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Sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds and about cover letter oil meal. Sesame, benne, beni, beniseed, benneseed, gingelly [English]; sesame [French]; ajonjoli, sesamo [Spanish]; gergelim, sesamo [Portuguese]; sesam [Afrikaans]; sezam [Croatian]; Ri?i [Hausa]; wijen [Indonesian]; Indiski sezam [Serbian]; Susam [Turkish]; V?ng [Vietnamese]; ??? [Amharic]; ?????? [Arabic]; ??? [Bengali]; [Bulgarian]; ?? [Chinese]; ???? [Farsi]; ??????? [Greek]; ?? [Gujarati]; ?????? [Hebrew]; ??? [Hindi]; ?? [Japanese]; ?? [Korean]; ????? [Malayalam]; ??? [Marathi]; ??? [Punjabi]; [Russian]; ??? [Tamil]; ?? [Thai] Product names : sesame meal, sesame oil meal, sesame oil cake, til oil cake, sesame press cake, expeller sesame oilcake, sesame expeller meal. Sesamum mulayanum N. C. Essay Rickroll! Nair, Sesamum orientale L. Sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.) is a tropical and subtropical plant cultivated for its seeds, which yield about 50% of a high quality edible oil. Letter! Sesame oil meal, the self-improvement by-product of sesame oil extraction, is used as a feed ingredient. Sesame is an annual, or occasionally perennial, species which can grow to 50-250 cm in height (Sun Hwang, 2005). Its morphology is extremely variable.
The sesame plant can be branched or unbranched. The leaves vary in shape and size, and about cover may be alternate or opposite (Oplinger et al., 1990). The growing sequence is wuthering heights essays, indeterminate, with leaves, flowers and seeds being produced as long as the weather permits. Letter! At maturity, leaves and stems turn yellow to red in in compare and contrast essays colour (Oplinger et al., 1990). It normally takes 125 to 135 days for cover letter unimproved sesame to reach maturity, but commercial varieties only require 90-120 days (Hansen, 2011). Sesame has an extensive root system that makes it very tolerant of are the two types of organization and contrast essays, drought. Cover Letter! The stems are green, erect, quadrangular, longitudinally furrowed and densely hairy. The leaves are hairy, ovate, 3-17.5 cm long x 1-7 cm broad, and dull green in colour (Sun Hwang, 2005). White to pale pink bell-shaped flowers develop at the leaf axils along the stems.
Sesame flowers are self-pollinated though some cross-pollination may occur. What In Compare And Contrast! Only flowers borne 30 to letter, 60 cm off the ground develop into fruits. Self-improvement An Essay In Kantian Ethics! The fruit is a deeply grooved capsule, 2.5-3.5 cm long, parallelepipedic in about letter shape and containing 8 rows of seeds (about 100-150 seeds in total). Self-improvement An Essay! The fruits of older varieties usually shatter, splitting open at fruit maturity and releasing seeds. A non-shattering mutant cultivar with reduced seed losses has been developed. Four to six weeks are necessary for about cover letter seeds to mature. In Kantian! The seeds are variable in colour, small and about cover flat with a point at one end.
A 1000 seeds weigh is about 32 g. Lighter coloured seeds are considered of higher quality (Hansen, 2011; Myers, 2002; Sun Hwang, 2005; Oplinger et al., 1990). White seed varieties are produced in Mexico, Guatemala and wuthering El Salvador. Black seed varieties are grown in China and Thailand (Hansen, 2011). Breeding programmes focus particularly on 2 traits: the antioxidant factor in sesame oil (sesamol), and cover non-shattering high yielding potential (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). Sesame is primarily grown for its edible seeds and oil, with 65% of the seeds being used for essay rickroll oil extraction and 35% for cover letter food. Sesame seeds have outstanding amounts of oil and a desirable nutty flavour after cooking. For these reasons, they are much appreciated in studies university bakery, the candy industry and for other food specialties (Hansen, 2011). Sesame seeds are mainly used for their high oil content. About Cover! They have a high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and rank 4th after safflower, soybean and maize for simeon nichter their PUFA content.
Sesame oil contains about 47% oleic acid and 39% linoleic acid (Oplinger et al., 1990). It is about cover letter, rich in tocopherols and lignans (notably sesamin and heights nelly sesamolin) that provide exceptional oxidative stability compared to other edible oils (Sun Hwang, 2005). There are two main types of sesame oils: the first is pale yellow, has a grain-like odour and a nutty taste, and is used for salad dressing and deep frying. The second is letter, obtained from wuthering heights nelly, roasted seeds, and is amber-coloured and used in about cover cooking as a flavouring agent (Hansen, 2011). Self-improvement In Kantian Ethics! Due to its stability, sesame oil can be used in margarine production where refrigeration equipment is cover, lacking (Hansen, 2011).
Sesame oil is used in pharmaceutical preparations as a vehicle for drug delivery, in insecticides and cosmetics. Numerous medicinal properties have been reported (Hansen, 2011; Monteiro et al., 2014). Sesame oil meal (or sesame oil cake) is the self-improvement an essay in kantian ethics protein-rich by-product obtained after oil extraction. Depending on the way oil has been extracted, sesame oil meal can be food grade (from dehulled sesame seeds), or used as a feed for livestock, especially ruminants and poultry (from undecorticated sesame seeds). Cover Letter! It is a valuable source of protein for animals (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990).
Unlike other oil meals, sesame oil meal is an essay ethics, usually obtained by mechanical extraction only (rather by about cover letter, mechanical extraction followed by solvent extraction) and its residual oil content is an essay in kantian ethics, high. The hulls resulting from the dehulling of sesame seeds are discarded and can be used as fodder for ruminants or poultry (Mahmoud et al., 2015; Abdullah et al., 2011). Sesame is one of the oldest oil crops, its use being recorded in Babylon and about Assyria 4000 years ago. It spread from the Fertile Crescent and is now found in many tropical and what used in compare and contrast subtropical areas. It has been cultivated commercially in the USA since the about cover letter 1950s. Self-improvement An Essay Ethics! The worldwide seed production was 5.5 million t in 2014 (FAO, 2016; Hansen, 2011; Myers, 2002; Sun Hwang, 2005; Oplinger et al., 1990). Letter! Most sesame is produced in Africa (3.0 million t) and coursework macquarie university Asia (2.3 million t). India, Sudan, China, Myanmar and about letter Tanzania account for 80% of world production. China, India, Taiwan, Vietnam and simeon nichter Mexico are the main users (FAO, 2016).
In Ethiopia, sesame cake is sold in local markets (Gebremedhin et al., 2009). Sesame grows well in areas with long, warm seasons, from the about letter equator to 40° North or South in both hemispheres, under conditions similar to those of the cotton crop (Sheahan, 2014; Sun Hwang, 2005). It does well in most soils but prefers those that are well-drained. It is particularly tolerant of drought and extreme heat, though it requires good soil moisture for essay rickroll its establishment (Sheahan, 2014; Hansen, 2011; Sun Hwang, 2005). A minimal seasonal rainfall of 500 to 700 mm is necessary for optimal seed yield. About Cover! Water requirements are particularly high during seedling and flowering. Sesame is essays, intolerant of waterlogging. Letter! Rainfall or winds during late growth may impair seed yield as they increase shattering. Moisture occurring at maturity increases fungal attacks. Sesame yield and oil content are positively correlated with photoperiodism (Hansen, 2011; Myers, 2002; Sun Hwang, 2005; Oplinger et al., 1990).
Sesame has moderate tolerance to salinity (Sheahan, 2014; Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). Essay Rickroll! Because of its deep root system, sesame scavenges nutrients at a greater depth than most crop root systems. About Letter! It has low input requirements and often grows under conditions where few other crops can survive. These attributes make sesame an excellent candidate for low-input sustainable food systems (Sheahan, 2014). Sesame seeds have good viability and can be stored for about 5 years at room temperature. However it is important to dry them down to 8-6% moisture in order to prevent heating and rancidity. Frost might hamper seed quality (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). Several processes exist to extract sesame oil, depending on the end product required and the region of production. Essays! The seed may be dehulled, cooked or roasted, and about cover letter the oil extracted by section macquarie university, mechanical pressure, resulting in a feed-grade, oil-rich sesame cake. Further extraction with solvent results in cover a feed-grade, low oil sesame flour. Dehulling is self-improvement, common in about India, where sesame meal is an studies university, important food, and can be performed manually at village level or mechanically in conventional oil mills.
In East Asia (China, Japan, Korea), where sesame oil is the main product, the whole seeds are roasted, ground and about cover letter cooked before expeller extraction. In North China, seeds are soaked, roasted, dehulled and milled to make sesame paste, and home in essay writing the oil (called small mill sesame oil) is separated by centrifugation or gravitation (Sun Hwang, 2005). In Africa, farm-level extraction is performed by crushing with a grindstone and by about, adding boiling water to skim off the oil, resulting in a crude, low quality oil. A more sophisticated process uses hand-operated presses and a 3-step extraction: the first extraction is done at self-improvement in kantian ethics, room temperature and produces high grade oil; the cover resulting press cake is then heated and pressed to yield a coloured oil; this can then be refined to give a non edible oil (Mkamilo et al., 2007). Essay Rickroll! Sesame oil meal (usually from non-dehulled seeds) is fed to cover, ruminant livestock and poultry (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). Sesame should be planted after the last sharp frost when soil temperature is above 21°C.
It requires a well-prepared weed-free seedbed with a good moisture content. Sowing sesame just after rain or irrigation is recommended. Sesame seeds should be shallow planted at essay rickroll, 2-3 kg/ha (Myers, 2002). Careful weeding is necessary for it to grow (Hansen, 2011; Myers, 2002; Oplinger et al., 1990). High density sowing reduces late weed growth, which may be troublesome at harvest.
Sesame is about, frequently intercropped in smallholder fields. Strip cropping with maize and sorghum is also common, and protects sesame from strong winds (Mkamilo et al., 2007). Sesame is ready to harvest 90 to essay rickroll, 150 days after being sown. Because frost is deleterious to seed quality the harvest should be done before the first sharp frost (Hansen, 2011). Harvest of cover, non-shattering varieties can be done with a combine harvester provided all holes have been sealed to prevent losses of small seeds. Heights Nelly! As sesame seeds are fragile, it is preferable to cover, use a low cylinder speed (half that for self-improvement in kantian cereals). In shattering varieties, it is recommended to about, cut the plants when the stems are still green, and dissertation then to stack them in vertical piles (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). Seed yields are about 400-500 kg/ha (FAO, 2016).
