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book reports on the WRITING BOOK REPORTS. Write In File! It's likely that, whatever your educational goals, you will eventually write a book report. Your instructor might call it a critique, or a summary/response paper, or a review. The two components these assignments have in common are summary and evaluation. Other TIP Sheets on write my first related topics that might prove helpful in developing a book report, depending on the type of book and the specifics of your assignment, include the following: How to Write a Summary Writing About Non-Fiction Books Writing About Literature. Summary AND evaluation. The following example summarizes in two sentences the plot of Jurassic Park : Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park describes how millionaire tycoon John Hammond indulges his desire to create an island amusement park full of living dinosaurs. In spite of elaborate precautions to make the how to park safe, his animals run wild, killing and maiming his employees, endangering the lives of his two visiting grandchildren, and finally escaping to mainland Costa Rica. On the sat essay practice test online other hand, a thesis statement for a book report reflects your evaluation of the work; I really, really liked it is how to, inadequate.

Students sometimes hesitate to make judgments about literature, because they are uncertain what standards apply. It's not so difficult to evaluate a book in terms of story elements: character, setting, problem/solution, even organization. Types Of Research Methods For Master! (See TIP Sheet Writing About Literature for ideas on write in file how to handle these standard story elements.) Nevertheless, a good thesis statement should include your reflection on the ideas, purpose, and types methods thesis, attitudes of the how to write author as well. To develop an informed judgment about the work, start by asking yourself lots of questions (for more ideas, see Evaluation on film dissertation the TIP Sheet Writing About Literature). How To Write! Then choose your most promising area, the one about which you have something clear to say and can easily find evidence from the book to illustrate. Develop this into a thesis statement.

For example, here is what one thesis statement might look like for Jurassic Park (notice how this thesis statement differs from the simple summary above): In Jurassic Park , Crichton seems to warn us chillingly that, in types for master thesis bioengineering as in chaos theory, the moment we most appear to be in control of events is the exact moment control is already irredeemably lost to us. To develop an informed judgment and how to, a corresponding thesis statement about a book, brainstorm by answering questions such as the methods following: For what purpose did the author write this, and did he fulfill that purpose? What did the main character learn? Does this lesson reflect reality as you know it? Were the characters complex and write, believable? What do they reveal of the author? of human nature? How well did the setting contribute to the mood? How did setting affect character and plot development? The invisible author. Usually the types author does not figure prominently in the story unless the book is how to write, autobiographical.

More often he is the invisible persona–invisible, yet not absent. The author leaves traces of himself throughout. Paradoxically, your understanding of the author depends on your deliberate. detachment from the story itself to discover those traces. Imagine standing very, very close to a large painting–inches away. Your focus is on blobs of know to write for my color, but you are unable to identify the write object represented. When you move back a few steps and alter your focus, the blobs take on a recognizable form. In the write an essay my first school same way, you have to draw back from the story to discern the how to in file purpose, ideas , and attitudes of the author. No one goes to the trouble to research apa paper, write something without purpose.

Sure, textbooks have purpose, but those who write fiction narratives have purpose, too. Even fantasy writers have purpose. A book report should include your evaluation of whether the author succeeded in his purpose. The following writer has made a statement about the how to author's purpose: Crichton seems not so much to be warning us of the evils of scientific inquiry as begging us, in a very convincing way, to exercise collective moral restraint on scientific research. This writer would then go on for master thesis to use quotations, examples, and evidence from the book to write, show why she believes this is Crichton's purpose. To identify and respond to the purpose of an author, try asking questions like these: Was the author's purpose to inform or simply entertain me?

Did I learn something? Was I entertained? Did I lose interest? If I lost interest, was this author, perhaps, writing to a different audience? Is the author trying to persuade me to film dissertation, think or act in a particular way? About what issue? What point of view would he or she have me adopt? Was I convinced? The author's ideas may be stated by the author himself in a foreword, or they may show up in the words of a narrator or a principal character.

The character Ian Malcolm, for example, is a primary spokesman for Crichton's criticism of post-modern science. Malcolm's words, below, express one of the ideas Crichton wishes us to consider: I'll tell you the problem with engineers and scientists. They are focused on how to in file whether they can do something. They never stop to different kinds of essays writing, ask if they should do something. On the other hand, a principal character may represent, rather than state, ideas.

Hammond's visiting grandchildren, for example, might represent the oblivious, yet threatened, human populations of the mainland and the planet itself. When ideas are implied rather than stated, they are called themes. To discover and evaluate ideas in a book, try asking questions like the following: What was the central problem in write in file the book? Was it a personal, social, or moral problem? Does it relate to life as you know it? What ideas(s) about life and society does the author seem to hold? What did the different kinds principal character(s) learn? How did they change? What does this seem to say about people? About society? About morality?

Once you have identified what ideas an author is trying to examine, you must still determine what the how to write in file author's attitude is i don't what to write about for my college essay, toward those ideas. An author's attitudes are revealed in how to part by the tone, or overall mood, of the methods for master thesis work. In writing, as in conversation, tone is not so much stated as implied. Write! In reading we depend solely on the emotional overtones of the words to infer the attitudes of the author. For example, suppose you have determined that Crichton wishes to apa paper, explore the idea of how private industry exploits scientific research. You must then determine, as well, what Crichton's attitude is toward this situation.

Does he think this is a positive development, or a negative one, or a little of both? Does he think it is inevitable, or preventable? One way to figure out how to write Crichton's attitude about this is to identify the tone he uses to tell the story. We describe the i don't what to write about for my college tone of a book with adjectives, and more than one if necessary: straightforward, complex, ironic, creepy, pathetic, bitter, comic, tragic. For example, here is a statement using three different adjectives to describe Crichton's attitude toward one of the in file central problems in Jurassic Park : Crichton strikes an ominous tone in for master Jurassic Park. How To In File! Even though this is a cautionary tale, the about day in author nevertheless is optimistic that the write in file mainstream scientific community, represented in different kinds writing this story by Alan Grant, can learn restraint and respect for write, nature. Of Research Methods For Master! (When identifying the tone of a book, make the effort to distinguish an individual. character's attitude from the author's overall attitude-they may differ.) To begin talking about write in file, tone, ask yourself questions such as these: Is there a particular setting or scene that stands out in research my mind? What was the mood of how to write in file that scene? Is this mood indicative of the entire book? Is the author an optimist, a pessimist, or a realist? How does he show it?

Does a principal character experience one persistent state of mind or emotion? What would I call it? Is it indicative of the dissertation prospectus work overall? Did the mood of the work help or hinder my understanding of the author's ideas? Butte College | 3536 Butte Campus Drive, Oroville CA 95965 | General Information (530) 895-2511.

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Internet Encyclopedia of write Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. Albans) was an English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and champion of modern science. Research Apa Paper! Early in in file his career he claimed “all knowledge as his province” and afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of apa paper traditional learning. To take the how to in file place of the established tradition (a miscellany of sat essay practice online Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an entirely new system based on empirical and inductive principles and the active development of new arts and write in file, inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of practical knowledge for “the use and benefit of men” and the relief of the human condition. At the same time that he was founding and promoting this new project for the advancement of learning, Bacon was also moving up the ladder of state service.

His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the ascension of write an essay day in school James his political fortunes rose. Knighted in in file 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and eventually Lord Chancellor (1618). While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of bribery and forced to leave public office. He then retired to his estate where he devoted himself full time to his continuing literary, scientific, and philosophical work. He died in 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for better or worse, includes most of the sat essay foundation for the triumph of technology and for the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the Viscount St. Write In File! Albans, and Lord Chancellor of England) was born in London in 1561 to film dissertation prospectus, a prominent and in file, well-connected family.

His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the of research for master thesis Seal, and Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and one-time tutor to write, the royal family. Lady Anne was a learned woman in different of essays her own right, having acquired Greek and write in file, Latin as well as Italian and French. She was a sister-in-law both to Sir Thomas Hoby, the esteemed English translator of Castiglione, and to Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to Elizabeth I, and from 1572-1598 the most powerful man in England. Bacon was educated at home at the family estate at Gorhambury in Herfordshire. To Write For My Essay! In 1573, at the age of just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to Aristotelianism (though not to the works of Aristotle himself). In 1576 Bacon began reading law at Gray’s Inn. Yet only a year later he interrupted his studies in write order to take a position in the diplomatic service in France as an assistant to an essay about my first school, the ambassador. In 1579, while he was still in France, his father died, leaving him (as the second son of a second marriage and the youngest of six heirs) virtually without support. With no position, no land, no income, and no immediate prospects, he returned to England and resumed the study of law. Bacon completed his law degree in 1582, and in 1588 he was named lecturer in legal studies at Gray’s Inn.

In the meantime, he was elected to Parliament in 1584 as a member for Melcombe in Dorsetshire. He would remain in Parliament as a representative for various constituencies for the next 36 years. In 1593 his blunt criticism of a new tax levy resulted in an unfortunate setback to his career expectations, the Queen taking personal offense at how to write in file his opposition. Write An Essay About My First! Any hopes he had of becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to the extent of appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in 1596. It was around this time that Bacon entered the service of Robert Devereux, the Earl of Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of intrigue, and write in file, sometime favorite of the Queen. No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to his own sagging career. Unfortunately, it was not long before Essex’s own fortunes plummeted following a series of types methods military and political blunders culminating in a disastrous coup attempt.

When the coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and eventually executed, with Bacon, in his capacity as Queen’s Counsel, playing a vital role in the prosecution of the case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and Bacon’s prospects for advancement dramatically improved. After being knighted by the king, he swiftly ascended the ladder of state and from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions: 1604 – Appointed King’s Counsel. 1607 – Named Solicitor General. How To Write In File! 1608 – Appointed Clerk of the Star Chamber. 1613 – Appointed Attorney General. 1616 – Made a member of the Privy Council. 1617 – Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his father’s former office). 1618 – Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of sat essay online power and influence that he could only have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment.

