognizable artistic talent of the graffiti artist that established his or her reign on the subway line and not just the appearance of s name in geography, a thousand different places. The styles that emerged with the previously mentioned forms during this time were round popcorn or bubble letters, wildstyle which is an intricate, interlocking type of calligraphy that is difficult and almost impossible to 2009 synthesis essay read, computer and gothic lettering, 3-D lettering, fading which blends colors, and the use of london beginner creative writing cartoon characters.
The ability to 2009 synthesis essay produce complicated pieces is what separates the tagger from the graffiti artist; graffitist for short. Taggers scribble and graffitists do art. The high visibility of the train and the potential audience encouraged more artists to participate in this new form of art. Despite New York City's vigorous anti-graffiti efforts the style flourished and soon influenced artists in cities all over the world. The biggest promotional vehicle for graffiti art worldwide has been the Hip-Hop phenomenon which is the culture associated with rap music. Subway art now is termed as spraycan art because subway trains are no longer the canvas of choice. Besides, every graffitist could not possibly do all of his or her work on subway cars because of laws, police, and the dangerous environment of the subway yards and lay-up stations. Aqa Coursework. Ironically, the latest innovation in spraycan art has been that of 2009 ap lang essay freight art in beginner creative writing, which graffitists paint railroad, freight cars with the expectation that their artwork will travel across the United States and throughout the continent. There are two major questions associated with the explanation of graffiti. One, who is responsible for it, and two, why do graffitists produce spraycan art.
To the surprise of most people, graffiti art is 2009, not the sole possession of poor, urban, lower-class American kids. Not only do half of the graffitists come from Caucasian middle-class families, but there are graffitists all over the world. When asked, What sorts of kids write graffiti?, police officer Kevin Hickey of the New York Transit Police Department's graffiti squad replied, The type of kids that live in New York City. They range from the ultra-rich to the ultra-poor. There is no general classification of the kids Graffitist range in death outline research, age from 12-30 years old, and there are male and 2009 synthesis essay female artists. In the past, graffiti artists usually worked alone, but the size and complexity of p.e.e.l pieces as well as safety concerns motivated artists to work together in crews, which are groups of graffitists that vary in membership from 3 to 10 or more persons.
A member of a crew can be down with, i.e., affiliated, with more than one crew. To join a crew, one must have produced stylish pieces and show potential for developing his or her own, unique style. A crew is headed by a king or queen who is usually that person recognized as having the best artistic ability among the members of the crew. The reasons and values for why one might engage in graffiti art are as varied as the artists who produce it. A chief reason is the 2009 ap lang synthesis, prospect of fame and recognition of one's artistic talent.
Graffiti is also a form of self expression. Aqa Coursework. The art as writing is a creative method of communicating with other writers and the general public. What it communicates is the artist's identity, expression, and ideas. Judgments are based solely on one's artistic ability. 2009 Ap Lang Essay. This type of communication is of value because it links people regardless of distinction between thesis cultural, lingual, or racial differences in way that nothing else can. 2009 Essay. In addition, producing graffiti art with a crew builds team work in how to write ad, that the crew works together for the accomplishment of a common goal. The feeling of this achievement in league with others is of value to the artist. In his book, Graffito, Walsh notes that some graffitists view their art as a ritual transgression against a repressive political and economic order. For some artists see themselves as revolutionaries reacting against the established art market or gallery system in synthesis, that art is not only that which appears in the gallery as determined by the curator. Geography Aqa Coursework Gcse. Some artists also view their creations on public and private spaces as a statement against Western ideas of capitalism and private property.
Of course, the majority of graffitists enjoy what they do and find it to be fun, rewarding, and exciting. Although these reasons are valid, they do not conclusively settle the 2009 ap lang, matter as to geography gcse why graffiti art is ap lang synthesis essay, art or why it is a valid art form despite its illegal origins. Graffiti as seen and experienced on the New York City subway trains and that which developed into the modern-day form of spraycan art is art. The production of graffiti art includes established techniques and styles, and the art form also is characterized by a standard medium; spraypaint. For example, novices are taught how to use spraypaint according to various styles and how to adjust nozzles as well as how to fit and p.e.e.l essay use other types of aerosol caps onto spraycans for different artistic effects.
The forms of essay graffiti art have developed through the penalty research paper, years from the mere gestures of tagging to established conventional practices of the graffiti art world such as creating the tag according to a method, like wildstyle, that makes it an integral, flowing element of the overall piece. In addition, graffiti art is not a spontaneous activity like tagging in the form of fancy scribble. The completion of a piece or a production involves a great deal of imagination, planning, and effort. The graffitist first does a sketch. 2009 Ap Lang Synthesis. Then he or she plans out characters and selects colors. Next, the p.e.e.l, artist selects his or her canvas or surface and does a preliminary outline, followed by a filling in of colors and ornamentation, and then the final outline is completed. Graffiti can also be analyzed according to the elements of lines, color, and structures that are present in the work in order to 2009 synthesis essay produce a narrative about london beginner writing course, it. Another significant reason why graffiti art can be viewed as art is by considering the producer's intention. Graffitists intend their work to be apprehended as art that can communicate feelings and ideas to the audience. This is in line with Tolstoy's mandate that art must allow people to express ideas and ap lang synthesis essay share in each other's feelings via the artwork. Plus, graffiti art has a function of p.e.e.l not only 2009 ap lang, communicating to others, but it also beautifies the community by english essay, appearing on areas that normally would be eyesores, such as a wall in a vacant lot or an abandoned building.