Cover crop, soil improver, green manure and weed/pest control. Because of its extensive root system, sesame provides valuable cover to the soil and has a positive effect on soil structure, moisture retention and tilth (Langham et al., 2008; Myers, 2002). About Letter! Sesame has a higher C:N ratio than most legume covers, making it a valuable green manure. It vigorously outcompetes weeds (Creamer et al., 2000). In some cases, it has been reported to have some potential to home help in essay writing, become weedy (Sheahan, 2014). Sesame can successfully reduce root-knot nematode populations in subsequent crops and help regulate cotton bollworm/maize earworm (Pimbert, 1991; McSorley, 1999; Sipes et al., 1997; Rodriguez-Kabana et al., 1988). Sesame attracts beneficial insects and is a source of feed for songbirds, quail and doves (Sheahan, 2014; Creamer et al., 2000). Sesame plants have been reported to accumulate and cover remove from the soils the home help writing organochlorine pesticide lindane, a neurotoxin that can persist in the soil for many years (Abhilash et al., 2010). Sesame oil meal is cover letter, a protein rich by-product. Expeller sesame meal has a protein content of about 45% of DM, ranging from 32 to 53%, whereas solvent-extracted sesame meal contains about 48% protein. Expeller sesame oil meal is rich in residual oil, and self-improvement thus in energy, though the oil content depends on about, the process and may be very variable, from studies section macquarie, 5 to 20%.
The fibre content (crude fibre 4-12%) is relatively low compared to other oil meals except soybean meal. Cover Letter! Lignin content is also low (below 2%). Sesame oil meal from are the two types of organization used and contrast, dehulled seeds should have a higher nutritional value, but it is normally a food product. Sesame oil meal has a peculiar amino acid profile being low in lysine and rich in sulphur-containing amino acids. Unsaturated fatty acids (mostly oleic acid C16:0 and linoleic acid C18:1) constitute 80% of the total fatty acids. Sesame seeds are mainly characterised by their large oil content (about 50% of DM, ranging from 35 to 55%). They are also rich in about cover letter protein (22-27%). Nichter! The fibre content appears to be extremely variable with some varieties containing small quantities of fibre (crude fibre 4-8% of DM) while others are much more fibrous (13-20% of DM) (Sun Hwang, 2005). Sesame seeds have a high content of phytic acid (about 5%) and the hulls contain oxalates (2-3%) (Graf et al., 1990; Sun Hwang, 2005). As phytic acid reduces calcium availability, diets with significant amounts of sesame hulls, whole sesame seeds or non-dehulled sesame oil meal may need to be supplemented with calcium (Aherne et al., 1985; Gohl, 1982). About Cover! Large amounts of essay rickroll, oxalic and phytic acids may have adverse effects on palatability.
Dehulling alleviates the problems raised by oxalates, but it has little effect on phytates (Ravindran, 1990). Though sesame oil is very stable, oil-rich sesame oil meal will eventually become rancid (Gohl, 1982). Sesame oil meal is a valuable protein and energy source for ruminants. About Cover! Reported in home help in essay vitro OM digestibility is high (83% in ADAS, 1988; more than 75% in Chandrasekharaiah et al., 2002). However, lower values have been reported (69% in vitro DM digestibility in Innaree, 1994).
In Egypt, it has been used in about cover letter the control diet of comparative studies on essay rickroll, protein supply in goats (Kholif et al., 2015). Several processes have been tested to letter, improve the two types of organization used and contrast nutritional value for ruminants. Treatment with 1.5-2% formaldehyde decreased rumen protein degradability with no effect or a positive effect on nutrient intake (Bugalia et al., 2008; Pani et al., 1998), and a positive effect on Ca and about P balance (Pani et al., 1998). Formaldehyde treatment increased the wuthering essays digestibility of crude fibre and lipids, as well as indices of about cover letter, post-partum reproductive efficiency (Bugalia et al., 2008). Essay Rickroll! Heat treatment of sesame oil meal at letter, 140°C, 150°C or 160°C for 1, 2 or 3 hours increased bypass protein, with the most efficient heat being 150°C (Mahala et al., 2007). In Thailand, sesame oil meal introduced at nelly, 14 to 42%, substituting for soybean meal, in cover letter the diets of lactating crossbred cows, reduced DM digestibility, but did not result in coursework studies section macquarie university significant differences in milk production, milk constituents, feed consumption and body weight (Innaree, 1994).
In Iran, including 15% sesame oil meal in cover letter the diets of lactating dairy cow did not affect DM intake and increased milk fat, but decreased milk yield and feed efficiency compared to the control diet (mixture of soybean and cottonseed meals) (Shirzadegan et al., 2014). Essay Rickroll! In Egypt, sesame oil meal included at 17.5% of the diet was found suitable for feeding lactating dairy buffaloes as it resulted in milk yield similar to that obtained with soybean meal and cottonseed meal (Mahmoud et al., 2014a). In Eritrea, in about cover letter Barka cattle fed on self-improvement an essay, a urea-treated sorghum stover based diet, DM intake was increased (6.13 vs. 5.81 kg/head/day) as was daily weight gain (741 g vs. About Letter! 650 g) and feed efficiency when they were supplemented with sesame oil meal rather than fish meal (Mehari et al., 2010). In Egypt, mixtures of nigella meal ( Nigella sativa ) and what are the used sesame oil meal used as a total replacement for concentrate in calf diets had higher DM, lipid and about letter crude fibre digestibilities, resulting in higher intake, higher daily weight gain, improved feed conversion ratio, and increased profitability (Mahmoud et al., 2014b). In Gambia, in young grazing N'Dama bull calves, sesame oil meal was fed as a protein supplement for wuthering 4 months at levels up to 400 g/day.
Fed at this level, the cover letter sesame oil meal not only coursework section macquarie university, increased daily weight gain (271 vs. 169 g/d for the control diet) during the experiment, but also resulted in higher growth (217 vs. 158 g/d) after it (Little et al., 1991). In Ethiopia, sheep fed teff straw, with sesame oil meal at up to 30% of the about diet, had a higher weight gain, enhanced carcass parameters, and overall profitability was increased (Fitwi et al., 2013). In Eritrea, male sheep fed a urea-treated sorghum stover diet had higher DM intake (847 vs.
826 g/head/d) and higher daily weight gain (134 vs . An Essay In Kantian! 115 g) when they were supplemented with sesame oil meal rather than fish meal (Mehari et al., 2010). In Sudan, sesame oil meal and about groundnut meal ranked higher than cottonseed meal or sunflower meal as a supplementary protein for essay rickroll desert lambs over a 7 week fattening period. The lambs had a higher daily weight gain and a better feed efficiency (Suliman et al., 2007). Cover Letter! An earlier experiment done with yearling desert lambs ranked sesame oil meal 2nd after sunflower meal for used growth rate (Ahmed et al., 2005). In Egypt, mixtures of nigella oil meal and sesame oil meal used as a total replacement of concentrate in lamb diets decreased total digestible nutrients, but no significant difference was observed between the two diets in final weight and average daily gain. About Cover! It was concluded that a mixture of nigella oil meal and sesame oil meal could replace a commercial concentrate in growing lambs (Mahmoud et al., 2014b). In Ethiopia, Abergelle goats grazing on natural pasture were profitably supplemented with different ratios of sesame oil meal and nichter dissertation Faidherbia albida pods.
The 1:1 ratio (105 g of about letter, each feed) yielded better intake and daily weight gain (80 g/d) (Weldemariam, 2015). Sesame meal has a high protein and energy content, but its deficiency in lysine, its fibre content and the presence of phytate and oxalates are limitations for its use in pigs. Early trials found that sesame oil meal could be used in growing-finishing pigs at up to 15% of the diet with satisfactory results (Squibb et al., 1951). However, later studies demonstrated that it is preferable to associate sesame oil meal with a source of lysine such as soybean meal or animal by-products (Ravindran, 1990). Self-improvement! Sesame meal could only replace 10% of about cover letter, soybean meal in maize-soybean meal based diets for nichter dissertation growing-finishing pigs and sows (Seerley, 1991). Generally, it has been advised to adapt the letter level of sesame oil meal in the diet according to the type and in kantian ethics quantity of the other protein sources of the diet (Ravindran, 1990; Cunha, 1977). Ileal digestibilities of most of letter, its amino acids tended to help writing, decline as the inclusion of sesame oil meal increased in pig diets, and daily weight gains and cover feed efficiency were hampered as the level of sesame oil meal increased from 0 to 12% (diet DM) (Li et al., 2000).
When the formulation of pig diets took into account the apparent ileal digestibility of section university, protein and amino acids, up to 10% sesame oil meal (DM basis) could be included in the diet without causing significant changes in total feed intake, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (Tartrakoon et al., 2001). Due to potential palatability problems caused by cover letter, oxalates, it has been recommended to essay rickroll, limit the inclusion of sesame oil meal to 5% in starter diets (Ravindran, 1990). Sesame seeds are known to have a role as a natural antioxidant. In Vietnam, where small-scale farmers use diets based on non-defatted rice bran, which is prone to rancidity and to loss of palatability during storage, it was shown that the inclusion of about, 1-3.5% of ground sesame seeds limited peroxidation and enhanced feed intake and feed conversion ratio in are the used in compare and contrast pigs (Yamasaki et al., 2003). Sesame oil meal is cover, rich in protein and energy but, due to its low lysine content and high methionine and cysteine contents, it is used as a supplementary source of coursework macquarie university, protein with other oil meals such as soybean meal (Yasothai, 2014). Large differences in the quality and nutritional value of sesame products can be observed (Cheva-Isarakul et al., 1993). Phytates and oxalates are an issue for poultry feeding and can limit the use of sesame oil meal in practice. Amino acid digestibilities are high but processing at excessive temperatures can decrease amino acid levels and availability (Yasothai, 2014).
Studies on the use of sesame oil meal in broiler diets tend to letter, conclude that sesame oil meal can be used at moderate levels, usually below 10% (Mamputu et al., 1995; Rahimian et al., 2013; Daghir, 2008). Performance decreased at higher inclusion levels (Mamputu et al., 1995; Rahimian et al., 2013). Some effects on broiler metabolism and intestine mucosa characteristics were observed (Yamauchi et al., 2006; Rama Rao et al., 2008). Self-improvement An Essay Ethics! However, in some cases dietary levels as high as 20% sesame oil meal sustained good growth (Jacob et al., 1996; Rama Rao et al., 2008). Cover Letter! Feed intake is coursework section macquarie university, generally not affected by about letter, sesame oil meal in the diet, suggesting that palatability is not an issue. Adequate values for metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility should be used since local products can vary significantly from those presented in international feed tables (Kang et al., 1999; Yasothai, 2014).
Phytase addition improved performance in some cases (Sterling et al., 2001), although this effect was not constant (Rahimian et al., 2013). The general recommendation is to take great care on feed formulation when using sesame oil meal in broiler diets to avoid inadequacies in amino acids (lysine) and minerals (Ca, P, etc.), which can occur if inappropriate values are used. In these conditions, the use of relatively low levels (5-8% of the diet) should be safe, while higher levels (10-15%) can be tested with high quality sesame oil meal, or if lower growing rates are acceptable. In layers, laying performance and feed efficiency were affected by levels of sesame oil meal above 4% of the diet (Mamputu et al., 1995; Cheva-Isarakul et al., 1993). High levels (15-20%) of sesame oil meal led to significantly reduced laying rates, feed efficiency and weight gain (Jacob et al., 1996). Differences between the performances obtained with sesame oil meals of different origins have been observed, possibly due to amino acid content or protein quality (Cheva-Isarakul et al., 1993). In pullets, the two types of organization use of sesame oil meal above 5% of the diet led to reduced growth and uniformity in the flock, and delayed initiation of lay (Tangtaweewipat et al., 1992).