Yet it was at this point, while he stood at the very pinnacle of success, that he suffered his great Fall. Write In File! In 1621 he was arrested and charged with bribery. After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and sentenced to a prison term in the Tower of London. Although the fine was later waived and Bacon spent only of essays writing, four days in the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in how to write Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for Bacon personally and a stigma that would cling to and injure his reputation for years to come. As various chroniclers of the case have pointed out, the research apa paper accepting of gifts from suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in Bacon’s day, and it is write also true that Bacon ended up judging against the two petitioners who had offered the studies dissertation prospectus fateful bribes. How To! Yet the damage was done, and Bacon to his credit accepted the judgment against him without excuse. According to his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and done better. (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and republished the Essayes , injecting an even greater degree of shrewdness into film studies, a collection already notable for its worldliness and keen political sense.) Macaulay in write a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from Bacon’s own letters) a “most dishonest man,” and more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant. Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and moved on.

Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on his lifelong project: the reform of learning and test, the establishment of an intellectual community dedicated to the discovery of scientific knowledge for the “use and write in file, benefit of men.” The former Lord Chancellor died on 9 April, 1626, supposedly of a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the preservative and film prospectus, insulating properties of snow. In a way Bacon’s descent from how to write in file political power was a fortunate fall, for it represented a liberation from the bondage of public life resulting in a remarkable final burst of know to write for my college literary and scientific activity. Write In File! As Renaissance scholar and Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacon’s earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his “spare time.” It was only during his last five years that he was able to concentrate exclusively on writing and produce, in addition to a handful of minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and biography, The History of the Reign of King Henry the methods for master thesis Seventh and The History of the write in file Reign of King Henry the Eighth. De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of his earlier Advancement of Learning). The final 1625 edition of his Essayes, or Counsels. The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and analytical discussions on topics ranging from the causes of hiccups to explanations for test online, the shortage of rain in Egypt).

Artificially divided into ten “centuries” (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of one hundred items), the work was apparently intended to be included in how to write in file Part Three of the Magna Instauratio. His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death. Various parts of his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a “Natural History of Winds” and film dissertation prospectus, a “Natural History of Life and in file, Death.” These late productions represented the capstone of a writing career that spanned more than four decades and writing, encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and philosophical studies. Despite the fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of a few admirers, it is in file a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the works traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare. Even so, the studies dissertation prospectus Lord Chancellor’s high place in the history of English literature as well as his influential role in the development of write English prose style remain well-established and secure. Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in 1597 and then revised and expanded in 1612 and 1625), he would still rate among the top echelon of 17th-century English authors.

And so when we take into account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and especially his major philosophical and scientific works, we must surely place him in the first rank of English literature’s great men of letters and among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and Ruskin) of non-fiction prose. Bacon’s style, though elegant, is by no means as simple as it seems or as it is often described. In fact it is an essay about my first day in school actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of ease and clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and carefully arranged symmetries than through the use of plain words, commonplace ideas, and straightforward syntax. (In this connection it is noteworthy that in the revised versions of the essays Bacon seems to have deliberately disrupted many of his earlier balanced effects to produce a style that is actually more jagged and, in effect, more challenging to the casual reader.) Furthermore, just as Bacon’s personal style and living habits were prone to extravagance and never particularly austere, so in his writing he was never quite able to resist the occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. How To In File! (As Dr. Johnson observed, “A dictionary of the English language might be compiled from dissertation prospectus Bacon’s works alone.”) Bishop Sprat in his 1667 History of the Royal Society honored Bacon and in file, praised the society membership for supposedly eschewing fine words and fancy metaphors and adhering instead to a natural lucidity and “mathematical plainness.” To write in such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the seductions of figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to find many examples of sat essay such spare technique in Bacon’s own writings.

Of Bacon’s contemporary readers, at least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of plain language and transparent meaning. After perusing the how to write New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the volume) reportedly pronounced the work “like the peace of God, which passeth all understanding.” As a work of narrative fiction, Bacon’s novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to dissertation prospectus, both categories. According to Bacon’s amanuensis and first biographer William Rawley, the how to in file novel represents the apa paper first part (showing the design of a great college or institute devoted to the interpretation of nature) of what was to have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the how to in file entire legal structure and political organization of an ideal commonwealth). The work thus stands in the great tradition of the school utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from write in file Plato and More to Huxley and Skinner. The thin plot or fable is little more than a fictional shell to contain the real meat of Bacon’s story: the elaborate description of Salomon’s House (also known as the College of the Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and (most importantly from Bacon’s point of view) apply the knowledge they gain to about day in, produce “things of use and practice for man’s life.” These new arts and how to in file, inventions they eventually share with the film studies prospectus outside world. In terms of its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan. But in how to write in file terms of research its historical impact, the how to write in file novel has proven to be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only dissertation prospectus, as an write in file, effective inspiration and different kinds of essays writing, model for the British Royal Society, but also as an early blueprint and prophecy of the modern research center and how to write in file, international scientific community. c. Scientific and sat essay practice online, Philosophical Works. It is how to write in file never easy to summarize the thought of film studies dissertation prospectus a prolific and wide-ranging philosopher. How To Write! Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the task by film studies dissertation prospectus, his own helpful habits of write in file systematic classification and catchy mnemonic labeling. (Thus, for example, there are three “distempers” – or diseases – of learning,” eleven errors or “peccant humours,” four “Idols,” three primary mental faculties and categories of online knowledge, etc.) In effect, by write, following Bacon’s own methods it is possible to produce a convenient outline or overview of research his main scientific and philosophical ideas.

As early as 1592, in a famous letter to his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared “all knowledge” to how to write in file, be his province and an essay about my first school, vowed his personal commitment to a plan for the full-scale rehabilitation and reorganization of how to learning. In effect, he dedicated himself to a long-term project of research intellectual reform, and the balance of his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to make good on how to in file that pledge. In 1620, while he was still at write an essay about the peak of his political success, he published the preliminary description and plan for an enormous work that would fully answer to his earlier declared ambitions. In File! The work, dedicated to methods for master thesis, James, was to be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the “grand edifice” or Great Instauration ), and it would represent a kind of how to in file summa or culmination of all Bacon’s thought on subjects ranging from logic and epistemology to practical science (or what in Bacon’s day was called “natural philosophy,” the word science being then but a general synonym for “wisdom” or “learning”). Like several of Bacon’s projects, the Instauratio in its contemplated form was never finished. Of the intended six parts, only the first two were completed, while the other portions were only partly finished or barely begun. Consequently, the work as we have it is less like the vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of philosophical miscellany or grab-bag.

Part I of the project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (“Nine Books of the Dignity and Advancement of Learning”), was published in know to write college essay 1623. It is basically an how to write in file, enlarged version of the earlier Proficience and Advancement of Learning , which Bacon had presented to James in 1605. An Essay Day In School! Part II, the Novum Organum (or “New Organon”) provides the author’s detailed explanation and demonstration of the correct procedure for interpreting nature. In File! It first appeared in 1620. Together these two works present the essential elements of Bacon’s philosophy, including most of the major ideas and principles that we have come to an essay about my first, associate with the terms “Baconian” and “Baconianism.” Relatively early in his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to an undue reverence for write in file, the past (as well as to an excessive absorption in cultural vanities and frivolities), the intellectual life of Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of different writing learning, armed with new methods and insights, would simply open their eyes and minds to the world around them. This at any rate was the basic argument of his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and Advancement of Learning , arguably the first important philosophical work to be published in how to in file English. It is in this work that Bacon sketched out the main themes and ideas that he continued to refine and i don't know what for my college, develop throughout his career, beginning with the notion that there are clear obstacles to or diseases of learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is possible. “There be therefore chiefly three vanities in studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced.” Thus Bacon, in the first book of the Advancement . He goes on to refer to these vanities as the how to in file three “distempers” of different learning and identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as “fantastical learning,” “contentious learning,” and “delicate learning” (alternatively identified as “vain imaginations,” “vain altercations,” and “vain affectations”).

By fantastical learning (“vain imaginations”) Bacon had in mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by occultists and charlatans, that are carefully shielded from outside criticism, and that are offered largely to an audience of credulous true believers. In Bacon’s day such “imaginative science” was familiar in the form of astrology, natural magic, and alchemy. By contentious learning (“vain altercations”) Bacon was referring mainly to Aristotelian philosophy and theology and especially to the Scholastic tradition of logical hair-splitting and how to in file, metaphysical quibbling. But the phrase applies to any intellectual endeavor in which the principal aim is not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for its own sake. Delicate learning (“vain affectations”) was Bacon’s label for the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the thesis actual recovery of ancient texts or the retrieval of past knowledge but merely with the in file revival of practice Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and the reproduction of classical prose style. Such preoccupation with “words more than matter,” with “choiceness of phrase” and the “sweet falling of clauses” – in short, with style over substance – seemed to Bacon (a careful stylist in his own right) the most seductive and decadent literary vice of his age. Here we may note that from Bacon’s point of view the “distempers” of learning share two main faults: Prodigal ingenuity – i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and regrettable waste of write talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Sterile results – i.e., instead of contributing to the discovery of new knowledge (and thus to a practical “advancement of different writing learning” and eventually to a better life for all), the distempers of learning are essentially exercises in personal vainglory that aim at little more than idle theorizing or the write in file preservation of older forms of i don't know for my knowledge.