Furthermore, all of the aesthetic properties and criteria from the base element of color to the complex issue of artist intention which are ascribed to other works in order to characterize them as art can all be found in examples of spraycan art. The only 2009 essay, difference between those works in a gallery or museum and 2012 graffiti art in terms of how and why the ap lang essay, latter is not readily accepted as art is due to its location and presentation. Indeed the issues of location and presentation are the most significant obstacles to a wholehearted acceptance of spraycan art as art. How To Write Ad. Graffiti art cannot be disregarded simply because it is 2009, not presented in the conventional location and manner, i.e., framed and how to write ad placed in a museum or gallery. The location of it on a wall or subway without permission only makes it unsolicited art. As such, it can be called vandalism, but again, this does not disqualify it as art. Rather the categorization of graffiti art as unsolicited art that is vandalism only essay, justifies a removal of death research paper it from the surface. On the other hand, the vandalism aspect of 2009 essay graffiti art can be considered as a uniqueness and p.e.e.l english not a detracting feature of the art form because as vandalism, graffiti art is very temporary. A piece which might be sixty feet long, twelve feet high, and take twenty to thirty cans of paint and at 2009 least eight hours to produce might be gone in a matter of minutes.
Another challenge to how to write ad graffiti art is that it is forced upon the public because people have no say in its production despite the fact that public funds are used to remove it. Graffitists counter with the argument that buildings, billboards, campaign ads, and flyers are also forced on the public in a similar manner. Spraycan art suffers other criticisms because of the generic characterization of all graffiti as being gang related and simply a matter of tagging. However, only 20% of graffiti is gang related [ed. note: according to Walsh, who mentions this number in _Graffito_. Because he used anecdotes from LA and San Francisco to obtain his figures, and it is not known what definition of gang he refers to, this number is questionable.], and it should be noted that not all instances of graffiti art are good examples of the art form; just like not all framed artistic creations are good examples of essay painting or even worthy of being called art. Graffiti is also criticized for aqa coursework gcse being too hard to understand, but certainly this cannot keep graffiti art from ap lang, being art anymore than the obscurity of abstract art or Picasso's cubism prevents either one of those hard to understand art forms from being considered as art. Goldman's aesthetic theory is of use to death penalty outline research paper clarify the problem of location and 2009 ap lang synthesis presentation in relation to how to write ad graffiti art.
Goldman claims that art takes us to other worlds in a manner that is quite fulfilling sensually and aesthetically. This removal from the ap lang, real world is enhanced by the mood of the gallery or the dark setting of the opera house. How To Write Ad. Most of the 2009 ap lang essay, time when we encounter art and are transported by distinction between, it to other worlds, we are in a location in which we expect this to happen. However, this is not the case with graffiti art. For it appears suddenly and in unexpected places. Thus, when we apprehend it, we are transported to these other worlds at 2009 ap lang a time and in a place that we are not accustomed to how to write ad doing so. We are not used to art approaching us outside of conventional settings such as a museum. Instead of the audience going to view the art form, spraycan art reaches out to the viewer; sometimes in a startling manner. One can only imagine how shocking and surprising it might have been to see a colorful train moving swiftly through the synthesis, dingy stations and death penalty research drab boroughs of New York City.
Spraycan art is an art form that is completely open to the public because it is not hemmed in 2009 ap lang, by the confines or laws of the gallery system or the hbs essay, museum. 2009 Synthesis. Perhaps, this is its only how to write ad, crime. The institutional theory, in brief, mandates that art is synthesis, that which is outline research paper, displayed by the art world to be accepted as art as determined by 2009 ap lang essay, the members of the p.e.e.l essay, art world. Since graffiti art is not permanently established in any galleries or museums, often it is argued that it is not art, but even this criticism falls short because there are instances where the art world has recognized graffiti art as art. In the 1970's, galleries in New York and Europe brought graffiti to synthesis essay the attention of the art world. Lee Quinones, a prominent writer in New York and one of the few graffitists to bomb, i.e., paint, a whole train from top to bottom and end to end, was invited to exhibit his work on canvas in Claudio Bruni's Galleria Madusa in Rome.
Likewise, Yaki Kornblit of Denmark, an art dealer, helped to gcse launch the careers of several graffitists during the years of 1984 and 1985 at Museum Boyanano von Beuningen in Rotterdam. Jean Paul Basquiat collaborated with Andy Warhol for joint paintings in 1985. And recently, in 1996, Barry McGee, also known by his tag, Twist, was commissioned to do a graffiti art mural for the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. As graffiti was introduced to the art world, two trends happened. One, the 2009 ap lang synthesis essay, art world of collectors, dealers, curators, artists, and the like helped graffitists evolve in style, presumably by 2012, sharing their artistic knowledge with the newcomers. Two, the exposure helped to expand graffiti to all parts of the world.
Furthermore, cities such as LA and Chicago have recognized the talent of graffitists by providing a means for them to do legal graffiti art which has helped to 2009 synthesis foster the art form and lessened the amount of p.e.e.l english graffiti art that appears in the city as vandalism. Likewise, organizations of graffiti artists such as the 2009 synthesis, Phun Factory or the geography aqa coursework, United Graffiti Artists in New York solicit places to do legal graffiti such as abandoned buildings, businesses, or community walls in parks. 2009 Synthesis. What this shows is that some graffiti, particularly in the form of spraycan art, is recognized as art by the art world. This recognition of graffiti art by the art world is important for two reasons. One because of the social, political, and economic influence of the art world, its recognition of graffiti art as art helps to increase the awareness and between diversity thesis overall understanding of the art form. Two, this recognition prevents the sweeping generalization that all graffiti is vandalism and 2009 ap lang synthesis essay therefore something that always should be eradicated. For in actuality, spraycan art does not necessarily have to be illegal or on a wall to be considered as graffiti art, although, philosophically, this might be the purest essence of the art form. What matters is that the art is produced according to a graffiti art style. So examples of art works that are produced on canvas with spraypaint and in a graffiti style can be considered as spraycan art. And the exhortation that graffiti should be on a visible private or public space in distinction diversity, order to 2009 synthesis essay be in its optimal context is not so much to glorify any illegalities but rather, to highlight the idea that graffiti is meant to hbs essay 2012 be completely accessible to ap lang synthesis the public for immediate appreciation.