Sesame oil meal should be used with care in layers, and only at about, low levels. Are The Two Types Used And Contrast Essays! In particular attention should be paid to feed formulation, particularly to about cover, the amino acid content (lysine). In growing Japanese quails, up to 15% sesame oil meal was used in the diet without adverse effects on growth and carcass characteristics (Sina et al., 2014). In laying quails, the use of sesame oil meal decreased egg production and coursework section feed efficiency, and is thus not recommended (Tangtaweewipat et al., 1992). The use of raw sesame seeds at 5 to 15% in diets for broilers reduced body weight gain and feed efficiency. Feed intake was less affected but tended to decrease (Olaiya et al., 2015; Ngele et al., 2011). About Cover Letter! Technological treatments can alleviate this negative effect to some extent. Toasting was the most efficient treatment, followed by soaking and boiling (Olaiya et al., 2015). However, even when toasted, sesame seeds led to performance below that obtained from control diets (Jiya et al., 2014; Ngele et al., 2011). In layers, the wuthering heights optimal level of cover, soaked sesame seeds in the diet was 3%, which gave an improved laying rate with unchanged feed intake. With more than 6% sesame seeds, egg production and egg weight decreased, leading to heights nelly, a lower egg mass and feed efficiency (Diarra et al., 2008).
The use of 1 to 2% sesame seeds improved laying rate in quails, without affecting body weight and about feed intake. Fertility and hatchability were also improved (Al-Daraji et al., 2010). In broilers the use of sesame hulls at up to 10% of the diet, with adequate feed formulation, tended to slightly improve feed intake and growth, with no effect on feed efficiency (Nikolakakis et al., 2014; Mahmoud et al., 2015). In chicks, sesame hulls led to a decrease in growth performance, with a stronger effect at 12% inclusion than at self-improvement an essay in kantian, 6 or 8% (Farran et al., 2000). Egg production decreased above 14% sesame hulls in the diet. At 7 to 14% sesame hulls inclusion, laying rate slightly decreased but egg weight increased, leading to a constant egg mass and feed efficiency. In all cases, sesame hulls decreased body weight gain in layers (Farran et al., 2000). Sesame oil meal has long been a traditional source of about cover letter, protein for rabbit feeding (Templeton, 1937; Benoit et al., 1948). Its high digestibility was established in nichter dissertation the 1940s, with values up to 91% for crude protein and 90% for cover gross energy, corresponding to essay rickroll, 15.05 MJ DE/kg DM (Voris et al., 1940).
Sesame oil meal is included at 10-20% in the control diets of many experiments (Roy et al., 2002; Salma et al., 2002; Ibrahim, 2007; Fasiullah et al., 2010). In trials, sesame oil meal has been introduced at up to 38-39% of the about cover diet of essay rickroll, growing rabbits without any health problems or alteration of performance (Colin et al., 1977; Colin et al., 1978), and in one trial at about, up to 56% (Lebas, 1973). If sesame oil meal is to be considered as a suitable protein source for simeon nichter dissertation rabbits (Colin et al., 1974; Colin et al., 1978), its deficiency in lysine, which covers only 50% of the requirements of about cover letter, growing rabbits, must be corrected (Lebas, 2013). Thus, the utilisation of sesame oil meal in balanced rabbit rations requires a source of lysine, such as legume seeds or industrial lysine. Whole toasted sesame seeds were introduced safely in rabbit diets at up to 12%, but their utilization in balanced diets was limited by the very high lipid content of the seeds (52%). The best growth and carcass quality were obtained at 8% of the essay rickroll diet (Njidda, 2010). Due to about cover, the lack of experiments at the time of writing (2016), it is not known whether toasting is wuthering nelly, necessary for the use of sesame seeds in rabbit feeding. Sesame oil meal has been found to have a value similar to that of about letter, soybean meal for carnivorous fish, and home help writing has been used successfully as a fish meal protein substitute without negatively affecting growth. About 50% of fish meal was replaced with sesame oil meal in diets for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) (Nang Thu et al., 2011), and European sturgeon ( Huso huso ) (Jahanbakhshi et al., 2012).
Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of about cover, values (samples) used. Sesame meal, mechanical extraction. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. Last updated on 08/09/2016 10:34:32. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. Last updated on 08/09/2016 01:00:13. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by writing, an equation. Last updated on 08/09/2016 01:12:22.
Heuze V., Tran G., Bastianelli D., Lebas F., 2017. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds and about cover letter oil meal . Feedipedia, a programme by heights essays nelly, INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://feedipedia.org/node/26 Last updated on June 22, 2017, 16:08. Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRA CIRAD AFZ and about letter FAO © 2012-2017 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login.
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Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the heights resume itself is structured to about cover, showcase your best experiences and coursework studies section macquarie university, conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that it’s inappropriate to use a resume template. You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and about cover, unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. In Essay Writing? Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at about cover, that resume template design because a lot of other people use it.
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Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to cover, civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck!
I’ve worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to self-improvement an essay ethics, three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for about, your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and coursework studies macquarie, the times I did those jobs?
I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. About? Start with the company name and what are the of organization used and contrast essays, included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template.
Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the cover letter internship!
Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in macquarie university, KSA. About Cover? I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Essay Rickroll? Good luck!
Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to cover, highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at section macquarie, our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and about letter, input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in home writing, education?
Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and about letter, input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for nichter dissertation, a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the about cover ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to essay rickroll, do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for about, someone trying to are the of organization used, tap into the finance and cover letter, accounting market. Looking for essay rickroll, an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template.
Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and about cover letter, online work. Now seeking to get back into simeon nichter dissertation the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the about letter ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and help in essay, interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use..
Try using the cover ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. In Kantian Ethics? Good luck on cover your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to in kantian, best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to cover, check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by of organization used in compare and contrast professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck!
It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in about cover letter, your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out essay rickroll, this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036,
This way, you can focus on about cover letter your skills qualifications critical to two types of organization in compare and contrast essays, the job application. As an aside, you may want to about, look into simeon whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for cover, sure. Good luck on the job hunt!
If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on what in compare this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Letter? Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and wuthering heights essays, you should be good. Good luck landing that internship!
The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and letter, learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is what are the two types of organization a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. Letter? See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.
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A critical analysis of Philip Larkin's 'Mr Bleaney'. Extracts from this document. Rachael Ward Tutor: Mr R. Pooley Twentieth Century Literature: 20% Exercise A critical analysis of Philip Larkin's 'Mr Bleaney'. About? Richard Davie once claimed that whilst he recognised in Larkin's [poetry] the seasons of present-day England, [he also] recognised. the what are the used and contrast seasons of an English soul.1 In fact Philip Larkin's very interest in about cover human nature, together with his dislike of . self-indulgent romanticism. 2, contributed to the character and final draft of 'Mr Bleaney'. By pulling the life and personality of the ordinary English bachelor with that of the poetic personae who is about to buy into Mr Bleaney's apartment, not to mention his life and ways, Larkin is able debate whether 'how we live [actually] measures our own nature', a fear that plagued the author as well as the poetic personae. Nichter Dissertation? As we are escorted around Mr Bleaney's apartment the landlady describes how he stayed there 'the whole time he was at the Bodies'. To be at 'the Bodies' suggests that Mr Bleaney's stay in the apartment and even on this earth was only temporary.
His body appears to be just a casing, thus implying that Mr Bleaney was simply the shell of man who was waiting to die. . read more. an anonymous and autocratic landlady.6 Mr Bleaney, after all depends on his sister's independence for his Christmas celebrations and cover letter, a married couple for home help in essay the holidays. Additionally the letter lack of books is substituted for the 'jabbering set', which is important as at the time 'Mr Bleaney' was written Larkin had recently moved into an uncomfortable apartment where he complained that the radio was a nightmare7, a mere way of rotting the brain. Instead of being independent Mr Bleaney has become almost numb to the rest of humanity. In the nichter dissertation end Mr Bleaney's so-called life is ideal without really being a life. Cover? In this sense Mr Bleaney and the narrator are both extremely isolated, Mr Bleaney's only nichter, form of communication being the 'jabbering TV set', whilst the poetic personae interestingly tries to 'drown [out the sound]. Letter? with cotton wool', in some way the former ears have already been 'stuffed' by self-improvement in kantian ethics it.
However this isolation is also shown in the distance between Mr Bleaney and nature. Like Larkin who on the one hand was an extreme humanist [who made] himself numb to about cover, the non-human world in order to are the of organization used and contrast, stay compassionate towards the human8, Mr Bleaney doesn't contemplate the 'frigid wind tousling the clouds' choosing only to emphasis his own control by taking the 'bit of garden properly in hand'. . read more. Here there is a sudden realisation for the narrator, the delayed 'I don't know' echoing throughout the rest of the cover letter poem eclipsing what the narrator had been convinced he was better than. Wuthering Heights Nelly? In the end neither Mr Bleaney nor the narrator 'warranted no better' than a 'hired box'. 'Mr Bleaney' is an cover, exploration of macquarie a small world and is concerned primarily with the self-revelation of the narrator, not to mention the author, as when regarded an insight into Philip Larkin, 'Mr Bleaney' is a breaking away from about his [own] self protecting privacy. 14. Self-improvement An Essay Ethics? The narrator realises that the small world of Mr Bleaney has become the same small world that he belongs to. The main figure of the poem, therefore is not 'Mr Bleaney' but the narrator, who struggles with the worth of his own life. Whilst he may have learnt to respect Mr Bleaney simply because he is content leading an ordinary life, he may also resent him for about cover making him realise that he isn't a superior figure, but belongs to the same real world as Mr Bleaney, bringing about the sudden collapse of coursework section macquarie his own morale15. 'Mr Bleaney' is an intelligent poem that explores ideas of male identity, loneliness, simple modesty and cover letter, false fantasies bringing them all into small yet equally complicated real world. . read more. This student written piece of wuthering essays work is about cover one of many that can be found in our University Degree Larkin section.
Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related University Degree Larkin essays. Some critics suggest that Larkin portrays human existence as bleak in his poetry - . It also implies that there is another person with the narrator. It can be ascertained that this other voice is the Landlady. The utilisation of un-poetic concrete nouns 'Bed, upright chair, sixty watt bulb' emphasise a rigid routine. Essay Rickroll? 'Behind the door, no room for books or bags' begins the third stanza.
Discursive Written Analysis of cover Wherever I Hang by wuthering heights nelly Grace Nichols and Reflections by Mario . repetition of nouns and reiteration determiners to emphasise just what she has given up to come to a new land. About Cover? Possibly giving the reader the vehicle of essay rickroll travel and about letter, a new country and the tenor of a lack of feeling of belongingness. By referring to at least two poems, discuss by what means Larkin illustrates the . As well as this, cigarettes are another way of advertising in wuthering the poem and illusion pervades this, as it does not explain that these smokers are dying. Finally, similar to 'Sunny Prestatyn,' we are left with a dramatically effective last few lines where illusion becomes reality because it is the nature of 'Essential Beauty.' Critical evaluation of High Windows by about letter Philip Larkin. The older generation of Larkin's youth are shown to be jealous of the freedom that young people have with respect to the church and the lack of coursework studies university control it had over their lives, whilst Larkin's generation are concerned at having missed out on the so called sexual revolution that they see taking place around them. Larkin - a look at the mood poems were written in about by Larkin. (Larkin page 143 Wild Oats) He does everything with her but still has a crush on the English Rose. This leads the girlfriend of his to then say to him: That I was too selfish, withdrawn, And easily bored to love. The Whitsun Weddingsamp;quot; is essay rickroll Larkin's longest poem and describes the protagonists long, leisurely train . It is debatable whether the ending of the poem is pessimistic or hopeful.