In short, in Bacon’s view the distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by beguiling talented thinkers into fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures. What is needed – and this is a theme reiterated in all his later writings on learning and human progress – is a program to re-channel that same creative energy into socially useful new discoveries. Though it is hard to pinpoint the birth of an idea, for write, all intents and purposes the modern idea of technological “progress” (in the sense of a steady, cumulative, historical advance in applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacon’s The Advancement of Learning and became fully articulated in his later works. Knowledge is write an essay my first power, and when embodied in how to write the form of new technical inventions and mechanical discoveries it is the force that drives history – this was Bacon’s key insight. Research Apa Paper! In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is all the more remarkable for its having been conceived and promoted at a time when most English and how to in file, European intellectuals were either reverencing the literary and different kinds of essays writing, philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the numerous signs of modern degradation and decline. Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and declaring a brave new dawn of scientific advance, many of his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at best creaking along towards a state of senile immobility and how to write in file, eventual darkness. “Our age is iron, and rusty too,” wrote John Donne, contemplating the signs of universal decay in a poem published six years after Bacon’s Advancement . That history might in fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and i don't to write for my college essay, upward ascent – and not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for Bacon an article of secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and a sense of mission. In the Advancement , the idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of hopeful hypothesis. But in later works such as the New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the cooperation of learned citizens and the active development of the arts and sciences.

h. The Reclassification of Knowledge. In Book II of De Dignitate (his expanded version of the Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for a new division of human knowledge into write, three primary categories: History, Poesy, and Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the three fundamental “faculties” of mind – memory, imagination, and reason). Although the exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy – and especially Baconian science – above the other two branches of knowledge, in essence defining history as the methods for master thesis mere accumulation of brute facts, while reducing art and imaginative literature to the even more marginal status of “feigned history.” Evidently Bacon believed that in order for a genuine advancement of learning to occur, the prestige of philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to be elevated, while that of history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to be reduced. In File! Bacon’s scheme effectively accomplishes this by making history (the domain of fact, i.e., of film studies everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of philosophy (the domain of realistic possibility, i.e., of everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of write everything that is day in school imaginable or conceivable ) is set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle. How To In File! In essence, it becomes simply a means of recreating actual scenes or events from the research apa paper past (as in history plays or heroic poetry) or of allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in Bacon’s own interesting example of “parabolic poesy,” the how to write New Atlantis .) To the second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the title New Organon (or “True Directions concerning the Interpretation of Nature”). The Greek word organon means “instrument” or “tool,” and Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for guiding and of essays, correcting the mind in its quest for a true understanding of nature. The title also glances at Aristotle’s Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and Posterior Analytics ) and thus suggests a “new instrument” destined to how to write, transcend or replace the older, no longer serviceable one. (This notion of film studies prospectus surpassing ancient authority is aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the 1620 volume containing the how to write in file New Organon by dissertation prospectus, a ship boldly sailing beyond the mythical pillars of in file Hercules, which supposedly marked the end of the known world.)

The New Organon is presented not in the form of a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to favor as less legislative and dogmatic and more in the true spirit of scientific experiment and critical inquiry. Combined with his gift for illustrative metaphor and what about college, symbol, the aphoristic style makes the New Organon in many places the most readable and literary of all Bacon’s scientific and philosophical works. In Book I of the New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the “idols.” These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the mind and prevent it from achieving a full and accurate understanding of in file nature. Bacon points out that recognizing and counteracting the idols is online as important to write in file, the study of nature as the recognition and sat essay practice test, refutation of bad arguments is to how to, logic. Incidentally, he uses the word “idol” – from the Greek eidolon (“image” or “phantom”) – not in film studies dissertation prospectus the sense of a false god or heathen deity but rather in the sense employed in Epicurean physics. Thus a Baconian idol is a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of write in file external reality. Bacon identifies four different classes of idol.

Each arises from a different source, and film studies dissertation prospectus, each presents its own special hazards and difficulties. 1. The Idols of the Tribe. These are the natural weaknesses and tendencies common to human nature. Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only recognized and compensated for. Some of Bacon’s examples are: Our senses – which are inherently dull and write in file, easily deceivable. (Which is why Bacon prescribes instruments and types of research methods, strict investigative methods to correct them.) Our tendency to discern (or even impose) more order in how to phenomena than is kinds of essays writing actually there. As Bacon points out, we are apt to how to in file, find similitude where there is actually singularity, regularity where there is actually randomness, etc. Our tendency towards “wishful thinking.” According to Bacon, we have a natural inclination to accept, believe, and test, even prove what we would prefer to be true. Our tendency to rush to conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of gradually and painstakingly accumulating evidence).

2. The Idols of the how to in file Cave. Unlike the idols of the about tribe, which are common to write, all human beings, those of the cave vary from research individual to individual. They arise, that is to say, not from nature but from culture and write, thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and beliefs that we are all subject to owing to an essay my first school, our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include: Special allegiance to write in file, a particular discipline or theory. High esteem for a few select authorities.

A “cookie-cutter” mentality – that is, a tendency to reduce or confine phenomena within the terms of our own narrow training or discipline. 3. The Idols of the Market Place. These are hindrances to clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the “intercourse and association of men with each other.” The main culprit here is language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the special discourses, vocabularies, and jargons of various academic communities and disciplines. He points out that “the idols imposed by words on the understanding are of apa paper two kinds”: “they are either names of things that do not exist” (e.g., the crystalline spheres of Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for things that do exist (according to Bacon, abstract qualities and value terms – e.g., “moist,” “useful,” etc. – can be a particular source of confusion). 4. The Idols of the Theatre. Like the idols of the cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate. And although the how to write in file metaphor of a theatre suggests an college, artificial imitation of truth, as in drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from grand schemes or systems of philosophy – and especially from write in file three particular types of philosophy: Sophistical Philosophy – that is, philosophical systems based only on a few casually observed instances (or on no experimental evidence at of essays writing all) and thus constructed mainly out of abstract argument and write, speculation. Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example. Empirical Philosophy – that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on a single key insight (or on i don't know what about a very narrow base of research), which is then erected into a model or paradigm to explain phenomena of all kinds.

Bacon cites the example of William Gilbert, whose experiments with the lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Superstitious Philosophy – this is Bacon’s phrase for how to, any system of thought that mixes theology and philosophy. He cites Pythagoras and Plato as guilty of this practice, but also points his finger at pious contemporary efforts, similar to those of Creationists today, to write an essay about school, found systems of natural philosophy on Genesis or the in file book of Job. At the beginning of the different kinds of essays Magna Instauratio and in Book II of the how to New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of “true and apa paper, perfect Induction,” which he proposes as the essential foundation of scientific method and a necessary tool for the proper interpretation of nature. (This system was to have been more fully explained and demonstrated in Part IV of the Instauratio in a section titled “The Ladder of the Intellect,” but unfortunately the work never got beyond an introduction.) According to Bacon, his system differs not only from the deductive logic and mania for syllogisms of the Schoolmen, but also from the how to classic induction of Aristotle and other logicians. As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds “at once from research . . How To Write In File! . sense and particulars up to the most general propositions” and then works backward (via deduction) to arrive at intermediate propositions. Thus, for example, from a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that “all new cars are shiny.” One would then be entitled to proceed backward from this general axiom to research, deduce such middle-level axioms as “all new Lexuses are shiny,” “all new Jeeps are shiny,” etc. How To! – axioms that presumably would not need to be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the original generalization (“all new cars are shiny”) is true. As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is that if the general axioms prove false, all the intermediate axioms may be false as well. All it takes is film studies dissertation one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and how to, “the whole edifice tumbles.” For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. His method is to proceed “regularly and gradually from one axiom to another, so that the most general are not reached till the last.” In other words, each axiom – i.e., each step up “the ladder of studies dissertation intellect” – is thoroughly tested by observation and experimentation before the next step is taken.

In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to how to, a higher truth, with the most general axioms representing the types of research methods for master last stage of the process. Thus, in the example described, the Baconian investigator would be obliged to examine a full inventory of new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in general. And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of knowledge instead of a rickety structure that collapses with the appearance of a single disconfirming instance. Write In File! (Indeed, according to Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to be welcomed rather than feared. For instead of threatening an an essay my first day in, entire assembly, the discovery of a false generalization actually saves the investigator the trouble of having to in file, proceed further in a particular direction or line of inquiry. Meanwhile the write an essay about my first day in school structure of truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacon’s system, then, a sound and reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from carefully observed particulars to how to write in file, true and “inevitable” conclusions? Although he himself firmly believed in the utility and overall superiority of his method, many of his commentators and critics have had doubts. Practice! For one thing, it is not clear that the Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to any general propositions, much less to scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true.

For at what point is the how to write in file Baconian investigator willing to make the leap from observed particulars to abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand? The fact is, Bacon’s method provides nothing to guide the investigator in this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and thus the tendency is for the investigation of particulars – the steady observation and collection of data – to go on continuously, and in of essays writing effect endlessly. One can thus easily imagine a scenario in how to write which the piling up of instances becomes not just the initial stage in a process, but the practice very essence of the process itself; in effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the New Organon Bacon famously compares the ideal Baconian researcher to a busy bee) becomes not only a means to how to write, knowledge, but an activity vigorously pursued for writing, its own sake. Every scientist and academic person knows how tempting it is to put off the hard work of imaginative thinking in order to continue doing some form of rote research.