Also, the increasing acceptance of graffiti art is not due so much to its adoption of traditional techniques. On the contrary, books, magazines, movies, and distinction between diversity the artists themselves have helped people to understand how and where graffiti harmonizes with and 2009 ap lang goes a step beyond traditional methods. For example, wildstyle changes with each artist's interpretation of the alphabet, but it also relies on the use of primary colors, fading, foreground and background, and the like to create these letters. Thus, it is important and valuable to characterize some forms of graffiti as art because this challenges people, who are conditioned to accept art works as art only if they are created in a traditional manner and appear in institutional setting, to appreciate art works that originate and develop outside of p.e.e.l essay these constraints. In doing so, people come to realize graffiti is not an art form that is done just for the sake of rebellious destruction. Quite the opposite, it is an innovative and truly original art form that is meant to 2009 ap lang synthesis essay bring an aesthetic pleasure to the audience like any other recognized art form. In summary, some forms of graffiti become art according to four criteria. P.e.e.l Essay. First, graffiti art is separated from everyday graffiti markings by the artist's intention to produce a work of art. Second, graffiti art has an established history of development in synthesis, style and how to write ad technique. Third, graffiti art even has been recognized by the art world.
A fourth criterion is that the public response to graffiti art indicates that it is art. Whether or not all of the 2009 essay, public agrees that graffiti art is good, bad, or extremely valuable is a different discussion about evaluation and not whether or not graffiti art is art. The evaluative concerns actually play more into between diversity, where, when, and how graffiti art should be displayed. The above criteria are defensible in so much as they have been used to legitimize other artistic forms. However, what appears to be the essay, most significant answer to describing how and why graffiti art is art is the notion of understanding where the artist and the audience synchronize in agreement about a particular work being an example of art. It is a matter of comprehending what makes a creation art for the artist and what makes this same creation art for the audience. When and according to what criteria that these two viewpoints coincide is what thoroughly determines graffiti art as art. And like other art forms, graffiti art is aqa coursework, definitively art when both the artist and the audience agree on the works ability to provide maximal aesthetic satisfaction. While it is almost impossible to formulate a theory of necessary conditions or rules specifying when graffiti art is art, I think it is sufficient to draw on already established aesthetic theories and criteria to point out that some forms of graffiti do qualify as art. Therefore, graffiti in the form of spraycan art is art.
It has form, color, and 2009 synthesis other base properties as well as an arrangement of these elements into structures that qualify it aesthetically as being art. Just doing something with spraypaint might make it graffiti, but it does not necessarily qualify it as art or graffiti art. In addition, when the spraycan art is london course, analyzed according to ap lang the artist's intention and geography gcse value to audience, there is even more evidence to suggest that it is genuine art. The only obstacle that has hindered the general acceptance of graffiti art is its location and presentation. Synthesis Essay. However, the instances of acceptance of graffiti art by the art world shows that conventional methods of presentation are not all that matters in determining if something is art. And graffiti art is not to be disqualified as art simply because it might appear unsolicited. In short, graffiti in the form of spray can art is art like any other work that might be found in a gallery or a museum.
Castleman, Craig. Getting Up. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1982.
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Ap lang and comp synthesis essay …
8 Simple Business Plan Templates for Entrepreneurs. Writing a business plan is an important step in the startup process. 2009 Synthesis. It helps you and your partners decide if you will work well together, teaches you about the marketplace, and lets you brainstorm business and product goals. Questions. But because of all the ap lang synthesis essay, effort and detail involved, many entrepreneurs dread the thought of sitting down and creating this critical but time-consuming document. While business plans can be frustrating if you#39;re writing one from scratch, there are plenty of online templates available to take some of the pain out of the process. Small business owners can benefit from simple, easy-to-follow business-plan tools so they can spend less time writing and outline research paper more time launching. Here are eight resources you can use to help you craft a professional business plan quickly and easily. You#39;ve heard about those entrepreneurs who started off by jotting down their ideas on ap lang synthesis essay, a napkin at a bar, café or restaurant. $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan is aqa coursework a little like that, but more organized. Designed for entrepreneurs who are itching to get started, this simple business-plan template asks a handful of questions that you can easily answer in one or two sentences.
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Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to help you with writing a complete business plan, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of vendors for how to write ad free. 2009 Ap Lang Essay. Updated on creative writing, May 1, 2015. Additional reporting by Business News Daily staff writer Sara Angeles.
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Ap lang and comp synthesis essay …
Custom Anti-Terrorist Organization Essay. This research paper discusses various aspects pertaining to anti-terrorism. 2009 Ap Lang Essay! This will include the history of the organizations and tactics which are intended to p.e.e.l essay fight terrorism. It will also discus the threat posed by the terrorists in United States. It also talks of efforts which have been made to get lid of terrorism. The paper also tries to analyze the anti-terrorism actions effectiveness and how they can be improved. Lastly, it will discuss prediction regarding the future of organization, tactics and their effectiveness.
Anti-terrorism organizations have been there for a long time. Since then many forces have come up in the view of fighting terrorism. Synthesis! These forces comprise of geography aqa coursework, military groups which have gone through vigorous training and adequately equipped to fight antiterrorism. These organizations have been part of United States all through the warfare against terrorism. The United States has many of 2009 ap lang synthesis essay, these organizations. One is the ‘U.S. Air force Tactics team. It has its beginning dating back to the Second World War. Since the end of the second world war this organization has participated in various special operations in many parts of the distinction and dependency, world including; central America, Africa, Europe, South East Asia, and in the Middle East just but a few (Hoffman, Inside terrorism, 2 ed, 2006) . Another Anti-terrorist organization is the Special Operations Forces an organization hatched about ap lang essay 20 years ago or so.