The bright sunlit. Whitsun' of the opening verse has become rain by the end of the poem. The word rain can be interpreted negatively (dreary and depressing), however, rain is also associated with life and fertility. An interviewer once remarked to Larkin thatamp;quot; Your favourite subjects are failure and weaknessamp;quot; . About Letter? Larkin goes on heights essays nelly, to describe Mr Bleaney's lifestyle. About Letter? He the bleak, predictable routine in in compare his life, 'I know his habits-what time he came down, his preference for sauce to gravy' This could be a big flaw in Mr Bleaney's life, his routine. This could suggest that his life was unfulfilling and boring and letter, the subject of failure is brought up again. A Critical Appreciation of Campos De Castilla. Machado makes references to many humble characters which he associates with the Soria countryside, namely in self-improvement an essay this poem that of jinetes, arrieros and a self reference to a guisa de pastoril.
This interest has much to do with the concept of intrahistoria in which the most significant part of a nation's life takes place beneath the surface of historical events. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and letter, Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and coursework, download the PDF for cover anytime access on home writing, your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for expert help with your Linguistics, Classics and related subjects work?
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essay on pentateuch The bibliography for the Introduction to the Pentateuch, as well as for Genesis , Exodus , Leviticus , Numbers , and Deuteronomy is presented at the end of this article. The Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible. The first five books of the Bible (both Hebrew and Christian) are foundational to all of cover letter, Scripture and rank as one of the most important portions of the Word of God (Wolf 1991:17). This is so because its theological and historical revelations are necessary for an understanding of the rest of the Old Testament and the New Testament as well. These five books contain, for example, God's revelation about the origin of the world with its emphasis on the creation of man made in the image of God, how sin entered human history and the judgment that followed, and the origin of the nation of Israel and its covenant–relationship to Yahweh. For the Jew, these five books contained an studies section authority that the rest of (their) Scripture—the prophets and the writings—did not seem to match. This is evident in that when the Jews were driven into exile, it was the books of Moses that were read most frequently in the synagogues. The first five books of the Bible have from the earliest of time been taken by the Jews to constitute a unity known to about cover letter, them as the Torah or Law . To the Jews, the used essays word Torah best described this part of Scripture as this biblical Hebrew term means not only the law but also teaching or instruction which more completely characterizes God’s communication to about, the Israelites through Moses (Wolf:1991:18). The first five books of the Bible have commonly come to what of organization in compare and contrast essays, be referred to as the Pentateuch, a word derived from the about Greek penta , meaning, five, and teuchos , originally meaning “a case for carrying papyrus rolls” but in later usage, meaning the scroll itself.
The division of these writings into an essay in kantian five separate books may owe its origin to a practical consideration as one scroll containing all the words would be unwieldy, whereas five scrolls could be handled quite easily (Wolf 1991:17-18). Before developing a synthesis of the individual books of the Pentateuch, it is helpful to about cover letter, consider issues pertaining to its authorship, author, chronology of events and dating of composition, theological emphases, and covenant forms which dominate the compositional structure of the text from Exodus through Deuteronomy. Much has been written on an introduction to the Pentateuch, and the topics considered here are discussed in detail in other works, some of which are cited in the text and referenced in the bibliography. The intent here is to deal with these issues only to the extent necessary to carry out the goal of this work which is to develop a synthesis of each book of the Pentateuch. Some of these topics have a direct bearing on developing such a synthesis, while others provide a framework within which to of organization in compare and contrast essays, better understand the Pentateuch.
Wolf (1991:51) has noted that few subjects in Old Testament studies have generated more discussion and more disagreement than the question of who wrote the Pentateuch. Opinions range widely with some arguing that every word was written by Moses, while others insist that Moses had nothing whatever to do with the writing of the Pentateuch. Instead it is claimed that certain ancient sources, labeled J, E, P, and cover D, were the an essay ethics original documents from which the cover Pentateuch was formed, and that the what are the two types used essays writers of these alleged documents, the so-called Yahwist, Elohist, Priestly Code writer, and the Deuteronomist, are regarded as the true authors of the Pentateuch. (See, Archer 1985:83-108, and cover Wolf 1991:62-70, for a detailed discussion of the documentary hypothesis of the Pentateuch.) While the issue of authorship is minimally important in the process of understanding the Pentateuch, the issue of the text’s unity of composition is important in order to develop a synthesis of the text. It is nichter, important, therefore for this study to establish authorship of the Pentateuch. Conservative biblical scholarship, while acknowledging problems associated with Mosaic authorship, generally adheres to cover, the traditional Jewish and Christian position, while liberal biblical scholarship tends to reject Mosaic authorship in support of the nichter documentary hypothesis. This development of a synthesis of the Pentateuch is in agreement with the traditional Jewish and Christian position and assumes Mosaic authorship and, therefore, a unity of composition of the about cover letter text. To argue in favor of Mosaic authorship would be extensive and not the purpose of home writing, this study. Nevertheless it is helpful to present in brief a case for Mosaic authorship. The Pentateuch is, in a sense, an anonymous work since it does not explicitly state who wrote it. The question of about cover letter, authorship for the Pentateuch is complex.
For example, in considering the authorship of essay rickroll, Genesis it is evident that it deals with a vast period of time, none of which took place in Moses' lifetime. A reading of the Old Testament, however, gives the impression that the Pentateuch was written by Moses. Add to this the about testimony of the New Testament, and considerations of the Pentateuch's unity of composition, a case can be made for Mosaic authorship of the first five books of the Old Testament. More specifically, a case for Mosaic authorship can be argued on the basis of, 1. statements concerning the writing activity of Moses as found in essay rickroll, the Pentateuch itself, as found in the rest of the about cover letter OT, and as found in the NT; 2. the theological and compositional unity of the complex text of the Pentateuch which tends to support the position of a single author/unity of authorship; 3. the coursework studies implication that Moses' training in the educational system of Pharaoh in Egypt would have prepared him for this great literary task; and. 4. the fact that the involvement of Moses as the principle human protagonist in the record of Israel’s deliverance, desert experiences, and its birth as a nation in covenant–relationship with Yahweh, makes him the logical choice for not only the recording of those events, but, more importantly, as the author of the theological message forged from those events.
Points 3 and 4 require no supportive argument; they are reasonable logical assumptions. In what follows, consideration is given to explicit statements in the whole of Scripture which support Mosaic authorship, and, to reasons for assuming unity, both literarily and theologically, for the Pentateuch. Explicit biblical statements in support of Mosaic authorship. Statements found in the Pentateuch. Wolf (1991:53) has observed that a number of passages in the Pentateuch assert that Moses wrote at least part of it. In Exodus 17:14, for example, the Lord told Moses to write an account of the battle with the about letter Amalekites. Then also, as recorded in Exodus 24:4, Moses, at Mount Sinai, wrote down all the words and simeon nichter laws spoken by the Lord and repeated to the people.
Numbers 33:1-2 says that at the Lord’s command, Moses recorded the stages of the Israelites’ journey from the time they came out of Egypt. In Deuteronomy 31:9 the text says that Moses wrote this law and cover gave it to the priests and commanded them to read this law in front of all Israel in their hearing at the end of every seven years when all Israel comes to appear before the Lord. The literal understanding of this text requires that a written copy of the Law must have been in existence. The most comprehensive statement of Mosaic authorship in the Pentateuch is found in Deuteronomy 31:24, where it states that after Moses finished writing in a book the words of this law from beginning to end he commanded the Levites to “Take this Book of the Law and place it beside the ark of the covenant of the Lord.” Statements found in wuthering essays nelly, the rest of the Old Testament. The Pentateuch is not the letter only portion of the Old Testament which associates these five books with Moses (Wolf 1991:54). For example, after Moses' death, God instructed Joshua to obey all the law given by Moses and to meditate upon the Book of the an essay in kantian Law day and night (Josh 1:7-8). Again, at about, the covenant renewal ceremony at Mount Ebal Joshua built an altar of uncut stones following instructions written in the Book of the Law of Moses (Josh 8:31).
The specifications for what used in compare essays, this altar are given in Exodus 20:25. Additionally, Joshua 8:34-35 emphasizes that all the words of the law were read to the people. Furthermore, in his farewell address to the nation, Joshua urges the about cover people to be faithful to help, God by obeying all that is about cover letter, written in the Book of the Law of Moses (Josh 23:6). Joshua was not the only one to make this association, for it is recorded in 1 Kings 2:3 that just before he died David challenged Solomon to essay rickroll, keep the decrees and commandments written in the Law of Moses.” Also, 2 Kings 14:5-6 says of Amaziah that when he became king he killed his servants who had slain the king his father, but he did not put to about, death the sons of the slayers according to nichter dissertation, what is written in the Book of the letter Law of two types of organization used essays, Moses. And 2 Kings 18:6; 23:2 says that Josiah served the letter Lord with all his heart and simeon nichter soul in accordance with all the law of Moses. Biblical scholars, at least conservative scholars, are agreed that by the time of Ezra and Nehemiah in the fifth century B.C. the Pentateuch was attributed to Moses (Wolf:1991:54).
This is about letter, supported by the phrase the Book of help in essay, Moses which appears in cover, Ezra 6:18 and Nehemiah 13:1 as well as in simeon dissertation, 2 Chronicles 25:4. Statements found in the New Testament. The authorship connection between Moses and the Pentateuch is even more direct in the New Testament (Wolf 1991:55) where there are numerous references to the Law of Moses or the Book of Moses (Mark 12:26), or just simply to Moses as in, “Moses and the prophets” (Luke 16:29, 31; 24:27; Acts 26:22). While the gospels contain many references to Moses and his writings, the most important ones are found in the gospel of John. About Letter? In John 1:17 the gospel writer states that the law was given through Moses. And in 1:45 he reports that Philip told Nathaniel he had “found the one Moses wrote about in are the two types and contrast essays, the Law. In John 5:46-47, Jesus Himself declares that Moses wrote about letter, Him, but the Jews did not believe that He was the self-improvement Christ because they did not believe what Moses wrote.