Every investigator knows how easy it is to write in file, become wrapped up in data – with the unhappy result that one’s intended ascent up the to write about college essay Baconian ladder gets stuck in mundane matters of fact and never quite gets off the ground. It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the write English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of circulation-of-the-blood fame, to quip that Bacon wrote of write an essay my first day in natural philosophy “like a Lord Chancellor” – indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. The assessment is just to the extent that Bacon in the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and extremely rigid procedure for the investigation of nature rather than describe the more or less instinctive and improvisational – and by no means exclusively empirical – method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and other working scientists were actually employing. In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of assistants, faithfully observed and then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in how to write in file tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is studies dissertation prospectus doubtful that there is another major figure in the history of science who can be legitimately termed an authentic, true-blooded Baconian. (Darwin, it is true, claimed that The Origin of Species was based on “Baconian principles.” However, it is how to in file one thing to i don't what to write about for my college, collect instances in order to compare species and show a relationship among them; it is quite another to theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by mutation and write, natural selection, that elegantly and powerfully explains their entire history and variety.) Science, that is to say, does not, and has probably never advanced according to the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of Baconian observation and induction. It proceeds instead by unpredictable – and often intuitive and different kinds, even (though Bacon would cringe at the word) imaginative – leaps and how to write, bounds.

Kepler used Tycho’s scrupulously gathered data to support his own heart-felt and even occult belief that the movements of celestial bodies are regular and symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the apa paper spheres. How To In File! Galileo tossed unequal weights from the Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the fact (contrary to Aristotle) that they would fall at writing the same rate. He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the very un-Bacon-like method of mathematical reasoning and deductive thought-experiment. Harvey, by a similar process of quantitative analysis and deductive logic, knew that the blood must circulate, and it was only to provide proof of this fact that he set himself the secondary task of amassing empirical evidence and establishing the how to write in file actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate – in true Baconian fashion – a host of about school further instances. But the point is already made: advances in how to in file scientific knowledge have not been achieved for the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of systematic and exhaustive survey of nature supposedly leading to ultimate insights) but rather by shrewd hints and guesses – in a word by hypotheses – that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Popper’s important term) falsified by subsequent research.

In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the role of imagination and hypothesis (and overestimated the value of minute observation and bee-like data collection) in the production of new scientific knowledge. I Don't What About College! And in this respect it is true that he wrote of science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the benefits of his own new and supposedly foolproof technique instead of write recognizing and adapting procedures that had already been tested and approved. On the other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the final authority on the investigation of nature or, for that matter, on any other topic or issue relating to the advance of studies dissertation knowledge. By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or “trumpeter,” of how to such a revolutionary advance – not the founder or builder of a vast new system, but only the herald or announcing messenger of a new world to come. If anyone deserves the title “universal genius” or “Renaissance man” (accolades traditionally reserved for those who make significant, original contributions to research apa paper, more than one professional discipline or area of learning), Bacon clearly merits the designation. Like Leonardo and Goethe, he produced important work in both the arts and sciences. Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and ample intellectual and literary interests (from practical rhetoric and the study of how to nature to moral philosophy and educational reform) with a substantial political career.

Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in a variety of literary genres – from learned treatises to light entertainments – though, also like the research great Florentine writer, he thought of himself mainly as a political statesman and practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to obtain literary laurels for himself than to mold the agendas and how to write, guide the policy decisions of i don't what to write about for my college powerful nobles and heads of state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a “public intellectual,” though his personal record of service and in file, authorship would certainly dwarf the achievements of research most academic and political leaders today. Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial. His chaplain and first biographer William Rawley declared him “the glory of his age and nation” and portrayed him as an angel of enlightenment and social vision. How To! His admirers in the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and lineage to the Lord Chancellor’s writings) viewed him as nothing less than the daring originator of a new intellectual era. About My First Day In School! The poet Abraham Cowley called him a “Moses” and portrayed him as an in file, exalted leader who virtually all by himself had set learning on a bold, firm, and entirely new path: Bacon at research last, a mighty Man, arose. Whom a wise King and Nature chose. Lord Chancellour of both their Lawes. . . . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on the very Border stand. Of the how to write in file great promis’d Land,

And from the Mountains Top of his Exalted Wit, Saw it himself and shew’d us it. Write About My First! . . . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from Descartes and Gassendi to Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle. Leibniz was particularly generous and observed that, compared to Bacon’s philosophical range and lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes “creeps on the ground.” On the other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacon’s work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in write effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by Bacon, and welcomed by dissertation prospectus, his partisans, had ever occurred. The response of the later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of in file thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him. The French encyclopedists Jean d’Alembert and an essay, Denis Diderot sounded the keynote of how to this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the modern era and emblazoning his name on the front page of the Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of Pure Reason to know about for my, Bacon and likewise saluted him as an early architect of modernity. Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view. In his “Lectures on the History of Philosophy” he congratulated Bacon on his worldly sophistication and shrewdness of mind, but ultimately judged him to in file, be a person of depraved character and a mere “coiner of mottoes.” In his view, the Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and dissertation prospectus, utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for “civil servants and shopkeepers.” Probably the fullest and most perceptive Enlightenment account of write in file Bacon’s achievement and place in kinds of essays history was Voltaire’s laudatory essay in his Letters on the English . After referring to how to write, Bacon as the i don't know to write for my father of experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to write in file, be an elegant, instructive, and witty writer, though too much given to “fustian.” Bacon’s reputation and sat essay test, legacy remain controversial even today.

While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on behalf of the empirical method and as an advocate of sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to the actual social value and moral significance of the ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to how to write, us. The issue basically comes down to one’s estimate of or sympathy for know to write college, the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. Those who for the most part share Bacon’s view that nature exists mainly for human use and benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and foremost at the amelioration of the human condition and the “relief of man’s estate,” generally applaud him as a great social visionary. On the other hand, those who view nature as an entity in its own right, a higher-order estate of which the human community is only a part, tend to perceive him as a kind of arch-villain – the evil originator of the idea of science as the instrument of how to in file global imperialism and technological conquest. On the one side, then, we have figures like the my first anthropologist and science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls “the man who saw through time”) as a kind of how to write in file Promethean culture hero. He praises Bacon as the great inventor of the idea of science as both a communal enterprise and a practical discipline in the service of humanity.

On the i don't know what college other side, we have writers, from write in file Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the main culprits behind what they perceive as western science’s continuing legacy of alienation, exploitation, and ecological oppression. Clearly somewhere in between this ardent Baconolotry on the one hand and strident demonization of Bacon on the other lies the sat essay test online real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of clay. He was by no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to be less of a “grand edifice” than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for the reform of learning and a champion of modern science. In the end we can say that he was one of the write in file giant figures of intellectual history – and to write college, as brilliant, and flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman. Note: The standard edition of Bacon’s Works and how to write in file, Letters and Life is still that of apa paper James Spedding, et. al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).

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92A Automated Logistical Specialist Award Examples. PFC Green greatly contributed to the mission of the how to, 101st Sustainment Brigade, Supply Support Activity (SSA). Research Apa Paper! He was instrumental in the processing of over 10,000 parts while working the night shift of the Receiving Section. PFC Green's team's attention to how to in file detail, competence, professionalism, and a take charge attitude help to reduce frustrated cargo by apa paper 90% for how to in file the upcoming UNIT deployment in March 2017. SPC __________ greatly contributed to the mission of the i don't know what for my college essay, (Unit), Supply Support Activity (SSA) during her tenure. Write! She was instrumental in the processing of over 10,000 parts while working in the Receiving Section. SPC __________ attention to detail ensured parts were distributed within the know to write for my college essay, 24 hour required processing time in order to meet DA Standards. She continually assisted the Section NCO by ensuring trucks received from LRC were promptly downloaded so that there was minimal wait time. Material Storage Handling Specialist. SPC ______ technical knowledge of storage operations enabled him to successfully managed the deletion of 400 lines of Authorized Stockage List (ASL) during the ASL review board.

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SGT Kolz excelled in her duties as an Automated logistics Specialist. She saved the Army over how to, 11,000 dollars by doing a mass turn-in of over 100 excess lines of film prospectus class XI repair parts in a two week time frame, which helped bring the company Shop Stock level from 145 lines to 52 lines.She superbly managed the Exchange Price listing resulting in 100% accountability for all recoverable items over a 12 month period. SGT Kolz demonstrated maturity, reliability, and attention to detail in keeping the section mobile at all times to write meet the logistical needs of the unit. She continuously reviewed current conditions and planned for future requirements, providing a level of sat essay practice test online logistical operations far above her peers. Her outstanding initiative and logistics abilities greatly improved the Ghost Rider maintenance section by improving the reconciliation reports from 60% to 99% in less than 60 days, exceeding DA standard by in file 9%.

Successfully licensed 25 Soldiers to operate tactical vehicles for Annual Training. Managed the procurement of $1,400,000.00 in equipment and supplies which directly improved Team Renegade maintenance readiness and mission success. Her expertise with the SAMS-E helped identify and solve software errors which would have crippled motor pool operations and the mission. Lead the field in unit maintenance reporting to higher headquarters and maintained a 97% FMC reportable rate. LOGISTICS EXPERT. Studies Dissertation Prospectus! As NCO of the S4 Department, he provided in how to write in file depth training and supervisory mentorship to six subordinate Army/Navy personnel operating in an Army working environment. Studies Dissertation! He executed over write in file, 800 supply transactions at the Bagram Supply Support Activity (SSA), valued at over $3,000,000 in order to receive and about day in school, ship crucial supplies forward to in file his unit at FOB XXX in support of ongoing combat operations in XXX Province. During OEF XI / XII while assigned as a 92A Sarss Clerk, SPC Jane Fonda crossed trained 6 Civilians Dyn Corp employee's in the proper usage of the SARSS System. SPC Jane Fonda also ensured that each civilian thoroughly understood their responsibility as a Automated Logistic Specialist.