This organization is made up of tiny units from the forces, such as the Marine Corps, Army, Air Force and Navy Seals, that are qualified and creative writing course set to conduct exceptional anti-terrorist operations, to try to fight terrorists. This organization began after the Operation Eagle, attempt hostage salvage at the U.S embassy in the year 1980, in Iran. The force was directed by Admiral James L. Ap Lang Essay! Holloway III, former Chief of Navel Operations. Special Operation Command has been active ever since 16 April, 1987; by thesis, this time the group had participated in a lot of operations, since the 1989 raid of Panama ongoing up to the present war on Iraq. Another organization fighting terrorism is the United States Army Special Force unit. Just like the former, this organization also has its origin dating back to the Second World War.
Some of the teams duty include; foreign internal defense, direct action, unconventional warfare, counter-proliferation, counter-terrorism, information operation and ap lang essay psychological operations. The history of terrorism can be traced back to about 2000 years back. This came with the emergence of penalty outline paper, Jewish fanatic groups one of which is the sicarii. The term terrorism came to birth in synthesis, 1793 when Maximilien revolutionized the French. The first recorded instance of terrorism came about in 1622 during the attack of Jamestown colony by Powhatan Native Americans which led to the killing of about a third of inhabitants (Hoffman, Inside Terrorism, 1998). Ku Klux Klan as First Terrorist Organization. Although there were cases of beginner, rebellion in the U.S, the first terrorist organization after the birth of the American republic was Ku Klux Klan a white supremacist organization in 1867.
It was at first a non violent organization led by 2009, Nathan Bedford a former conference general. However 1868 marked the change of the peaceful organization to a violent one beating up, intimidating and murdering black voters as well as the supporters of the Republican Party. Their intimidations and beginner course attacks were aimed at 2009 synthesis essay, shaping voting patterns in Gorgia statev among others quick redemption and a return to a conservative white democratic control by 1871. It was not until after a massive crackdown and a suspension to Habeas Corpus did the organizations disintegrate (Deen, 2005). This only marked the beginning of terrorism as by the end of the KKK in1872, another movement emerged.
The “first wave “of international terrorism stuck the writing, United States in 1886 bombing of the ap lang synthesis essay, Haymarket. Anarchist terrorism continued until 1927 with the execution of Bartolomeo Vazetti and 2012 Nicola Sacco on the claim of ap lang, robbery and murder. In the essay, intermediate period a series of murders and bombing had been high with the climax being the synthesis essay, assassination of the then United states president McKinley in 1901.Others had been the failed assassination attempt on the attorney general ,the wall street bombing in 1920 leading to the loss of at least 30 lives. Essay! In response to the bombing the attorney general ordered a series of dragnets directed to the immigrant communities known as the ap lang synthesis, “Palmer Raids” holding many indefinitely, detaining thousands of others, detaining some or sentencing others to death or life imprisonment based on inconclusive evidence. Eventually, anarchist seemed to have faded in America. However the bombing of the Wall Street and other minor attacks persisted (uergensmeyer, 2000).
Between 1920s and 1960s, there were relatively very few terrorist attacks. This period is referred to course as “anti-colonial wave” by David Rapoport a famous terrorism historian which he thought was as a result of lacking overseas territorial possessions. An exception to these is the port of Puerto Rico, which was the origin of 1954 terrorists who committed the shooting of congress. America would experience a significant rise in terrorist attacks mainly on the main land since 1960 which continues to date. Between 1960 and the 1991 fall of the Soviet Union saw the 2009 synthesis essay, operation of ethno-nationalists, anti communists and primarily leftist’s organizations. These groups include ;Black Liberation Army, Weather Underground Organization, Liberation army, the Symbionese, the National Liberation Armed Forces and other militants of Puerto Rico, Al-Fuqra and various white Supremacists. From 1960s to 1970s there was institution of counter intelligence program (COINTELPRO) by the FBI which directed towards the various left wing organizations including ‘white hate’ organizations such as the how to write ad, KKK. However public outcry the various church investigating committees investigating COINTELPRO resulted to the 1978 enactment of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and barred the use of counterintelligence investigation techniques on domestic terrorism. From the start of 2009, 1990s to the present times, majority of attacks on the United States came from the white nationalists. How To Write Ad! Some of 2009 essay, them were prevented, except some like the Oklahoma City bombing of 1995 and 1933 attack on the World Trade Center.
The High Level of Cyber Terrorism. The present level of terrorist menace towards United States concerning technology is writing course lofty. This partly due to the rising number of 2009, people well skilled in the uses of technical marvels for example, the computer and Web. Between 1970s and 1980s computers were the specialized industry’s language, where a small number knew the potential success of this device. After that, the net was only a project for interactions designed by the American government and later on institutionalized by p.e.e.l essay, various universities across the state. Times are diverse now and hence what was once a dream long ago is now in practice now (Van Cleave, 2007).
The prevalent raise of computer literate populace opens the doors for terrorist attacks, as the 2009 ap lang, greater the number caught up the smoother the act can be carried out. The Internet acts as a “park” for people worldwide and how to write ad daily, crimes occur just like City Street. The appetite for well orchestrate terrorist campaign over the net is rising, even with the help of the synthesis, 2001 Patriot Act. This is due to the reality that other countries have dissimilar security procedures on the use of the london beginner writing, net, and some have none at all. Moreover, it is 2009 essay evident that people that live in beginner creative, America do not live by ap lang, lawful values on the Web either. In addition to Cyber Terrorism there exist other technical advances which swell attack by terrorist organizations. Satellite phones, cell phone GPS navigation, instantaneous wire transfers and faster transport modes few examples that show the technology progress. This boost also acts as feeding ground for international support, where various terrorist groups have the ability to implement universal campaigns and a prospect to mask or move depending on the rapid improvement of intelligence assembly techniques. Technology simplifies life, but consequently makes terrorist life much simpler too. Terrorist organizations are mostly cellular organizations comprising of independent cells.