As His dispute with the Jews heated up, Jesus noted that Moses had indeed given them the Law but none of them kept it (John 7:19). In the about cover ensuing dispute with the Jews, Jesus attributes the giving of essays nelly, circumcision to Moses. But John notes here that it actually did not come from Moses but from the Patriarchs. John’s clarification of this point supports the claim for Mosaic authorship. Cover? The institution of circumcision came through Abraham (Gen 17) as the what are the two types sign of the covenant God made with him, yet it comes down to the Jews through the Law of Moses (John 7:22-23). Significantly, the reference to Moses' giving the Jews circumcision implicitly attributes the authorship of Genesis to Moses. Genesis is the most difficult of the five books to link to Moses, thus if some connection can be made between Moses and the Book of Genesis a case can be made for about, Mosaic authorship of the entire Pentateuch. The Pauline epistles use Moses in a similar manner as, for example, in Romans 10:5 where Paul says that Moses describes . . . the righteousness that is by the law, and then goes on to quote Leviticus 18:5. In 2 Corinthians 3:15 Paul refers to the veil that covers the hearts of the studies macquarie Jews when Moses is read. About Letter? It would seem, that in these contexts Moses denotes the Books of Moses, and thus the Pentateuch.
Nowhere in the New Testament is there any hint that some individual authored the Pentateuch other than Moses. Unity of composition in support of unity of authorship. Demonstrating the literary unity of the Pentateuch does not prove Mosaic authorship. However if such unity can be shown for major portions of the Pentateuch an argument can be made for unity of wuthering heights nelly, authorship which can be used to support a claim for Mosaic authorship. Unity of about cover, composition for the Pentateuch is not argued for in detail here but only broadly from the perspective of continuity in the overall story, narrative structure, and grammatical features. Continuity/unity of narrative story. The five books of the Pentateuch present a coherent picture of the origins of mankind, its fall into a state of sin, and heights essays the result of that fall. It also presents a coherent picture of the birth and development of Israel as a nation in about, covenant–relationship with Yahweh (Wolf 1991:18-19). Ethics? Furthermore, except for about, Genesis, these books focus on the life and ministry of essay rickroll, Moses whom God raised up to lead the about sons of Israel out of bondage in Egypt and into that covenant-relationship with Himself, and to, but not into, the Land of Promise as a fulfillment of His promise to Abraham. The continuing role of Moses as the protagonist in Exodus through Deuteronomy, and wuthering heights nelly the central focus of letter, Yahweh's developing covenant–relationship with Israel, in accordance with the promises He made to Abraham, serve to unify the books of the Pentateuch. Continuity/unity in narrative structure.
The main narrative sections of the Pentateuch are concluded by poetic material sometimes followed by an epilogue (see, for example, Sailhamer 1990:7-8). For example, at the close of the patriarchal narratives stands the blessings of Jacob which are written in poetic form in Genesis 49 and an epilogue in home in essay writing, chapter 50. The Exodus narratives are concluded by the song of Moses (Exodus 15) written in poetic form, and the wilderness wanderings are followed by cover Balaam's oracles (Num 23-24) written in poetic form. And at the end of the Pentateuch there is a double poetic section containing Moses' song of witness and blessing on the twelve tribes (Deut 32-33), followed by an epilogue (Deut 34). Continuity/unity in grammatical features. Along with the overall continuity in wuthering heights nelly, the narrative, there are also certain grammatical features that underscore the unity of the Pentateuch.
For some reason, as Wolf (1991:19) points out, these books fail to distinguish between the third person pronouns he and she. Letter? Instead of making this distinction like the rest of the OT, the wuthering heights Pentateuch uses only the masculine form. Conclusion on Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch. While it is about, possible to home help, conclude as some have that the about cover letter witness of the Pentateuch itself to Mosaic authorship can be understood as confirming only used in compare and contrast, that certain portions of the text were written by Moses, there is nevertheless other credible biblical evidence to support his writing of the text. And while it would seem that certain portions of the Pentateuch were additions from later periods of Israel's history (see, Wolf 1991:58-60), it does not invalidate that Moses could have written the majority of the text.
For example, the declaration of the cover humility of Moses (Num 12:3) would hardly be convincing if it came from Moses' own judgment. Equally difficult to simeon nichter dissertation, determine in the Book of Numbers is the origin of the Balaam story (Num 22-24). Since Moses was not a participant in these events, or even an observer of them, their origin as Scripture is somewhat problematic. These and other examples suggest later additions to the text of the writings. Nevertheless, there is reasonable evidence to support Mosaic authorship, and it is about, reasonable, therefore, to conclude along with both Jewish and Christian tradition, that authorship of the majority and essential content of the Pentateuch is to help writing, be ascribed to Moses. From a Jewish perspective, the dominant figure of the Pentateuch and, to a certain extent, of the entire OT is Moses. Abraham plays a key role in Genesis, but his stature and accomplishments do not match those of Moses.
Although Abraham was the cover letter founding father of Israel, Moses was the one who organized the nation, promulgated their laws, and, under God, led them for forty years through the wilderness. Throughout this time he was a prophet, a priest, and, in effect, a king/ruler as he directed every facet of Israel's national life. The NT highly praises both Abraham and Moses, but it was Moses who appeared on the Mount of in essay, Transfiguration, along with Elijah, to talk with Jesus (Matt 17:3-8). Though he was born into cover letter a Jewish household as a member of the in kantian tribe of about, Levi, he was raised an Egyptian by Pharaoh's daughter and studies macquarie university given an education befitting a prince of the cover letter royal household. Moses' concern for his people in later life led directly to essay rickroll, his self-imposed exile from Egypt. Cover Letter? His calling by God after forty years in the desert of Midian set him aside as a prophet, one who would speak the coursework studies section macquarie university word of about cover letter, God to the sons of Israel and to Pharaoh. In his role as a prophet, Moses was unique.
When Aaron and Miriam claimed that God spoke through them as well as through Moses, God replied that he spoke with Moses face to face, not through dreams and visions (Num 12:6-8). The uniqueness of Moses' role as a prophet of God is demonstrated in his prediction that God will raise up for you a prophet like me (Deut 18:15, 18). Essay Rickroll? After many centuries of prophets coming and going, Israel was, at the time of Christ's appearance, yet looking for the prophet of whom Moses spoke (John 1:21). According to Acts 3:21-23 this was fulfilled in cover letter, Christ. Closely associated with Moses' prophetic role were the miraculous signs and wonders that Yahweh performed through him, first in Egypt, and then in the wilderness (Deut 34:10-11). A prophet was also a man of prayer interceding on behalf of essay rickroll, others (see for cover, example, Gen 20:7). Moses' intercession on coursework studies macquarie, behalf of Israel (Exod 32:11-14) clearly demonstrates his function as a mediator between God and Israel. The year that Israel spent at Mount Sinai was a significant time for Moses, for it was then that he served as lawgiver and about cover letter became mediator of the covenant Yahweh entered into with the sons of Israel. The people were afraid to listen to the powerful voice of God, so God spoke to Moses and Moses gave them the home help writing laws and statutes (Exod 20:18-19). Moses wrote down everything Yahweh had said and read to about letter, the people from the Book of the Covenant (Exod 24:4, 7). Moses' role as lawgiver is clearly connected with the writing of the Pentateuch since all five books are referred to as the Law.
At Mount Sinai Moses also directed the establishment of national worship under the leadership of the priests and self-improvement an essay in kantian Levites. Moses officiated at about, the ordination of the priests, offering the prescribed sacrifices and applying the blood required by the Levitical law (Lev 8). Thus, before Aaron was installed as high priest, Moses was Israel's priest. It is evident from this that in order for Moses to officiate at the inauguration of the Aaronic priesthood he necessarily must have been sanctified. Since there is no record of this happening, it is clear that God Himself must have sanctified Moses, likely at the burning bush incident when he was told by God to take off his sandals because he was on holy ground (Exodus 3:1-6; compare this with Isa 6:1-7).
And it was Moses who received from Yahweh the plans for the construction of the Tabernacle and the regulations for the various offerings (Exod 25:9; Lev 7:37-38). Significantly, Moses remained the spiritual leader of Israel even after the help in essay priests and Levites were carrying out their responsibilities. Dating and about letter chronology of the an essay Pentateuch. The importance of chronology in establishing a history of a nation has been underscored by Thiele (1983:33): CHRONOLOGY IS THE BACKBONE of history. Absolute chronology is the fixed central core around which the events of the nation must be correctly grouped before they may assume their exact position in history and before their mutual relationships may be properly understood. Without exact chronology there can be no exact history.
Until a correct chronology of cover, a nation has been established, the events of what in compare essays, that nation cannot be correctly integrated with the events of neighboring states. If history is to be a true and exact science, then it is about letter, of fundamental importance to construct a sound chronological framework about which may be fitted the events of states and the international world. The importance in establishing a chronological framework in order to understand the history of the Old Testament including the Pentateuch is clear. Establishing a chronological framework of the are the of organization used Old Testament in about, general, and of the Pentateuch in home help in essay, particular, is problematic, however, because biblical data, the primary source for establishing a chronology, is generally with respect to some person, such as a king (see for example Jeremiah 1:2-3 and cover Daniel 1:1), or event, such as an earthquake (see for wuthering heights essays nelly, example Amos 1:1) and cover results, therefore, in a relative rather than “ absolute” dating of events and persons. It is beyond the intent of this brief section to coursework studies macquarie university, discuss what is meant by an absolute chronological framework. Suffice it to say that such a framework can be established for examining the about cover history of a nation in relationship to other nations based on help in essay, historical records of that nation. In order to establish an absolute chronology some chronological reference point needs to be established or identified. The Western world choose the birth of Christ as that reference point. Given that point (see Hoehner 1977:11-27 for a detailed determination of the date of the birth of Christ), a chronology can be derived backwards and forwards in time. Letter? This does not solve all the problems associated with establishing a robust chronological framework, one that will allow for the study of all nations.
It is critical that there be points of nichter, intersection between nations, societies, cultures (see Daniel 1:1 as an instance of intersection between Israel and Babylonia). In establishing a chronological framework for the Old Testament including the Pentateuch, often times more data than the biblical record is needed. The primary sources for developing an Old Testament chronology include, but are not necessarily limited to, biblical data, archaeological data, and astronomical data. The primary source for knowledge of biblical events is, as Archer (1979:359) declares, the Bible itself. The frequent references to individual life spans and to regnal years of about cover, kings, as well as such chronological data as the interval between the Exodus and the building of the Temple of Solomon (1 Kings 6:1), and the length of the Egyptian sojourn (Exod 12:40, 41), serve to establish major chronological data points of OT Hebrew history. Chart 1 summarizes biblical chronological data important for establishing a chronology of the Pentateuch. It is important to observe from this summary that much of this data provides chronological reference for the events relative to the Exodus. Thus establishing an absolute date for the Exodus is nelly, important for establishing a chronology of the Pentateuch. Letter? This is done in a subsequent section.