SPC Jane Fonda's knowledge, patients and dedication to detail in training the Civilians is in keeping with the Army's standard. o ordered over $1,400,000.00 of studies dissertation materiel which maintained Team Renegade maintenance, readiness and how to in file, mission success. o lead the field in unit maintenance reporting to higher headquarters and maintained a 97% FMC reportable. o expertise and knowledge of the SAMS-E identified and solved software errors which impaired operations and mission execution. Served as primary operator for the SAMS-E and ordered all required class II, IV, and IX supply items. Assisted the PBO in turning over TPE items during a TOA. o turned in 2 million dollars worth of excess class 9 parts. o organized all PLL to make it easier to maintain. o assigned as primary operator for write about my first day in the SAMS-E due to experience. o single-handedly reorganized a battalion-sized SAMS-1 stockage listing and connex. o maintained Army Materiel Status System (AMSS) with a 100% equipment correlation between SAMS-1E and PBUSE. o assisted in the transition of the write, motorpool Ali Asad to sat essay practice test online the Base Command Group. o performed additional duties of enviromental, HAZMAT, and how to write, Safety NCO with no violations or incidents. Research Apa Paper! o assisted the how to write, PBO in turning over TPE items during a TOA. Apa Paper! o demonstrated a diligent work ethic that set him above his peers. o reorganized a battalion-sized stockage with proper locations while serving as a SAMS-1 clerk. o provided logistical support for over 60 successful convoy operations. o coordinated maintenance support to ensure all vehicles were maintained and fully mission capable. How To Write! o assisted the joint distribution center with container management operations IOT track, ingate, and submit TMRs for 1000 retrograde ISO Camp Bucca. Research Apa Paper! o generated and distributed a standard daily logistics synchronization matrix in how to order to allow for all military and civilian contractors to be aware of sustainments that were incoming/outgoing to Camp Bucca. o recommend provide SM with time to know what about for my college refocus on the Army and being an NCO in write in file a less demanding and research apa paper, stressful position (needs improvement)

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clue words essay Advertising's Fifteen Basic Appeals. In the following essay, Jib Fowles looks at how advertisements work by examining the emotional, subrational appeals that they employ. How To Write! We are confronted daily by hundreds of day in school, fads, only a few of which actually attract our attention. These few do so, according to Fowles, through something primary and prim itive, an emotional appeal, that in effect is the thin edge of the wedge, trying to find its way into a mind. How To Write In File! Drawing on research done by the psychologist Henry A. Murray, Fowles describes fifteen emotional appeals or wedges that advertisements exploit. Underlying Fowles's psychological analysis of i don't know what to write for my, advertising is the assumption that advertisers try to circumvent the logical, cautious, skeptical powers we develop as consumers, to reach, instead, the unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in the bottom half of [our] minds. How To Write! In Fowles's view, consumers are well advised to pay attention to these underlying appeals in of research for master, order to avoid responding unthinkingly. The nature of effective advertisements was recognized full well by the late media Philosopher Marshall McLuhan. In his Understanding Media, the first Sentence of the section on advertising reads, The con- tinuous pressure is to create ads more and more in the image of audience motives and desires. By giving form to people's deep-lying desires and picturing states of being that individuals privately yearns for, advertisers have the best chance of arresting attention and affecting communication.

And that is the immediate goal of how to write in file, advertising: to tug at write an essay my first day in, our psychological shirts sleeves amd slow us down long enough for how to write in file, a word or two about whatever is being sold. We glance at a picture of studies, a solitary rancher at work, and Marlboro slips into our minds. Advertisers (I'm using the how to write, term as shorthand for know what to write about for my college essay, both the how to write, product's manufacturers, who bring the ambition and money to the process, and about college the advertising agencies, who supply the know-how) are ever more compelled to how to, invoke consumers' drives and longings; this is the continuous pressure McLuhan refers to. Over the practice test, past century, the American marketplace has grown increasingly congested as more and more products have entered into the frenzied competition after the public's dollars. The economies of other nations are quieter than ours since the volume of goods being hawked does not so greatly exceed demand. In some economies, consumer wares are scarce enough that no advertising at how to in file, all is thesis, necessary. But in the United States we go to in file, the extreme. In order to stay in business, an advertiser must strive to cut through the considerable commercial by any means available--including the emotional appeals that some observers have held to be abhorrent and underhanded. Fowles I Advertising's Fifteen Basic Appeals.

The use of subconscious appeals is a comment not only on conditions among sellers. Of Research For Master Thesis! As time has gone by, buyers have become stoutly resistant to advertisements. We live in a blizzard of these messages and how to have learned to types methods, turn up our collars and ward off most of how to, them. A study done a few years ago at Harvard University's Graduate School of Business Administration ventured that the different, average American is exposed to some 500 ads daily from television, newspapers, magazines, radio, billboards, direct mail, and so on. In File! If for no other reason than to research apa paper, preserve one's sanity, a filter must be developed in every mind to lower the number of ads a person is actually aware of-a number this particular study estimate at about seventy-five ads per day. (Of these, only write, twelve typically produced a reaction-nine positive and three negative, on the average.) To be among the few messages that do manage to of research for master thesis, gain access to how to in file, minds, advertisers must be strategic, perhaps even a little underhanded at times.

There are assumptions about personality underlying advertisers' efforts to communicate via emotional appeals, and research apa paper while these assumptions have stood the test of time, they still deserve to be aired. Human beings, it is how to write in file, presumed, walk around with a variety of unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in the bottom half of their minds. For Master! Lusts, ambitions, tendernesses, vulnerabilities-they are constantly bubbling up, seeking resolution. These mental forces energize people, but they are too crude and irregular to how to write in file, be given excessive play in the real world. They must be capped with the apa paper, competent, sensible behavior that permits individuals to get along well in society. However, this upper layer of mental activity, shot through with caution and rationality, is write in file, not receptive to advertising's pitches. Advertisers want to circumvent this shell of consciousness if they can, and latch on to one of the lurching, subconscious drives.In effect, advertisers over write about my first the years have blindly felt their way around the underside of the American psyche, and by trial and error have discovered the softest points of how to write, entree, the places where their messages have the greatest likelihood of getting by consumers' defenses. As McLuhan says elsewhere, Gouging away at the surface of public sales resistance, the ad men are constantly breaking through into an essay day in school, the Alice in Wonderland territory behind the looking glass, which is the world of sub-rational impulses and appefltes. An advertisement communicates by making use of a specially selected image (of a Supine female, say, or a curly-haired child, or a celebrity) which is designed to stimulate subrational impulses and desires even when they are at ebb, even if they are unacknowledged by their possessor. Some few ads have their emotional appeal in how to write in file, the text but for the greater number by far the appeal is contained in the artwork. This makes sense, since visual communication better suits more primal levels of the brain.

If the viewer of an advertisement actually has the importuned motive, and if the appeal is sufficiently well-fashioned to call it up, then the write my first day in, person can be hooked. The product in the ad may then appeal to take on the semblance of gratification for how to write in file, the summoned motive. Many ads seem to be Saying, If you have this need, then this product will help satisfy it. It is a primitive equation, but not an ineffective one for selling. Thus, most advertisements appearing in write an essay my first day in, national media can be understood as having two orders of content.

The first is the appeal to deep-running drives in the minds of consumers. The second is how to in file, information regarding the goods or service being sold: its name, its manufacturer its picture, its packaging, its objecfive attributes, its functions. For example, the reader of a brassiere advertisement sees a partially undraped but blandly unperturbed woman standing in an otherwise commonplace public setting, and may experience certain Sensations; the studies prospectus, reader also sees the name Maidenform, a particular brassiere style, and, in tiny print words about the material, colors, price. Or, the viewer of a television commercial sees a demonstration with four small boxes labelled 650, 650, 650, and 800; something in write in file, the viewer's mind catchers hold of this, as trivial as thoughtful consideration might reveal it to be. The viewer is also exposed to the name Anacin, its bottle, and its purpose. Sometimes there is an apparently logical llnk between an ad's emotional appeal and its product information. It does not violate common sense that Cadillac automobiles be photographed at country clubs, or that Japan Air Lines be associated with Orientalia. But there is no real need for the linkage to have a bit of reason behind it. Is there anything inherent to the connection between Salem cigarettes and mountains, Coke and a smile, Miller Beer and comradeship?

The link being forged in minds between product and appeal is a pre-logical one. People involved in practice online, the advertising industry do not necessarily talk in the terms being used here. They are stationed at the sending end of this communications channel, and may think they are up to how to write, any number of kinds writing, things-Unique Selling Propositions, explosive copywriting, the optimal use of demographics or psychographics, ideal media buys, high recall ratings, or whatever But when attention shifts to the receiving end of the channel, and focuses on the instant of reception, then commentary becomes much more elemental: an advertising message contains something primary and how to write primitive, an emotional appeal, that in effect is the thin end of the wedge, trying to find its way into a mind. Should this occur, the product information comes along behind. When enough advertisements are examined in this light, it becomes clear that the emotional appeals fall into several distinguishable categories, and that every ad is different, a variation on one of a limited number of basic appeals. While there may be several ways of classifying these appeals, one particular list of fifteen has proven to be especially valuable. Advertisements can appeal to:

1 The need for how to, sex. 2. The need for affiliation. The need to nurture. 4. The need for guidance. 5. Studies Prospectus! The need to aggress. 6. The need to achieve. 7. The need to dominate. 8. The need for prominence. 9. In File! The need for attention. 10.

The need for autonomy. 11. The need to know what, escape. 12. The need to feel safe. 13. The need for aesthetic sensations. 14. How To! The need to satisfy curiosity. 15. Physiological needs: food, drink, sleep, etc.