It is thus expected for these organizations to gcse rapidly adapt. The organization's design or form greatly influences its adaptability and performance, and capacity to 2009 ap lang synthesis communicate. It follows that the organizations can be weakened by death paper, hampering with their design. Terrorist groups are mostly characterized as vibrant networks personnel connections characterizing the nature of the evolution. This means that analysis of 2009 synthesis essay, social network will be instrumental in how to write ad, characterizing the Core structure and in identifying vulnerabilities (Van Cleave, 2007). In general, these organizations develop as they face unexpected changes in their setting, rapidly developing technologies and adaptive opponents. 2009 Ap Lang Synthesis! In the last decade, improvement has been realized in understanding the factors that enable adjustment and partially improved models of adaptive network are now existent. The result will be that in the immediate period, there appears to exist tradeoff stuck between adaptively and death penalty outline research an extremely elevated performance in groups. This suggests that compelling an organization to adjust should condense its performance. Thus, even though a player is no longer the most effective, a mere segregation of that player may be enough to be unsettling. There is 2009 ap lang synthesis also another methodological approach based on the applying of a multi-agent set-up mold of co-evolution of observers” network (the blue network) including the terrorists network (the red network) whereby the observers can obtain only a small data on the basic covert network which evolve naturally and in reaction to observers attacks.
This approach builds off organizational hypothesis and societal network hypothesis, including machine learning and hbs essay questions vibrant network analysis. Specifically, there has been a development of computational mold of vibrant cellular organizations and has been used to gauge a number of optional strategies for 2009 synthesis essay, cellular networks destabilization. Intelligence Communities and Law Enforcement in United States. The resistance of America in opposition to geography gcse acts of global terrorists rests with the intelligence communities and law enforcement. In the United States, national security agencies and federal law enforcement have taken up the leadership role in 2009 essay, the anti-terrorism inquiry. Due to various federal statutes inclusive to huge technological ability, federal agencies are accountable for collecting raw intelligence from various human and technical assets, at how to write ad, home and overseas.
Also, these agencies responsible for the avoidance of terrorist attacks including inquiry of attacks should they arise. The sector of Justice is in charge of trial of those individuals implicated in either conspiracy or the 2009 ap lang essay, attack (Khan, 1987). While there are numerous state statutes that swathe terrorists' crime, it is how to write ad collectively approved that it is just the federal government that possess the means to carry out 2009 ap lang, intelligence actions and the multifarious investigations and prosecutions of worldwide terrorist actions. Not forgetting the english essay, federal function, there are many areas where the states and the local governments take part in a significant task in matters of synthesis, anti-terrorist. How To Write Ad! These comprise emergency retort to the assault by fire, medical personnel and police; single out critical target amenities; supplying manpower to ap lang synthesis local task forces; getting equipment and infrastructure technology for primary responder use; and the setting up and execution of necessary long-term medical support or biological instrument neutralization. Local authorities also have the duty to 2012 control instant facility harm and to acquire other desirable resources to bring back the immediate state under control.
It is now obvious that the intelligence community and federal law enforcement performed disappointingly prior to the actions of the synthesis essay, September 11, 2001. P.e.e.l Essay! Ever since that time their feat has not distinctly improved! The key flaw of various federal law enforcement agency lies with their conceit towards other local agencies and federal state. Unfortunately, there is modest justification for the outlook. One of the serious ramifications of 2009 essay, this attitude is the malfunction of federal law enforcement agency to treat the ability of other agencies with value. Aqa Coursework! In spite of the reality that state police, police officers and a Customs Administrators have frustrated three terrorist incidents in 2009 synthesis essay, the past several years, these agencies were not alerted of al-Qaeda group in the United States preceding September 11th, nor were they armed with appropriate information regarding the questions, ongoing analysis to locate extra suspects. Since then, there have been empty promises of increased collaboration in the giving of essay, secret clearance and other ways sharing information.
Some development has been made, though a lot remains to be desired before all agencies responsible for law enforcement the United States are realigned in a joint effort to combat prospect acts of terror. It is english important that Americas first line of guard against terrorism the 700,000 officers on streets be given sufficient training and backdrop information on terrorism, techniques and methods of the terrorists groups, and the probability of an pending attack. The grounds this information is supposed to be shared, or made available, is not so as the local police and state can be drawn in essay, the inquiry of individual terrorists or terrorist cells, or collecting raw aptitude information. It is plainly that these officers are aware of their terrain and between diversity and dependency thesis are on 2009 essay, street all day and night. How To Write Ad! Bearing in synthesis, mind that the terrorists responsible for london course, the attack of the 2009 ap lang synthesis, World Trade Center were on several occasions stopped by local police preceding the attack of minor traffic violation, it is reasonable to presume that this pattern of london beginner writing course, abrupt interception would carry on in the future. When a similar situation happens, our state and local officials should have backdrop information by 2009 ap lang synthesis essay, which to land at a reasonable notion.
Thereafter, the officers ought to have the skill to access state statistics banks to aid in the further decision of the prevailing matter. This is a critical asset in our endeavors to restrain terrorism. For many years the Federal Communication Commission has delayed on giving public safety organizations sufficient spectrum for radio infrastructure. Yet radio communications which are inter-operative are necessary for sufficient response to how to write ad the national emergency. If communication hiccups of the 9 -11 cannot convince the FCC to reverence the public's requirement for extra continuum from the spectrum which is in their possession then only Lord knows what will budge this unfathomable agency to act. United States also require putting up a system through which public security agencies can converse through the net. The tool to build such a scheme is already in place taking an example of Florida which has built a very successful system. The price of merging the accessible systems and then extending the scheme to all law enforcing agencies is not immense. The Justice Department issued a lay down of proposals on April 2002 regarding improved communication between law enforcing agencies.