Chart 1 Summary of what are the two types used in compare and contrast essays, Biblical Chronological Data. Israel to be enslaved and about letter oppressed 400 years in a foreign country; The Exodus from Egypt takes place on the 15 th day, of the 1 st month, of the heights essays 1 st year (Note: from this point on, time in the Pentateuch; is referenced with respect to the date of the Exodus) Israel lived in Egypt 430 years to the day; (Note: this is referenced back in time from the Exodus) Israel arrived at about cover, Mount Sinai on help in essay writing, the 15 th day, of the 3 rd month, of the 1 st year after the Exodus; Erection of the Tabernacle on the 1 st day of the 1 st month (of the 2 nd year) after the Exodus; Taking of the first census commanded at Sinai on the 1st day, of the about 2 nd month, of the 2 nd year from the Exodus; Israel's departure from Sinai occurred on dissertation, the 20 th day, of the 2 nd month, of the 2 nd year after the Exodus; Israel arrives at Kadesh Barnea in the 1 st month (of the 40 th year?) Israel set out from Kadesh and came to Mount Hor; Israel traveled to about, the plains of Moab and camped along the Jordan across from two types Jericho (in the 40 th year);
Israel set out from letter Rameses on ethics, the 15 th day of the letter 1 st month (of the dissertation 1 st year) the day after the Passover (see also, Exod 12:2); Numbers 33:38, 22:24. Aaron died on letter, Mount Hor on the 1 st day, 5 th month, of the 40 th year after the simeon Exodus; It takes 11 days to go from Horeb (Mount Sinai) to cover, Kadesh Barnea; Moses spoke to Israel on the East bank of the Jordan (the plains of Moab) on the 1 st day of the 11 th month of the 40 th year after the Exodus; Israel spent 40 years in the wilderness; Israel wandered in the wilderness for 38 years from the essays nelly time they left Kadesh Barnea until the about cover Exodus generation died off and Israel arrived at the plains of coursework macquarie, Moab; Moses died on the Plains of Moab when he was 120 years old (therefore Exodus 2:1 to Deuteronomy 34:7 spans 120 years); Israel entered the Land on the 10th day, of the 1st month, (of the 41st year) after the Exodus;
Israel moved about in the desert forty years from the time they had left Egypt until the time they entered the land of Canaan; Caleb was 40 years old when he spied out the land of Canaan (Num 13:1-16); Caleb was 85 years old at the time of the division of the Land (45 years from the time Moses spoke to him about his inheritance); Joshua was 110 years old when he died; Israel had lived in the Land 300 years when Jephthah was judging;
Construction of Solomon's Temple began exactly 480 years after Israel came out of Egypt, in the 4 th year of Solomon’s reign, the 2 nd month; The Temple was completed in the 8 th month of the 11 th year of Solomon’s reign; The Law came 430 years after the cover letter giving of the promise to Abraham; Archaeological artifacts are important in establishing a chronological framework for the Pentateuch and the rest of the Old Testament because they can be used to help, determine the time period of successive layers of ancient Near Eastern archaeological sites. About Cover Letter? For the most part, these time periods provide only relative dating and show which occupational levels were contemporaneous with comparable strata in other sites (Archer 1979:359-360). Livingston(1974:4-9) has noted that Palestinian archaeologists have discovered that the most reliable means to establish relative dating sequences is to dissertation, carefully observe and record layers of about cover, soil through which they dig. For in these layers they have discovered that particular types of pottery are repeatedly found in particular layers that have the studies university same sequence. Study of this archaeological condition has revealed that both soil layer and its matching type of pottery were tied with a specific people and their culture. About Cover Letter? Pottery chronology has, Livingston observes, been refined to the extent that archaeologists can, for the most part come within about fifty years of dating the beginning and end of any occupation site.
Other artifacts found by archaeologists that aid in wuthering essays nelly, identifying people and cover letter dating events include such things as buildings, home utensils, implements used for farming, hunting, and manufacturing, weapons of are the of organization used essays, war, art objects, tombs, bones, weights, coins, and, most importantly, inscriptions. Helpful for deriving absolute dating during the era of Israel’s kings was Assyria's practice of dating years by letter the name of an official known as the limmu, who normally held office for only one year. Essay Rickroll? Incomplete limmu lists, recovered from archaeological artifacts, go back prior to 1200 B.C. A complete collection, however, has been assembled from records dating from 911 to 649 B.C., a time of importance in Israel’s history as it spans the reigns of most of the nation’s kings (Archer 1979:360). Thiele (1983) has dealt at length with the issue of dating the Hebrew kings in detail and has established a complete list. As Livingston (1974:2) points out the letter king lists permit a largely relative chronology within Egyptian history, providing us with the knowledge that a certain king and the events of his reign preceded or followed some other king. What is not known from this information, however, is when these things occurred with respect to an absolute reference point, which for the West is the birth of Christ. Help in such cases can come from astronomical data. Livingston (1974:1-2) provides a good example of the importance of astronomical data in helping to establish an absolute chronological framework from a stream of historical data that provides only an essay, a relative chronology.
Writing on the Egyptian dynasties as reference points, he notes that the Sothic cycle makes it possible to assign an absolute date to the major dynasties and to many individual kings in Egyptian history. From the king lists a fairly complete relative chronology may be determined. However, it is not known from this data when these things occurred with respect to the absolute reference which the about West has accepted, namely, the birth of Christ. However, given the event which marked the beginning of the self-improvement an essay solar year for the Egyptians, namely, the rising of the Dog Star, Sothis, it is possible to correlate the relative chronology of the Egyptian king lists with the cover absolute chronological framework accepted in the West. Livingston records that on good evidence the rising of Sothis occurred in A.D. Essay Rickroll? 139, and the previous occurrence would have been in 1317 B.C. and the one prior to that in 2773 B.C. With this information, it has been possible to take the three instances of when Sothis is reported to have risen on about, a certain calendrical day in wuthering essays nelly, a certain royal year and, ascertaining where the calendar was in its cycle, assign and absolute date to the royal year. The earliest of these, he says, is 1872 B.C. Cover? Having determined this chronological framework, it is possible, Livingston argues, to establish a fixed checkpoint for another culture whenever that culture intersects with that of help writing, Egypt. Then given that point of intersection in the established chronological framework that culture’s chronological information can be assessed and arranged.
Also referencing the Sothic cycle, Archer (1979:360) observes that it is possible to establish that the ninth year of letter, Amenhotep I was 1545 B.C. Heights? In the ninth year of Amenhotep I, a heliacal rise of Sothis was observed on the ninth day of the third month of summer. Modern astronomers have calculated that, if the observation was made from Memphis or Heliopolis, such an cover observation could only have been made on what two types of organization in compare and contrast essays, that day in 1537 BC. If the observation was made in Thebes, however, it could only have taken place in about letter, 1517. The latter choice is usually accepted as correct since Thebes was the heights essays capital of early 18th dynasty Egypt; hence, Amenhotep I is given an accession date in about letter, 1526 BC, although the possibility of nichter, 1546 BC is not entirely dismissed. About Letter? This is significant from a biblical perspective because if, as argued for below, the coursework section university Exodus took place in 1446 BC (the early date) then it took place in the reign of the about cover letter Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep II (1450-1425) who followed Amenhotep I. Chronological framework of the Pentateuch—Genesis through Deuteronomy.
In establishing a chronology for the Pentateuch two broad time periods are considered; the time period for Genesis, and help in essay writing the time period for Exodus through Deuteronomy. For Genesis, there are two chronological frameworks to be considered; that which is prior to the Patriarchs, and that which is for the Patriarchs. In the case of Exodus through Deuteronomy, the prominent chronological factor which establishes the chronological framework is the date of the cover letter Exodus. Chronological framework prior to the Patriarchs (Genesis 1-11) In constructing a chronology for the Pentateuch is heights essays, important to understand that for the time period before the Patriarchs (Gen 1-11), OT data are very limited and concise and there exists the possibility of gaps in the genealogical biblical records recorded in Genesis 5 and 11 (Archer 1979:361-365) as such genealogies were not intended to serve a narrow chronological purpose as is the case in the modern sense. Letter? Rather, like those in Matthew 1 or Luke 3, their main purpose was theological (see Kitchen 1966:37-38; and Archer 1979:361). One may question, therefore, whether these genealogies are really to be understood as being continuous throughout. There are indications which suggest that this is not the case. One such indication is found in the phrase A begat B which does not always imply direct parenthood.
This is shown by its use in Matthew 1 in coursework studies macquarie university, cases where links are known from the OT to have been omitted. Terms like son and father can mean not only '(grand)son' and '(grand)father' but also 'descendant' and 'ancestor' respectively. Thus, in Genesis 5 and 11, 'A begat B' may often mean simply that 'A begat the line culminating in cover, B.' In such cases, one cannot use these genealogies to fix the date of the Flood or of the essay rickroll earliest man, Adam (Kitchen 1966:37-38; see also, Archer 1979:361). In addition, there are some problems associated with the biblical data and external evidence as well. Cover? For example, Kitchen (1966:36) has observed that the time covered by the genealogies from Adam to Abraham, if taken to be continuous, is not nearly long enough when compared with external data.
If the birth of Abraham is taken to be about 2000 B.C., as is generally argued for, then on the basis of the biblical chronological data the nichter Flood would have occurred some 290 years earlier, at about 2300 B.C. However, on the basis of Mesopotamian evidence this date is excluded because it would fall some 300 or 400 years after the period of the Gilgamesh of Uruk for whom (in both Epic and Sumerian King List) the Flood was already an event of distant past. All of this, however, does not necessarily mean the genealogical data recorded in Genesis 5 and 11 are without any factual basis. About Cover Letter? On the other hand, given present knowledge, it is not possible to establish any absolute dates (Kitchen 1966:35). It is not even possible to establish a relative chronology from Adam to Terah with reasonable certainty owing to nelly, the possibility of gaps in the genealogical biblical record (Archer 1979:361-365). Chronological framework of the Patriarchs (Genesis 12-50) Biblical scholars are not all agreed on the date of the Patriarchal age (Kitchen 1966:41). There are three independent 'main lines' of approach, Kitchen (1966:42-43) argues, that can be taken to cover letter, establish a chronological framework for this important period of Israel's history. One approach seeks to determine if any major events in nichter dissertation, the Patriarchal narratives can be linked with external history. Another approach seeks evidence of chronological data preserved in the details of the narratives, such as personal names, legal usages, etc., which can be correlated with possible use in the Near Eastern context recorded in other documents. A third approach gives consideration to possible chronological links between the Patriarchal era and later epochs.
Major events and external history. According to Kitchen (1966:43-47), the main event of cover, this kind is the raid of the four Eastern kings of Genesis 14. Self-improvement In Kantian? Archaeological data in about, the Transjordan suggests a date of ca. Essay Rickroll? 1800 B.C., while the names of the four Eastern kings fit the period ca. 2000-1700 B.C. Additionally, the system of power-alliances (four kings against about cover letter, five) is typical of Mesopotamian politics within the period ca. 2000-1750 B.C. but not before or after this general period when different political patterns prevailed. Chronological data preserved in narrative details. Again according to Kitchen (1966:47-53), the personal names of the Patriarchs and their families can be directly compared with identical or similarly formed names in Mesopotamian and Egyptian documents of the 20 th to 18 th centuries B.C. and occasionally later.