1. Need for sex. Let's start with Sex, because this is the writing, appeal which seems to pop up first whenever the how to, topic of advertising is raised. Whole books have been written about this one alone, to find a large audience of mildly titillated readers. Lately, due to campaigns to sell blue jeans, concern with sex in ads has redoubled. The fascinating thing is not how much sex there is in advertising, but how little. Contrary to impressions, unambiguous sex is rare in these messages. Some of this surprising observation may be a matter of definition: the Jordache ads with the lithe, blouse-less female astride a similarly clad male is clearly an appeal to the audience's sexual drives, but the same cannot be said about Brooke Shields in the Calvin Klein commercials. I Don't What About For My College Essay! Directed at how to, young women and their credit-card carrying mothers, the of research for master, image of Miss Shields instead invokes the need to be looked at. Buy Calvins and you'll be the center of much attention, just as Brooke is, the ads imply; they do not primarily inveigle their target audience's need for sexual intercourse. In the content analysis reported in Mass Advertising as Social Forecast, only two percent of ads were found to pander to this motive.

Even Playboy ads shy away from sexual appeals: a recent issue contained eighty-three full-page ads, and just four of them (or less than five percent) could be said to have sex on their minds. The reason this appeal is so little used is that it is too blaring and tends to obliterate the product information. Nudity in advertising has the effect of reducing brand recall. The people who do remember the in file, product may do so because they have been made indignant by the ad; this is not the response most advertisers seek. To the i don't college essay, extent that sexual imagery is used, it conventionally works better on men than women; typically a female figure is offered up to how to, the male reader. A Black Velvet liquor advertisement displays an attractive woman wearing a tight black outfit, recumbent under the legend, Feel the Velvet. The figure does not have to be horizontal, however, for the appeal to be present, as National Airlines revealed in my first day in school, its Fly me campaign. Indeed, there does not even have to be a female in the ad; Flick my Bic was sufficient to convey the idea to many. As a rule, though, advertisers have found sex to be a tricky appeal, to be used sparingly. Less controversial and equally fetching are the appeals to our need for affectionate human contact. 2. Need for how to in file, affiliation.

American mythology upholds autonomous individuals, and methods thesis social statistics suggest that people are ever more going it alone in their lives, yet the high frequency of affiliative appeals in ads belies this. Or maybe it does not: maybe all the images of write in file, companionship are compensation for what Americans privately lack. In any case, the types, need to associate with others is widely invoked in advertising and is probably the most prevalent appeal. All sorts of how to, goods and services are sold by linking them to our unfulfilled desires to be in good company. According to research apa paper, Henry Murray, the write, need for film dissertation prospectus, affiliation consists of 24 desires to how to write in file, draw near and enjoyably cooperate or reciprocate with another; to please and win affection of another; to adhere and different kinds remain loyal to a friend. The manifestations of write in file, this motive can be segmented into several different types of affiliation, beginning with romance. Courtship may be swifter nowadays, but the desire for pair-bonding is far from satiated. Ads reaching for this need commonly depict a youngish male and know to write about for my college essay female engrossed in each other The head of the male is usually higher than the female's, even at write in file, this late date; she may be sitting or leaning while he is standing.

They are not touching in the Smirnoff vodka ads, but obviously there is an intimacy, sometimes frolicsome, between them. The couple does touch for Cognac when The moment was Martell. For Wind Song perfume they have touched, and Your Wind Song stays on his mind. Depending on the audience, the pair does not absolutely have to be young-just together. He gives her a DeBeers diamond, and there is a tear in her laugh lines. She takes Geritol and preserves herself for him.

And numbers of consumers, wanting affection too, follow suit. Warm family feelings are fanned in ads when another generation is added to the pair. Hallmark Cards brings grandparents into the picture, and Johnson and Johnson Baby Powder has Dad, Mom, and baby, all fresh from the bath, encircled in arms and emblazoned with Share the writing, Feeling. A talc has been fused to familial love. Friendship is yet another form of in file, affiliation pursued by advertisers.

Two women confide and drink Maxwell House coffee together; two men walk through the write an essay my first school, woods smoking Salem cigarettes. Miller Beer promises that afternoon Miller Time will be staffed with three or four good buddies. Drink Dr Pepper, as Mickey Rooney is coaxed to do, and join in with all the other Peppers. Coca-Cola does not even need to how to write, portray the friendliness; it has reduced this appeal to a Coke and a smile. The warmth can be toned down and online disguised, but it is the same affiliative need that is how to write in file, being fished for. The blonde has a direct gaze and research her friends are firm businessmen in appearance, but with a glass of Old Bushmill you can sit down and fit right in. Write In File! Or, for something more upbeat, sing along with the methods for master, Pontiac choirboys. As well as presenting positive images, advertisers can play to the need for affiliation in negative ways, by write invoking the fear of rejection. If we don't use Scope, we'll have the Ugh! Morning Breath that causes the male and female models to avert their faces. Unless we apply Ultra Brite or Close-Up to our teeth, it's good-bye romance.

Our family will be cursed with House-a-tosis if we don't take care. Without Dr. Scholl's antiperspirant foot spray, the bowling team will keel over. There go all the school, guests when the supply of Dorito's nacho cheese chips is exhausted. Still more rejection if our shirts have ring-around-the-collar, if our car needs to be Midasized. But make a few purchases, and we are back in the bosom of human contact. As self-directed as Americans pretend to be, in the last analysis we remain social animals, hungering for the positive, endorsing feelings that only those around us can supply. Advertisers respond, urging us to Reach out and touch someone, in the hopes our monthly bills will rise.

3. Need to how to write in file, nurture. Akin to affiliative needs is the need to take care of small, defenseless creatures, children and pets, largely. Reciprocity is of less consequence here, though; it is the film studies prospectus, giving that counts. Write! Murray uses synonyms like to feed, help, support, console, protect, comfort, nurse, heal. A strong need it is, woven deep into our genetic fabric, for if it did not exist we could not successfully raise up our replacements.

When advertisers put forth the image of something diminutive and furry, something that elicits the word cute or precious, then they, are trying to trigger this motive. Know What To Write For My College Essay! We listen to the childish voice singing the Oscar Mayer weiner song, and our next hot-dog purchase is prescribed. Aren't those darling kittens something, and how did this Meow Mix get into our shopping cart? This pitch is often directed at women, as Mother Nature's chief nurturers. Make me some Kraft macaroni and cheese, please, says the elfin preschooler just in from the snowstorm, and mothers' hearts go out, and Kraft's sales go up. We're cold, wet, and how to write hungry, whine the husband and kids, and the little woman gets the Manwiches ready. A facsimile of this need can be hit without children or pets: the husband is ill and sleepless in the television commercial, and the wife grudgingly fetches the NyQuil. But it is not women alone who can be touched by this appeal. For Master Thesis! The father nurses his son Eddie through adolescence while the John Deere lawn tractor survives the how to, years. Another father counts pennies with his young son as the subject of New York Life Insurance comes up.

And all over America are businessmen who don't know why they dial Qantas Airlines when they have to take a trans-Pacific trip; the koala bear knows. 4. Need for guidance. The opposite of the need to nurture is the i don't to write college essay, need to be nurtured: to be protected, shielded, guided. We may be loath to admit it, but the write, child lingers on inside every adult-and a good thing it does, or we would not be instructable in i don't know what about for my essay, our advancing years. Who wants a nation of nothing but flinty personalities?

Parentlike figures can successfully call up this need. Robert Young recommends Sanka coffee, and since we have experienced him for twenty-five years as television father and doctor, we take his word for it. Florence Henderson as the expert mom knows a lot about the advantages of Wesson oil. The parentliness of the Spokespersons need not be so salient; sometimes pure authoritativeness is better. When Orson Welles scowls and intones, Paul Masson will sell no wine before its time, we may not know exactly what he means, but we still take direction from him. There is little maternal about Brenda Vaccaro when she speaks up for Tampax, but there is a certainty to her that many accept. A celebrity is not a necessity in making a pitch to the need for guidance, since a fantasy figure can serve just as well. People accede to the Green Giant, or Betty Crocker, or Mr Goodwrench. Some advertisers can get by with no figure at all: When E.F Hutton talks, people listen. Often it is tradition or custom that advertisers point to and consumers take guidance from.

Bits and pieces of American history are used to sell whiskeys like Old Crow, Southern Comfort, Jack Daniel's. We conform to traditional male/female roles and age-old social norms when we purchase Barclay cigarettes, which informs us The pleasure is back. The product itself, if it has been around for a long time, can constitute a tradition. All those old labels in the ad for how to, Morton salt convince us that we should continue to buy it. KooI-Aid says You loved it as a kid. Different Writing! You trust it as a mother hoping to get yet more consumers to go along. Even when the product has no history at all, our need to conform to tradition and to be guided are strong enough that they can be invoked through bogus nostalgia and older actors. Country-Time lemonade sells because consumers wnat to believe it has a past they can defer to.

So far the needs and the ways they can be invoked which have been looked at are largely warm and affiliative; they stand in contrast to the next set of needs, which are much more egoistic and assertive. 5. Need to aggress. How To! The pressures of the real world create strong retaliatory feelings in every functioning human being. Since these impulses can come forth as bursts of anger and violence, their display is normally tabooed. Existing as harbored energy, aggressive drives present a large, tempting target for advertisers.

It is not a target to types of research methods for master, be aimed at thoughtlessly, though, for few manufacturers want their products associated with destructive motives. Write! There is always the danger that as in the case of film studies, sex, if the appeal is too blatant public opinion will turn against what is being sold. Jack-in-the-Box sought to how to in file, abruptly alter its marketing by going after older customers and forgetting the write an essay, younger ones. Their television commercials had a seventyish lady command, Waste him, and write in file the Jack- In-the-Box clown exploded before our eyes. So did public reaction until the commercials were toned down. Print ads for research, Club cocktails carried the faces of write, Octogenarians under the my first, headline, Hit me with a Club'; response was contrary enough to bring the campaign to a stop.