These proposals call for financing and 2009 ap lang implementation as soon as possible (Deen, 2005). America's Success in Fight Against Terrorists. America is winning the how to write ad, fight against terrorists. She has finished the Taliban rule and the al Qaeda’s secure refuge in 2009 synthesis, Afghanistan. The triumph over the Taliban has come before success in other parts of the planet. But the war has just begun.
As the former President Bush repeated time after time, America is in just in the starting stages of a lengthy fight against writing course, terrorist organization and their supporting nations. Ap Lang Synthesis Essay! America and cooperate nations have brought forward a wide variety of capabilities to fight terrorism. The various activities undertaken show the degree by which The United States is betrothed in a new war. The United States and other cooperating nations anti terrorist organizations formed a global alliance with at least other70 countries in the fight against terrorism; conducted triumphant military operations leading to a change in regime in Afghanistan; provided independence and humanitarian liberation to the oppressed people found in Afghanistan; Frozen terrorists’ possessions and limited the money flow that enable terror; and subjugated unprecedented intellect capabilities to track, locate and catch terrorists on the run. Several recent high-status events shown that America and her allies are making progress: On the September 11, 2002, the Pakistani forces apprehended Ramzi Binalshibh a key associate of distinction between diversity, al Qaeda sect that designed and performed the 9-11 attacks. Ap Lang Essay! Days later, on September the 14, 2002, at least five men were charged with giving material support to the terrorists. They are thought to have been part of an al Qaeda-trained terrorist sect on U.S. soil. Distinction Between Diversity Thesis! Over the past year the synthesis essay, federal government has made significant progress improving the nation’s security at the borders.
Aside from arrests, the various agencies previously responsible for hbs essay questions, border security made great advances in essay, detection and geography gcse prevention using data resources, new technology and international partnerships as key tools. Most Anti-terrorism strategies engross an add up to the standard police and home intelligence. The central actions are traditional; the tracing of persons and ap lang synthesis interception of essay, communication. New knowledge has expanded the diversity of military and also law enforcing operations. To decide on the effectual action when terrorism seems to be an isolated event, the correct government organizations require knowing the motivation, source, tactics and methods of preparation of 2009 ap lang synthesis essay, terrorist organization. Good aptitude is the key of such grounding, including social and political awareness of hbs essay 2012, any complaints that might be dealt with. 2009 Ap Lang Synthesis! Ideally, one gets the information from within the organization, a very tricky challenge for HUMINT as the operational terrorist cells usually are modest, with all group members well-known to the others. Also the Anti-terrorism forces ought to close the boundaries of any terrorist crossing; keep original terrorist strength miniature and Anti-terrorist efficiency high; have huge initial Anti-terrorist forces; shun incentives for distinction, bandwagoning and any growing compassion for the terrorist. In keeping the compassion factor diminutive, policy should hold back from the public of any information concerning the terrorists’ activities or success.
The action of terrorists and Anti-terrorists happens within the public from which the members are drawn. As terrorist and Anti-terrorist activity increase, so is the need for recruitment. Whatever the terrorists targets, there are various ways to 2009 synthesis harden the targets to stop the terrorists from striking their target, or minimizing the harm of attacks. One way is by placing Jersey barrier or any other sturdy barriers outside politically sensitive or tall buildings to how to write ad stop car and bombing of essay, trucks (Hoffman, Inside Terrorism, 1998). A more stylish target-hardening move must consider industrial as well as other vital industrial infrastructure open to attacks. Terrorists don’t need to import chemical weaponry if they can result to a major industrial mishap such as the Halifax explosion or the Bhopal disaster. Industrial chemicals in shipping, manufacturing and distinction between storage call for greater shielding, and a lot of efforts in place. Equipping likely terrorist marks with containers of pig lard has worked in discouraging attack by suicide bombers of Islamic origin. The method was actually used on by British authorities on a limited scale in 1940s.
The approach comes from the thought that Muslims carrying out the attack wouldn’t like to be contaminated by 2009 synthesis, the flab in the instant prior to aqa coursework their death. The thought has been recommended of late as prevention to suicide bombings in Israel. The Anti-Terrorist organization in the United States is continuing to realize its success in the fight against synthesis essay, terrorism and diversity the future looks promising going by 2009, its recent achievement of getting rid of the leader of arguably the biggest terrorist sect Osama Bin Laden. This is just the beginning of the end of the long awaited victory against terrorism. Penalty! However to win this epic battle, more mechanisms are being put In place such as increasing its numbers in line with the large scope in physical terms( vast areas, high traffic volumes especially in busy cities) including other dimensions including, degree of terrorist threat. Also plans are underway to bring collectively various state-of-the-art technologies to allow persistent intellect, surveillance and investigations missions, and facilitate potential actions.
Flexibility is 2009 also being included in how to write ad, shaping terrorism system design in the shape of options that can be carried in the days to come when fresh information is accessible. Using these’ option will generate a flexible Anti-terrorism scheme that has the 2009 essay, capability to deal with fresh necessities that may arise. Custom Anti-Terrorist Organization Essay. 95% of satisfied returning customers Customer support 24/7/365 The largest source database A wide range of services Privacy guaranteed Certified writers only Custom-written papers only Direct communication with a writer Free plagiarism report(on demand) Free revision upon request more details Your writers are masters at time management. How To Write Ad! I turned in an order for four very difficult papers, and they were all written perfectly, even with the short deadline notice.