Further, seasonal occupation of the Negev region on the southwest border of Palestine is archaeologically attested for the 21 st to 19 th centuries B.C., but not for a 1000 years earlier or for 800 years afterwards. It is known from Genesis 20:1; 24:62, that Abraham and Isaac spent time in this area, and from Genesis 26:12; 37:7 that they were keepers of flocks and herds and occasionally grew crops of grain. This activity would best fit the period of ca. 2100-1800 B.C. Additionally, Patriarchal customs of inheritance find close parallels in what are the in compare essays, the Mesopotamian culture of ca. Letter? 1500 B.C., and in the Old Babylonian culture in Ur ca. Essays? 19 th to 18 th centuries B.C. And lastly, the price of twenty shekels of silver paid for Joseph in Genesis 37:28 is the about cover price that would have been paid for macquarie, a slave in about the 18 th century B.C. Earlier than this, slaves were cheaper, with an average price of ten to fifteen shekels, while later they became steadily more expensive. Kitchen (1966:53-56) has observed that certain passages and genealogies in the Pentateuch link the Patriarchs to the period of the Exodus. One such link is found in Genesis 15:13, where Abraham was informed that his descendants would dwell in a foreign land where they would be oppressed as slaves for 400 years, and in letter, Exodus 12:40-41, which records that the people of macquarie, Israel had lived in about, Egypt for precisely 430 years.
The discrepancy in these time periods can be accounted for, Kitchen suggests, by understanding the 400 years as a round figure in in compare and contrast, prospect , while the letter 430 years should be understood as more precise in retrospect . An additional link between the Patriarchal period and the time of Moses is found in Galatians 3:17 where Paul, in speaking of the promises of the Abrahamic Covenant, mentions that the Law came 430 years after the promises were given. Several explanations have been set forth concerning the simeon nichter dissertation 430 years noted by Paul (see Kitchen 1966:53). Cover Letter? Some have suggested that it began with Abraham, in which case the 430 years included Israel's time of two types of organization used in compare and contrast essays, about 200 years in Canaan and about 200 years in cover letter, Egypt. The Septuagint supports this view, but this conflicts with the clear statement in Exodus 12:40, 41 that the Egyptian sojourn was 430 years exactly. Another suggestion is that the period began with the confirming of the Abrahamic Covenant with Jacob (Gen 35:9-12). A third and perhaps best view is that the period began with the final confirmation of the an essay in kantian Covenant to Jacob just prior to his moving to Egypt (Gen 46:1-4). According to this last view, the about letter period of time noted in Galatians 3:17 corresponds to the period of the essay rickroll sojourn in about cover letter, Egypt and correlates exactly with Exodus 12:40. Another link is found in coursework, Genesis 15:16 where Abraham was told that his descendants would return to Canaan in 'the fourth generation' (Hebrew dor ). The simplest explanation is that the about letter four dor correspond to the 400 years, not to 'generations' in the modern sense. This, Kitchen says, is suggested by clear evidence from Ugaritic and what are the two types of organization in compare early Assyrian sources which indicate that dor or daru can mean a 'span' or 'cycle of about, time' of eighty years or more. Yet another link is found in the genealogies . Some scholars, Kitchen says, dismiss the figure of four centuries between the Patriarchs and the Exodus by appealing to Exodus 6:16-20, a 'genealogy of Moses and Aaron, which they interpret as four literal generations lasting in total only what are the of organization used in compare, a century or more.
But in doing so they overlook the following facts: 1. Exodus 6:16-20 is not a full genealogy, but only about cover, gives the tribe (Levi), clan (Kohath), and simeon dissertation family-group (Amram by Jochebed) to which Moses and Aaron belonged, and about letter not their actual parents. Evidence for this is found in the fact at the time of the Exodus the Amramites were numerous, and so Amram must be considered as having lived much earlier. 2. Then too, the statement that 'Jochebed bore (to Amram) Aaron and Moses in Exodus 6:20 does not prove immediate descent. Evidence here is found in, for example, Genesis 46:16-18 which indicates that the children that Zilpah 'bore' to Jacob include great-grandsons. 3. Lastly, ancient Near Eastern genealogies were often selective and not continuous. The genealogies cannot, therefore, be used to contradict the stated period of 400 years, and, therefore, in cases like this, continuity of genealogies has to be proved, not assumed. Based on all these considerations, Kitchen (1966:56) concludes that the total evidence accords well with a chronological framework for the Patriarchs between the 20 th to 18 th centuries B.C. Chronological framework for Exodus through Deuteronomy—The Date of the two types of organization used essays Exodus.
The major event which occurred during the time period which is recorded in about cover letter, Exodus through Deuteronomy was, as noted above, the Exodus. The date which this event took place is critical for establishing a chronological framework as all other events after it are keyed to it. It is important, therefore, to establish this date in an absolute chronological framework (i.e., the Western calendrical system) so that correlation can be made with other nations with which Israel’s history intersected. The date of the Exodus is much debated. Two principal views exist concerning this date: the early date view ( ca. 1446-1440 B.C.) during the reign of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep II (1450-1425), and the late date view ( ca. 1299-1232 B.C.) during the reign of Rameses II. Support for the early date comes from the biblical record and archeological data while support for studies section macquarie, the late date comes primarily from archaeological data (Hannah 1985 104-105). Much has been written on this issue. What follows is a very brief argument in favor of the early date. Arguments for the early (15 th century) date.
The traditional date of ca. 1446 B.C. is about cover letter, based on home help in essay, 1 Kings 6:1, which specifies very definitively that the fourth year of Solomon's reign was the four hundred and eightieth year after the Exodus (see Hannah 1985:104). It is has been established that the fourth year of Solomon's reign was ca. 966 B.C. (see Thiele 1983:67-78 for the establishment of an absolute date in Hebrew chronology). This would establish the about letter date of the Exodus at 1446 B.C. These figures seem to be corroborated by evidence found in essay rickroll, Judges 11:26 where it is recorded that Jephthah said that Israel had possessed the land of Canaan for 300 years. The time of Jephthah’s statement has been established at approximately 1106 B.C (see, for example, Merrill 1987:148-149).
If the 300 years spoken of in Judges 11:26 refers back to the time when the Conquest proper began, then adding 40 years from the Exodus to the beginning of the Conquest, a date of 1446 B.C is obtained for the Exodus. On the other hand, if the 300 years spoken of in Judges 11:26 refers back to the time when the Conquest proper ended, then adding another six or seven years for the conquest of the cover land results in a date of 1452 or 1453 B.C. for the Exodus. What Two Types Of Organization Used In Compare And Contrast? While this evidence is approximate, it clearly supports the early date as opposed to the late date (see, Kaiser 1990:290). Second, as Hannah (1985:104) points out, archeological evidence from Egypt during this period corresponds with the biblical account of the Exodus (see Unger 1954:140-145; and Archer 1964: 215-216), particularly with respect to Amenhotep II. Third, events in the region of Canaan about 1400 B.C. correspond with the Conquest under Joshua (Hannah 1985:104). In particular, archaeological evidence found at Jericho, Ai, and Hazor suggest that they were destroyed about 1400 B.C. Waltke (1972:47) has noted that all the accredited Palestinian artifactual evidence supports the literary account that the Conquest occurred at cover letter, the time specifically dated by the biblical text. Arguments for, and counter-arguments against, the late (13 th century) date.
While the argument advanced by proponents of the early date is straightforward and based on biblical evidence, proponents of the late dating of the Exodus, such as Kitchen (1966 57-75), argue the following points which are first stated and then argued against (see, for self-improvement an essay, example, Hannah 1985:104-105): The Exodus could not have take place until after 1300 B.C. because while the Israelites were in Egypt, they built the cover city of Rameses (Exod 1:11). If this city were named for home in essay, the Pharaoh, Rameses II (1299-1232 B.C.), it is argued that the Exodus could not have occurred prior to 1290 B.C. This point is discredited on the basis of historical considerations. While Exodus 1:11 states that Rameses is one of two cities built by the Israelites, Genesis 47:11 also states that Jacob and his sons settled in the land of Rameses. Whereas it is true that Rameses II was a prodigious builder, it is not at all certain that the about letter city mentioned in Exodus 1:11 bore his name at first. It appears from Exodus 1 and 2 that Moses had not been born until after Rameses was built, and yet he was 80 years old at the time of the Exodus. The same problem exists with the appearance of the name Rameses in simeon, Genesis 47:11, hundreds of cover letter, years before the reign of Rameses II. A likely explanation is that in of organization, both cases earlier names were updated by a later editor who used the more recent name. Support for this explanation is found with regards to Genesis 14:14 where Abraham pursued the captors of about cover letter, Lot as far as Dan. But the name of the city was Laish until the tribe of Dan captured it and renamed it in the days of the Judges (Judg 18:29).
Another argument against the identification of dissertation, Rameses as the pharaoh of the Exodus is the length of the reign of the king who preceded him. Rameses predecessor, Set I, reigned for only twelve years, clearly not long enough to account for the time Moses spent in Midian. About Cover Letter? On the two types of organization essays other hand, Thutmose III, the about letter pharaoh of the oppression according to early date view, ruled from self-improvement ethics about 1495-1450 B.C. This time span allows sufficient time for Moses to have taken refuge in Midian for 40 years (Acts 7:30) and cover letter then have been told at the burning bush that all the essay rickroll men who wanted to kill you are dead (Exod 4:19). The 480 years of 1 Kings 6:1 is an approximate figure representing twelve generations. About? Since twenty-five years more nearly corresponds to a generation, the twelve generations (implied by 1 Kings 6:1) would be only about 300 years. Thus the Exodus would have occurred around 1260 B.C. and the Conquest about 1220 B.C.
There is no basis for claiming that the 480 years represents twelve generations. The text of 1 Kings 6:1 is very explicit in reporting the year and studies macquarie month that construction on about cover, the Temple began. To mix an approximate date with explicit chronological dating does not make sense. Archaeological data (accumulated in the late 1930's) suggests that the presence of strong opposition to essay rickroll, the Israelites from the Edomites (Num 20:20-21) was impossible before 1300 B.C. because the region of the southern Transjordan was unoccupied from 1900-1300 B.C. More recent archaeological studies, however, has shown no occupational gap there from 1500-1200 B.C. Archaeological data suggests that Hazor did not fall to about cover letter, the Israelites until 1300 B.C. However, Scripture states that Hazor fell twice; first in the days of Joshua (Josh 11:10-11) and later in the time of Deborah and Barak (Judg 4:2, 23-24). Further, there is evidence in one area of the studies section macquarie excavated city of a destruction around 1400 B.C. Archaeological evidence at the ancient sites of Lachish and Debir have uncovered a pattern of destruction which indicates that these cities were destroyed by fire in the 13th century B.C.
The Book of Joshua, however, does not say that Lachish (Josh 10:32) and Debir (Josh 10:38-39) were destroyed, let alone by fire. The only letter, cities that the Book of simeon nichter, Joshua indicates were destroyed by fire are Jericho (Josh 6:25) and Ai (Josh 8:28) during the southern campaign, and Hazor (Josh 11:13) during the northern campaign. It is possible that Lachish and Debir were destroyed by fire either by Pharaoh Merneptah who invaded Israel ca. 1230 B.C., or by the Sea Peoples who invaded the land about cover, 1200 B.C. There appears to be no valid reason for rejecting the biblical data.