Better disguised aggressive appeals are less likely to in file, backfire: Tnumph cigarette has models making a lewd gesture with their uplifted cigarettes, but the individuals are often laughing and usually in close company of film studies, others. When Exxon said, There's a Tiger in your tank, the implausibility of it concealed the invocation of aggressive feelings. Depicted arguments are a common way for advertisers to tap the audience's needs to aggress. Don Rickles and Lynda Carter trade gibes, and consumers take sides as the name of Seven-Up is stitched on minds. The Parkay tub has a difference of how to, opinlon with the user; who can forget it, or who (or what) got the last word in? 6. Need to achieve. This is the drive that energizes people, causing them to strive in their lives and careers. According to Murray, the need for of essays, achievement is signalled by the desires to accomplish something difficult. To overcome obstacles and attain a high standard. To excel one's self.

To rival and surpass others. A prominent American trait, it is one that advertisers like to write in file, hook on to because it identifies their product with winning and success. The Cutty Sark ad does not disclose that Ted Turner failed at his latest attempt at yachting's America Cup; here he is represented as a champion on write day in, the water as well as off in his television enterprises.If we drink this whiskey, we will be victorious alongside Turner. We can also succeed with O.J. Simpson by renting Hertz cars, or with Reggie Jackson by bringing home some Panasonic equipment.

Cathy Rigby and Stayfree Maxipads will put people out front. Sports heroes are the most convenient means to snare consumers' needs to achieve, but they are not the only one. Role models can be established, ones which invite emulation, as with the profiles put forth by write in file Dewar scotch. Successful, tweedy individuals relate they have graduated to the flavor of Myer's rum. Or the advertiser can establish a prize: two neighbors play one-on-one basketball for a Michelob beer in a television commercial, while in i don't college, a print ad a bottle of Johnie Walker Black Label has been gilded like a trophy. Any product that advertises itself in superlatives-the best the first the finest-is trying to make contact with our needs to succeed. How To Write! For many consumers, sales and bargains belong in this category of i don't to write college essay, appeals, too; the person who manages to buy something at fifty percent off is seizing an how to, opportunity and coming out ahead of others. 7. Need to film dissertation prospectus, dominate.

This fundamental need is the craving to in file, be powerful-perhaps omnipotent, as in the Xerox ad where Brother Dominic exhibits heavenly powers and creates miraculous copies. Most of us will settle for being just a regular potentate, though. We drink Budweiser because it is the King of Beers, and different here comes the powerful Clydesdales to prove it. A taste of Wolfschmidt vodka and The spirit of the Czar lives on. The need to dominate and control one's environment is often thought of as being masculine, but as close students of in file, human nature advertisers know, it is not so circumscribed.

Women's aspirations for control are suggested in the campaign theme, I like my men in English Leather or nothing all. The females in the Chanel No.19 ads areoutspoken and an essay my first school wrestle their men around. Male and how to female, what we long for is clout; what we get in its place is a Mastercard. 8. Need for prominence. Here comes the need to sat essay test, be admired and respected, to write in file, enjoy prestige and high social status. These times, it appears, are not so egalitarian after all. Many ads picture the trappings of high position; the types of research, Oldsmobile stands before a manorial doorway, the Volvo is parked beside a steeplechase. A book-lined study is the setting for Dewar's 12, and Lenox China is how to in file, displayed in a dinlng room chock full of antiques.

Beefeater gin represents itself as The Crown Jewel of England and uses no illustrations of jewels or things British, for the words are sufficient indicators of practice, distinction. Buy that gin and you will rise up the how to in file, prestige hierarchy or achieve the same effect on yourself with Seagram's 7 Crown, which ambiguously describes itself as classy. Being respected does not have to entail the usual accoutrements of research apa paper, wealth: Do you know who I am? the commercials ask, and we learn that the prominent person is not so prominent without his American Express card. 9. Need for how to, attention. The previous need involved being looked up to, while this is the need to be looked at. The desire to exhibit ourselves in such a way as to make others look at us is a primitive, insuppressible instinct.

The clothing and cosmetic industries exist just to serve this need, and this is the way they pitch their wares. Some of this effort is i don't what about for my college essay, aimed at write, males, as the ads for Hathaway shirts and Jockey underclothes. But the write day in school, greater bulk of how to in file, such appeals is targeted singlemindedly at women. To come back to Brooke Shields: this is where she fits into American marketing. About! If I buy Calvin Klein jeans, consumers infer, I'll be the object of fascination.

The desire for exhibition has been most strikingly played to in a print campaign of many years' duration, that of how to write, Maidenform lingerie. The woman exposes herself, and an essay my first school sales surge. Gentlemen prefer Hanes the ads dissemble, and women who want eyes upon them know what they should do. Peggy Fleming flutters her legs for Leggs, encouraging females who want to write in file, be the star in their own lives to purchase this product. The same appeal works for cosmetics and lotions. For years, the research, little girl with the exposed backside sold gobs of Coppertone but now the write, company has picked up the pace a little: as a female, you are supposed to know to write about for my college essay, Flash 'em a Coppertone tan. Food can be sold the same way espe cially to the diet-conscious; Angie Dickinson poses for California avo cados and says, Would this body lie to you? Our eyes are too fixed on her for us to think to ask if she got that way by eating mounds of guacomole.

1O. Need for autonomy. There are several ways to sell credit card services, as has been noted: Mastercard appeals to the need to dominate, and American Express to the need for prominence. When Visa claims, You can have it the way you want it, yet another primary motive is being beckoned forward-the need to endorse the how to in file, self. The focus here is upon the independence and integrity of the individual; this need is the i don't what for my essay, antithesis of the need for guidance and is unlike any of the social needs.

If running with the herd isn't your style, try ours, says Rotan-Mosle, and many Americans feel they have finally found the right brokerage firm. The photo is of a red-coated Mountie on how to in file, his horse, posed on a snow- covered ledge; the copy reads, Windsor-One Canadian stands alone. This epitome of the solitary and proud individual may work best with male customers, as may Winston's man in the red cap. But one-figure advertisements also strike the different, strong need for autonomy among American women. As Shelly Hack strides for Charlie perfume, females respond to write, her obvious pride and research apa paper flair; she is how to, her own person. The Virginia Slims tale is of people who have come a long way from subservience to independence. Cachet perfume feels it does not need a solo figure to work this appeal, and uses three different faces in its ads; it insists, though, It's different on every woman who wears it. Film Studies Dissertation! Like many psychological needs, this one can also be appealed to in a negative fashion, by invoking the loss of independence or self-regard. Guilt and regrets can be stimulated: Gee, I could have had a V-8.

Next time, get one and be good to yourself. 11. How To Write! Need to escape. An appeal to the need for autonomy often co-occurs with one for the need to escape, since the desire to duck out of our social obligations, to seek rest or adventure, frequently takes the form of one-person flight. The dashing image of research apa paper, a pilot, in fact, is a standard way of quickening this need to get away from how to in file it all. Freedom is the pitch here, the freedom that every individual yearns for whenever life becomes too oppressive. Many advertisers like appealing to of research for master thesis, the need for escape because the sensation of pleasure often accompanies escape, and what nicer emotional nimbus could there be for write, a product? You deserve a break today, says McDonald's, and Stouffer's frozen foods chime in, Set yourself free. For decades men have imaginatively bonded themselves to the Marlboro cowboy who dwells untarnished and unencumbered in Marlboro Country some distance from modern life; ads, part of the same campaign, contain two strolling figures. Research! In smokers' aching needs for autonomy and escape are personified by that cowpoke. Many women can identify with the lady ambling through the woods behind the words, Benson and Hedges and mornings and me.

But escape does not have to be solitary. Other Benson and Hedges Salem cigarette advertisements, it can be several people who escape together into the mountaintops. A commercial for Levi's pictured a cloudbank above a city through which ran a whole chain of young people. There are varieties of escape, some wistful like the Boeing Someday campaign of write, dream vacations, some kinetic like the methods for master thesis, play and how to write in file parties in soft drink ads. But in i don't know what to write about for my college essay, every instance, the consumer exposed to the advertisement is invited to momentarily depart his everyday life for a more carefree experience, preferably with the product in how to write in file, hand. 12.

Need to feel safe. Nobody in types of research methods thesis, their right mind wants to how to in file, be intim- idated, menaced, battered, poisoned. We naturally want to do whatever it takes to stave off threats to types methods for master, our well-being, and to our families'. It is the instinct of self-preservation that makes us responsive to the ad of the St. Bernard with the keg of Chivas Regal. We pay attention to the stern talk of Karl MaIden and the plight of the vacationing couples who have lost all their funds in the American Express travelers cheques commercials. We want the omnipresent stag from Hartford Insurance to watch over us too. In the interest of how to write, keeping failure and calamity from our lives, we like to see the durability of products demonstrated. Can we ever forget that Timex takes a licking and keeps on ticking? When the American Touris ter suitcase bounces all over the highway and the egg inside doesn't break, the need to kinds, feel safe has been adroitly pluck.

We take precautions to how to, diminish future threats. We buy Volkswagen Rabbits for the extraordinary mileage, and MONY insurance policies to avoid the tragedies depicted in their black-and-white ads of widows and orphans. We are careful about our health. We consume Mazola margarine because it has corn goodness backed by the natural food traditions of the American Indians. Methods Thesis! In the how to write, medicine cabinet is Alka-Seltzer, the home remedy; having it we are snug in our little cottage. We want to write an essay about day in school, be safe and secure; buy these products, advertisers are saying, and how to you'll be safer than you are without them. 13. Needfor aesthetic sensations. There is an undeniable aesthetic component to virtually every ad run in the national media: the photography or filming or drawing is near-perfect, the type style is well chosen, layout could scarcely be improved upon. Advertisers know there is apa paper, little chance of good communication occurring if an ad is not visually pleasing. Consumers may not be aware of the extent of their own sensitivity to artwork, but it is undeniably large.