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Essay on synthesis, Science and Technology in India. The vital role of hbs essay questions 2012 science in modern life is not overstated in view of today’s world. Science and synthesis, technology have profoundly influenced the course of human civilization. Science has provided us remarkable insights into the world we live in. P.e.e.l? The scientific revolutions of the 20th century have led to many technologies, which promise to herald wholly new eras in many fields, As we stand today at 2009 synthesis the beginning of a new century, we have to ensure fullest use of these developments for the well being of our people.
Science and geography, technology have been an integral part of Indian civilisation and culture over 2009 ap lang essay, the past several millennia. Few are aware that India was the fountainhead of important foundational scientific developments and approaches. These cover many great scientific discoveries and technological achievements in Mathematics, Astronomy, Architecture, Chemistry, Metallurgy, Medicine, Natural Philosophy and other areas. How To Write Ad? A great deal of this traveled outwards from India. Equally, India also assimilated scientific ideas and techniques from elsewhere, with open-mindedness and a rational attitude, characteristic of a scientific ethos. Ap Lang Essay? India’s traditions have been founded on p.e.e.l essay, the principles of universal harmony, respect for all creations and an integrated holistic approach. This background is likely to provide valuable insights for future scientific advances.
During the century prior to independence, there was an essay awakening of modem science in India through the efforts of a number of outstanding scientists. Distinction Between Diversity Thesis? They were responsible for great scientific advances of the highest international caliber. Image Source: ghettohub.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/14880944-science-and-technology-background.jpg. Apart from the vast changes it has brought about, the development of a scientific temper in the people is 2009 essay considered important. In the how to write ad planned economy of a country, science must necessarily play an especially important role.
Improvements in techniques evolved as a result of scientific research brings about great increases in production in the different sectors of the economy. National resources are augmented by the substitution of cheap and abundant materials for those in scarce supplies and by 2009 ap lang essay finding uses for materials, which have remained un-utilized, prior to independence, very little attention was given to the problem of scientific and industrial research in India. A number of universities and institutes carried out p.e.e.l english, research, mostly on fundamental aspects of science. Certain industries also had their own research organizations. However, industry depended, by synthesis and large, on death outline research paper, foreign techniques and 2009 ap lang essay, did not develop research programmes of its own. A large number of products that had been imported into the country had to be manufactured to meet both civilian and p.e.e.l english essay, military needs. Indian substitutes had to be found for imported materials and processes had to be developed which would use these materials in place of imported ones. 2009 Essay? In these circumstances, the Government of India constituted die Board of Scientific and Industrial Research in 1940. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research was formed in 1942. Since independence there has been a greater emphasis on the provision of additional facilities for the promotion of scientific and industrial research.
The most significant development in this sphere has been the establishment of a chain of national laboratories and research institutes in different parts of the country. The establishment of national laboratories and p.e.e.l english, research institutes has a special importance in a country like India where medium and small-scale producers contribute a considerable proportion of industrial production. These industries cannot afford to have research facilities of their own, as the larger producers can. Besides these laboratories and research institutes, the Council of Scientific and 2009 ap lang, Industrial Research has made contributions towards the beginner promotion of fundamental and applied research at 2009 ap lang a number of institutions and 2012, universities. In the half century since independence, India has been committed to the task of promoting the spread of science. The key role of synthesis essay technology as an important element of national development is how to write ad also well recognized. The Scientific Policy Resolution of 1958 and the Technology Policy Statement of 1983 enunciated the principles on which die growth of science and technology in India has been based over the past several decades.
These policies have emphasized self-reliance, as also sustainable and equitable development. Successes in agriculture, health care, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, nuclear energy, astronomy and 2009, astrophysics, space technology and applications, defence research, biotechnology, electronics, information technology and oceanography are widely acknowledged. Major national achievements include very significant increase in between diversity thesis food production, eradication or control of several diseases and increased life expectancy of our citizens. While these developments have been highly satisfying, one is ap lang also aware of die dramatic changes that have taken place, and questions 2012, continue to do so, in die practice of science, in technology development, and their relationships with, and impact on die society. Particularly striking is die rapidity with which science and technology is moving ahead. Science is becoming increasingly inter-and multi-disciplinary, and calls for multi-institutional and, in several cases, multi-country participation. Major experimental facilities, even in several areas of basic research, require very large amount of materials, human and intellectual resources. Science and technology have become so closely intertwined, and so reinforce each other that, to be effective, any policy needs to view them together. The continuing revolutions in die field of 2009 ap lang synthesis information and communication technology have had profound impact on the manner and speed with which scientific information becomes available, and scientific interactions take place.
Science and technology have had unprecedented impact on economic growth and social development. Knowledge has become a source of economic might and power. This has led to increased restrictions on sharing of knowledge, to distinction and dependency thesis, new norms of intellectual property rights, and to global trade and technology control regimes. Scientific and technological developments today also have deep ethical, legal and social implications. There are deep concerns in society about these. The ongoing globalization and the intensely competitive environment have a significant impact on essay, the production and service sectors. Because of all this, our science and technology system has to be infused with new vitality if it is to play a decisive and beneficial role hi advancing the well being of questions all sections of our society. The nation continues to 2009 ap lang synthesis essay, be firm in aqa coursework its resolve to support science and technology in all its facets. It recognizes its central role in raising the quality of 2009 ap lang synthesis life of the people of the distinction and dependency thesis country, particularly of the disadvantaged sections of society, in creating wealth for all, in making India globally competitive, in utilizing natural resources in a sustainable manner, in protecting die environment, and ensuring national security.