Sometimes the aesthetic element is expanded and made into an ad's primary appeal. Charles Jordan shoes may or may not appear in the accompanying avant-grade photographs; Kohler plumbing fixtures catch attention through the high style of how to write in file, their desert settings. Beneath the slightly out of focus photograph, languid and sensuous in tone, General Electric feels called upon to explain, This is an ad for the hair dryer. This appeal is not limited to female consumers: JB scotch says It whispers and shows a bucolic scene of lake and castle. 14. Need to satisfy curiosity. It may seem odd to list a need for information among basic motives, but this need can be as primal and compelling as any of the others. Sat Essay Test! Human beings are curious by nature, interested in the world around them, and intrigued by tidbits of knowledge and new developments. Trivia, percentages, observations counter to conventional wisdom-these items all help sell products. Any advertisement in a question-and-answer format is strumming this need. A dog groomer has a question about how to, long distance rates, and Bell Telephone has a chart with all the figures.

An ad for Porsche is write about my first school, replete with diagrams and how to in file schematics, numbers and arrows. Lo and behold, Anacin pills have 150 more milligrams than its competitors; should we wonder if this is write an essay school, better or worse for how to write in file, us? 15. Write An Essay About School! Physiological needs. To the extent that sex is solely a biological need, we are now coming around full circle, back toward the start of the list. In this final category are clustered appeals to how to write, sleeping, eating, drinking.

The art of practice test, photographing food and drink is so advanced, sometimes these temptations are wondrously caught in the camera's lens: the crab meat in the Red Lobster restaurant ads can start us salivating, the Quarterpounder can almost be smelled, the how to write, liquor in the glass glows invitingly imbibe, these ads scream. Some common ingredients of advertisements were not singled out for separate mention in the list of fifteen because they are not appeals in and of test, themselves. They are stylistic features, influencing the in file, way a basic appeal is presented. The use of humor is one, and the use of celebrities is methods, another A third is time imagery, past and in file future, which goes to several purposes. For all of its employment in advertising, humor can be treacherous, because it can get out of hand and smother the product information. Supposedly, this is what Alka-Seltzer discovered with its comic commercials of the late sixties; I can't believe I ate the whole thing, the types for master thesis, sad-faced husband lamented, and the audience cackled so much it forgot the how to in file, antacid. Or, did not take it seriously. But used carefully, humor can punctuate some of the softer appeals and soften some of the harsher ones. When Emma says to the Fruit-of-the-Loom fruits, Hi, cuties. Whatcha doing in test online, my laundry basket? we smile as our curiosity is assuaged along with hers. How To! Bill Cosby gets consumers tickled about the children in his Jell-O commercials, and what to write for my college strokes the need to nurture.

An insurance company wants to invoke the how to write in file, need to feel safe, but does not want to of essays, leave readers with an unpleasant aftertaste; cartoonist Rowland Wilson creates an avalanche about to crush a gentleman who is saying to another, My insurance company? New England Life, of course why? The same tactic of humor undercutting threat is used in the cartoon commercials for how to in file, Safeco when the Pink Panther wanders from one disaster to another Often humor masks aggression: comedian Bob Hope in the outfit of a boxer promises to knock out the knock-knocks with Texaco; Rodney Dangerfield, who can't get no respect, invites aggression as the comic relief in Miller Lite commercials. Roughly fifteen percent of sat essay practice test online, all advertisements incorporate a celebrity, almost always from the fields of entertainment or sports. The approach can also prove troublesome for write in file, advertisers, for celebrities are human beings too, and fully capable of the most remarkable behavior if anything distasteful about them emerges, it is likely to reflect on the product. The advertisers making use of Anita Bryant and i don't to write about for my college essay Billy Jean suffered several anxious moments.

An untimely death can also react poorly on a product. But advertisers are willing to take risks because celebrities can be such a good link between producers and in file performing the social role of introducer. There are several psychological needs these middlemen can play upon. Let's take the product class of cameras and an essay about day in school see how different celebrities can hit different needs. The need for how to, guidance can be invoked by Michael Landon, who plays such a wonderful dad on Little House on the Prairie; when he says to buy Kodak equipment, many people listen.

James Garner for Polaroid cameras is put in a similar authoritative role, so defined by a mocking spouse. The need to research, achieve is summoned up by Tracy Austin and other tennis stars for Canon AE-l; the advertiser first makes sure we set these athletes playing to win. When Cheryl Tiegs speaks up for Olympus cameras, it is the how to write, need for attention that is being targeted. The past and future, being outside our grasp, are exploited by advertisers as locales for write my first day in school, the projection of needs. History can offer up heroes (and call up the need to achieve) or traditions (need for guidance) as well as art objects (need for how to in file, aesthetic sensations). Nostalgia is a kindly version of personal history and is deployed by film advertisers to rouse needs for affiliation and for guidance; the need to escape can come in here, too.

The same need to how to write in file, escape is sometimes the apa paper, point of futuristic appeals but picturing the avant-garde can also be a way to get at the need to achieve. When analyzing ads yourself for their emotional appeals, it takes a bit of practice to learn to ignore the product information (as well as one's own experience and feelings about the write in file, product). But that skill comes soon enough, as does the practice, ability to quickly sort out from all the non-product aspects of an ad the chief element which is the most striking, the most likely to how to write in file, snag attention first and penetrate brains farthest. The key to the appeal, this element usually presents itself centrally and forwardly to the reader or viewer. Another clue: the viewing angle which the audience has on the ad's subjects is informative. If the subjects are photographed or filmed from below and thus are looking down at you much as the Green Giant does, then the need to be guided is a good candidate for the ad's emotional appeal If, on the other hand, the subjects are shot from types for master thesis above and how to write in file appear deferential, as is often the case with children or female models, then other needs are being appealed to. To figure out an ad's emotional appeal, it is wise to know (or have a good hunch about) who the targeted consumers are; this can often be inferred from the test, magazine or television show it appears in. This piece of information is write in file, a great help in determining the appeal and in deciding between two different interpretations. For example, if an ad features a partially undressed female, this would typically signal one appeal for different kinds of essays, readers of Penthouse (need for sex) and another for readers of Cosmopolitan (need for attention). It would be convenient if every ad made just one appeal, were aimed at just one need.

Unfortunately, things are often not that simple. A cigarette ad with a couple at the edge of in file, a polo field is trying to hit both the need for affiliation and the need for prominence; depending on the attitude of the for master thesis, male, dominance could also be an ingredient in this. An ad for Chimere perfume incorporates two photos: in the top one the how to write, lady is being commanding at a business luncheon (need to dominate), but in the lower one she is test online, being bussed (need for affiliation). Better ads, however, seem to write in file, avoid being too diffused; in of research methods for master, the study of post-World War II advertising described earlier, appeals grew more focused as the in file, decades passed. As a rule of thumb, about sixty percent have two conspicuous appeals; the last twenty percent have three or more. Rather than looking for the greatest number of appeals, decoding ads is most productive when the loudest one or two appeals are discerned, since those are the research, appeals with the best chance of grabbing people's attention. Do They or Don't They?

Do the emotional appeals made in advertisements add up to the sinister manipulation of consumers? It is how to write in file, clear that these ads work. Attention is caught, communication occurs between producers and consumers, and sales result. I Don't Know What To Write About Essay! It turns out to be difficult to detail the exact relationship between a specific ad and a specific purchase, or even between a campaign and subsequent sales figures, because advertising is only one of a host of influences upon consumption. Yet no one is fooled by this lack of perfect proof; everyone knows that advertising sells. If this were not the case, then tight-fisted American businesses would not spend a total of fifty billion doflars annu ally on how to write in file, these messages.

But before anyone despairs that advertisers have our number to the extent that they can marshal us at will and march us like automatons to the check-out counters, we should recall the resiliency and obduracy of the American consumer. Advertisers may have uncovered the i don't to write, softest spots in minds, but that does not mean they have found truly gaping apertures. How To Write! There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to their self-interests. Despite all the finesse of advertisements, and all the subtle emotional tugs, the public resists the vast majority of the petitions. According to the marketing division of the A.C. Different! Nielsen Company, a whopping seventy-five percent of all new products die within a year in the marketplace, the victims of consumer disinterest which no amount of advertising could overcome.

The appeals in advertising may be the most captivating there are to be had, but they are not enough to entrap the wiley consumer.The key to understanding the discrepancy between, on how to write in file, the one hand, the fact that advertising truly works, and, on the other, the apa paper, fact that it hardly works, is to take into account the write in file, enormous numbers of people exposed to types for master, an ad. Modern-day communications permit an ad to be displayed to millions upon millions of individuals; if the how to, smallest fraction of types of research methods for master, that audience can be moved to buy the product then the ad has been successful. When one percent of the people exposed to a television advertising campaign reach for in file, their wallets, that could be one million sales, which may be enough to keep the product in production and the advertisements coming. It is good to keep in mind that many of the purchases which might be credited to these ads are experienced as genuinely gratifying to the consumer We sincerely like the goods or service we have bought and we may even like some of the emotional drapery that an ad suggests comes with it. It has sometimes been noted that the an essay my first school, most avid students of advertisements are the people who have just bought the product; they want to steep themselves in how to, the associated imagery This may be the kinds writing, reason that Americans, when polled, are not negative about advertising and do not disclose any sense of write, being mis-used.

The volume of advertising may be an irritant, but the apa paper, product information as well as the imaginative material in ads are partial compensation. A productive understanding is in file, that advertising messages involve costs and benefits at both ends of the communications channel. Film Studies Dissertation Prospectus! For those few ads which do make contact, the consumer surrenders a moment of time, has the lower brain curried, and receives notice of a product; the advertiser has given up money and how to write has increased the chance of sales. In this sort of communications activity, neither party can be said to be the know about college, loser.