India has the third largest scientific and technical manpower in 2009 ap lang the world; 162 universities award 4,000 doctorates and 35,000 post-graduate degrees and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research runs 40 research laboratories that have made some significant achievements. In the field of missile launch technology, India is among the five top nations of the world. Science and Technology, however, is used as an effective instrument of growth and change. It is being brought into the mainstream of economic planning in the sectors of death outline research agriculture, industry and services. The country’s resources are used to synthesis, derive the maximum output for the benefit of society and improvement in the quality of life. About 85 per cent of the funds for science and technology come directly or indirectly from the Government.
The science and technology infrastructure in how to write ad the country accounts for more than one per 2009 synthesis cent of the GNP. Science and technology in India is entering a new frontier. The prime objective of India’s nuclear energy programme is the development and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes such as power generation, applications in 2012 agriculture, medicine, industry, research and other areas. India is today recognized as one of the countries most advanced in nuclear technology including production of source materials. The country is self-reliant and has mastered the expertise covering the complete nuclear cycle-from exploration and mining to 2009, power generation and waste management. Accelerators and hbs essay questions 2012, research and power reactors are now designed and built indigenously. Ap Lang? The sophisticated variable energy cyclotron at Kolkata and a medium energy heavy ion accelerator ‘pelletron’ set up recently at Mumbai are national research facilities in the frontier areas of the science. As part of its programme for peaceful uses of atomic energy, India has also embarked on a program of nuclear power generation. Currently eight nuclear stations are producing 8 billion kilowatts of electricity. Four more nuclear power stations have been planned.
The new nuclear reactors have been completely designed in India. The peaceful nuclear programme also includes producing radio-isotopes for use in agriculture, medicine, industry and research. The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), under the Department of Space (DOS), is gcse responsible for research, development and operation in ap lang space systems in geography aqa coursework gcse the areas of satellite communications, remote sensing for resource survey, environmental monitoring, meteorological services etc. DOS is also the nodal agency for the Physical Research Laboratoty which conducts research in the areas of space science, and the National Remote Sensing Agency which deploys modern remote sensing techniques for natural resource surveys and provides operational services to ap lang, user agencies. India is the only third world country to develop its own remote sensing satellite. India joined a select group of six nations on October 15,1994, when the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) successfully .accomplished its mission of placing the 800-kg remote sensing satellite, IRS-P2, in the intended orbit. The INSAT series of satellites launched earlier are performing well and provide vital services for telecommunications, television, meteorology, disaster warning and distress detection. The latest INSAT series will include new features like Kit-band transponders and mobile satellite service, transponders. The remote-sensing satellites, launched in 1988 and 1991, have already become the mainstays of the natural resource management system of the how to write ad country.
The projected launch of advanced remote sensing satellite will not only enhance the scope of their application, but will also offer commercial service to other countries. The most significant milestone of the Indian Space Programme during the year 2005-06 was the successful launch of PSLV-C6. On may 5,2006, the ninth flight of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C6) from Satish Dhawan Space centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota successfully placed two satellites-1560 kg CARTOSTAR-1 and 42 kg HAMSAT-into a predetermined polar Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO). The successful launch of INSAT-4A, the heaviest and most powerful Satellite built by ap lang essay India so far, on 22 December 2005 was the other major event of the year 2005-06. English Essay? INSAT-4A is capable of providing Direct-To-Home (DTH) television broadcasting services. The Indian space programme entered a new era when ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch vehicle (PSLV)-C7 successfully launched on January 10,2007 four satellites into high polar orbit from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), Sriharikota. The four satellites put into orbit were India’s CARTUSAT-2 and space Capsule Recovery Experiment. (SRE-1), Indonesia’s LAPAN-TUBSAT and Argentina’s PEHUENSAT-1. The Indian achievement in the application of space-based remote sensing technology has led a US company to enter into an agreement for marketing the data from Indian satellites globally. India’s progress in space technology has attracted worldwide attention and demand, with leasing agreements for marketing of IRS data and supply of 2009 ap lang synthesis space hardware and english, services. India also believes in co-operation in space with agencies all over the world. A high-level UN team selected India for setting up a UN Centre for Space Science and Technology Education.
India is on the threshold of achieving self-reliance in the launch capability. It will be a befitting tribute to the father of the Indian space program, Dr. Vikararn Sarabhai, whose 90th birth anniversary was observed in August 2006. India has been the forerunner among the developing countries in promoting multi-disciplinary activities in 2009 synthesis essay the field of biotechnology, recognizing the practically unlimited possibility of their applications in increasing agricultural and industrial production, and in improving human and animal life. The nucleus of geography research in this area is the National Biotechnology Board, constituted in 1982. A Department of Biotechnology was created in 1986. Recently, the 2009 Biotechnology Consortium India Limited was set up. It will play the role of catalyst in bridging the gap between Research and Development, Industrial and Financial Institutions. Essay? Some of the new initiatives taken include developing techniques for gene mapping, conservation of ap lang essay biodiversity and bioindicators’ research, special biotechnology programs for the benefit of die scheduled castes and p.e.e.l english essay, scheduled tribes and activities in the area of plantation oops. The areas, which have been receiving attention, are cattle herd improvement through embryo transfer technology, in vitro propagation of disease resistant plant varieties for obtaining higher yields, and development of vaccines for various diseases.
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) was established in 1942, and is today the premier institution for 2009 synthesis essay scientific and industrial research. It has a network of 40 laboratories, two co-operative industrial research institutions and more than 100 extension and field centres. The Council’s research programs are directed towards effective utilization of the country’s natural resources and penalty research, development of new processes and products for economic progress. It is essay now playing a leading role in the fulfillment of the technology missions evolved by the Government. Thus, we see that India has made unprecedented development in the field of scientific research and p.e.e.l english essay, technology during the post-independence period and this just seems to be the beginning of a road with endless possibilities. All we need is to plan and organize in a way so as to be able to harness our intelligentsia in ap lang essay the right direction and provide it with the right opportunities. PublishYourArticles.net is home of thousands of articles published by users like YOU.
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