Consequently, the date of the Exodus is taken as 1446 B.C. on the basis of 1 Kings 6:1, with supporting evidence in Judges 11:26, and on the date of 966 B.C. as the fourth year of Solomon's reign. Summary on a chronological framework for wuthering heights essays nelly, the Pentateuch. Based on the date of 1446 B.C. as the date for about, the Exodus, and using biblical data summarized in Chart 1.1, as well as extra-biblical data about the kings, nations, and people, interacting with Israel, and certain astronomical data, a chronological framework keyed to modern reckoning, can be established for the Pentateuch (see, for example, Archer 1979:364-368; Merrill 1987:31) . Nichter Dissertation? Chart 2 presents a broad chronology of the Patriarchs and Israel’s sojourn in Egypt. Assuming Mosaic authorship, then the Pentateuch would have to have been written some time between the time of the Exodus and the death of Moses, namely, between 1446 and 1406 B.C. Given this, it is possible that Genesis, Exodus and Leviticus were composed during the one year Israel was encamped at Mount Sinai (1446-1445 B.C.). The books of Numbers and Deuteronomy would have to have been completed in the final year of Israel's forty years of wandering in the wilderness (1407-1406 B.C.). The recipients of the Pentateuch are clearly the Israelites, redeemed and cover letter delivered from bondage in Egypt, separated to Yahweh, and then brought into covenant-relationship with Him at Sinai. It would seem that the books of the Pentateuch were directed to every generation of Israel because the covenant entered into at Sinai and renewed on the Plains of Moab was cut with every generation and not just the one ratifying it as recorded in Deuteronomy 29:14-15. However, having said that it is what are the used essays, clear that the immediate recipients of the books of Genesis, Exodus, and Leviticus would likely have been the cover letter Exodus generation, while the immediate recipients of the books of Numbers and self-improvement Deuteronomy would have been the second generation from the Exodus, or the soon-to-be Conquest generation. The relationship between geography, time, and major events in the Books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, may be summarized as Chart 3 shows.
Lastly, it is helpful to see in graphic form, as shown in Chart 4, the chronological relationship of the Pentateuch with the cover letter rest of essay rickroll, Israel's OT history. Theological types of Christ appearing in the Pentateuch. Identifying major theological themes and emphases is an important aspect of correctly understanding a book of the Bible. These themes are derived individually for each book of the Pentateuch and presented in the Analysis and Synthesis for that book. There is, however, one aspect of letter, these themes which runs throughout the wuthering heights nelly Pentateuch and it is appropriate to discuss it here in the introduction. That theme is theological types of letter, Christ . Following his resurrection, Jesus appeared to two of his disciples as they were traveling home on the road to Emmaus.
Not recognizing him, they engaged him in wuthering essays nelly, conversation which led to his chiding them for not understanding that the Christ was to have suffered before entering into his glory. About? Then beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself (Luke 24:13-27). One of the ways in which Jesus is revealed in the Scriptures is by means of what is called a type . A biblical type may be defined as a historical person, object, institution, or event that has, in addition to its historical significance, a divinely intended future significance. In this function, it foreshadows a corresponding person, object, institution, or event, known as an antitype. Types are limited to only two categories, and any supposed type that does not fit one of these two categories is not legitimate. Essay Rickroll? A type can be substantiated when the NT designates it as one . A second category allows for types that are not explicitly designated as such but are strongly implied by the meaning expressed in the text . In this later case, there is a correspondence between type and antitype. The following is a summary of the types of Christ revealed in the Pentateuch. Adam is recognized as a type of Christ in as much as the NT explicitly designates him as such; “. About Cover Letter? . . as did Adam, who was a pattern (type/ typos ) of the one to come” (Rom 5:14). Dissertation? Both entered the world through a special act of about cover letter, God as sinless men. Adam is the head of the old creation; Christ is the coursework university Head of the letter new creation. Essay Rickroll? Through Adam's one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men; through Christ's one act of righteousness there resulted justification of about letter, life to all who believe in essays nelly, Him (Rom 5:15-19).
Melchizedek (righteous king of about cover, Salem) is coursework studies university, declared a type of cover letter, Christ in Hebrews 7. Dissertation? Speaking of him, the writer of Hebrews declares that without father or mother, without genealogy, without beginning of days or end of life, he, like the Son of God remains a priest forever (Heb 7:3). Thus Melchizedek typifies Christ as high priest. For as David declares of Christ in Psalm 110:4, “The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind: You are a priest forever, in the order of Melchizedek.” In Genesis 22 it is recorded that Abraham was called upon by God to offer up his son Isaac as a sacrifice, a burnt offering (Gen 22:2). Cover Letter? The similarity between this and what is implied by John 3:14-16, strongly suggests a typical relationship between Isaac and Christ through a correspondence of nelly, circumstances.
This is strengthened when it is taken into consideration that Isaac was born of miraculous circumstances, and was the heir to all the about promises of God. Furthermore, as Christ willingly gave himself up to be the “lamb of home help writing, God,” so too it would seem that Isaac gave himself in letter, obedience to his father even unto death. Joseph typifies Christ in some ways with respect to His first and second advents. Joseph, like Christ at His first advent, was rejected by his brothers and sold into slavery for a price. Essay Rickroll? Like Christ, Joseph suffered persecution and hardship before being exalted. Like Christ, Joseph endured several levels of about, humiliation going from favorite son, to servant, and then slave before being exalted as ruler of the an essay in kantian land (see Phil 2). Like Christ, Joseph was maltreated by his brothers who intended it for about, evil but God effected it for good. In this regard Joseph was sent before his brothers to prepare the way for their deliverance in the time of great famine (Gen 45:4-8; 47:23-25; 50:20-21).
In this way Joseph was used to effect blessing upon the elect seed and other families of the are the two types used and contrast essays earth in a typical fulfillment of the Abrahamic Covenant, even as Christ will do at about cover letter, His second coming. Further, Joseph typifies Christ at His second coming in that he tested his brothers to see if they had truly repented even as Christ will purify his brothers during the Tribulation and lead them to repentance. Coursework Studies Section? In summary, Joseph and Christ are both objects of special love by their fathers; both are hated by their brethren; both are rejected as rulers over their brethren; both are conspired against and sold for silver; both are condemned though innocent; and both are raised from humiliation to positions of exaltation by the power of God to be agents of blessing. Taking all this into consideration leads to the conclusion that Joseph is a type of Christ by correspondence. Judah, the elect line through whom the cover ruler would come (Gen 49:10), is wuthering, a type of Christ at about cover letter, His first coming by correspondence in the willing offer of himself as a substitute for his brother. When the sons of Israel are tested by Joseph, Judah, as Christ who came after him, offers himself as a substitute in place of his brother Benjamin (Gen 44:32-33). Moses is home, a type of Christ by correspondence in a number of ways. Most notable, he is the only biblical person other than Christ to hold the three offices of prophet (Deut 34:10-12), priest (Exod 32:31-35), and king, [although Moses was not king, he nevertheless functioned as ruler of Israel] (Deut 33:4-5). As a prophet, Christ was the prophet like Moses of letter, whom Moses spoke (Deut 18:15; John 1:45; Acts 7:37).
Further, both were endangered in infancy, both renounced power and wealth, both were rejected by their brethren, both were deliverers, lawgivers, and mediators. Additionally, Moses, like Christ, offered himself as a substitute for the nation after the people sinned by coursework section macquarie university worshiping the golden calf at Sinai. However, unlike Christ, God did not accept Moses' offer, but instead accepted his intercessory request to forgive the people. Passover lamb as a type of Christ. The Passover lamb is a type of Christ with respect to the sacrificial offering of himself. About Cover? By correspondence, the lamb, like Christ, was without blemish and was sacrificed as a substitute with the blood being applied to nichter dissertation, effect atonement for sin. In this same way, every animal sacrifice offered to effect atonement for sin is about letter, a type of Christ. Nichter? Furthermore, the NT declares that Christ is the Passover Lamb, the Lamb provided by God (John 1:29, 36; 1 Corinthians 5:7). The rock from about letter which water sprung in the wilderness is a type of Christ, for 1 Corinthians 10:4 declares that they drank of the spiritual Rock that followed them, and are the two types essays that Rock was Christ.” The bronze serpent as a type of Christ. The bronze serpent on cover letter, the stake (Num 21:4-9) is a type of Christ as Jesus Himself declares in John 3:14, And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the heights essays Son of man be lifted up, that everyone who believes in him may have eternal life.” Both the letter serpent and Christ are lifted up.
Faith is involved in both cases. Those who looked on the serpent were delivered and received, or did not loose, their physical life, while all who “look” on Christ lifted up on the cross by faith receive eternal life. The sacrifices and feasts of Israel as types of Christ. The typological significance of the essay rickroll sacrifices and feasts of Israel is cover, discussed in the Analysis and home help Synthesis of the Book of Leviticus presented in Chapter 4. Three covenants are recorded in the Pentateuch; the Noahic, the Abrahamic, and about letter the Mosaic. From the heights essays perspective of biblical history, the Abrahamic Covenant and the Mosaic Covenant are of primary importance in that they play a major role in the developing relationship between Yahweh and Israel. In the following, each covenant is about cover, briefly discussed in terms of its nature, function, and form. The nature and essay rickroll function of the covenants of the about cover letter Pentateuch. A covenant in the OT is an essay ethics, a sworn agreement between two parties, where no blood relation exists.
The Pentateuch contains examples of covenants between individuals, nations, and cover letter between God and man. On the national level, similarities between biblical covenants and international treaties, especially the Hittite suzerainty treaties of the second millennium B.C., have been recognized. The basic structure of these treaties has been compared at length with the covenant entered into by Yahweh and Israel at Mount Sinai. Wuthering Heights? This comparison has led to the conclusion that there is a strong possibility that God relates to Israel as a suzerain relates to a vassal, and that Yahweh required the about same allegiance demanded by the Hittite king. (See Mendenhall 1955 1962, and, Kline 1963, who deal with the issue of covenant in Israel in detail; see also Livingston 1974:153-157.) The Noahic Covenant was an everlasting covenant made with Noah and his descendants—all of humanity from that point on in time—in which God promised unconditionally that never again would He destroy the earth and all the coursework macquarie flesh on it with a flood (Gen 9:8-11).
As a sign of the covenant, God designated the rainbow as a reminder (to mankind) of His binding promise. While this covenant is important because it reveals that God would never again bring a flood judgment on mankind, it provides no revelation concerning His relationship with Israel or the nations as do the Abrahamic and Mosaic covenants. God's covenant with Abraham marks the theological high point of Genesis and perhaps of the about cover entire Pentateuch. (See Mitchell 1970 for a consideration of Abram’s understanding of the covenant.) First expressed in studies section university, Genesis 12:1-3 in the form of about cover, a promise, it is then formally encoded and writing instituted as a covenant in Genesis 15:9-21 with the sign of the covenant specified in Genesis 17, and then sealed with an oath in Genesis 22:15-18. Affirmation and expansion of the covenant is recorded in chapters 13, 17, and 22. Isaac and Jacob, the elect seed of Abraham, receive confirmation of the covenant in Genesis 26:2-5 and 35:11-12, respectively. In summary, God promises to cover, bless Abraham, to make him into a great nation, to give him and his descendants the land of an essay, Canaan as an inheritance, and to letter, bless all the nations of the earth through him. Like the Noahic Covenant, the nichter dissertation Abrahamic Covenant is everlasting (Gen 17:7, 13, 19), and it is unconditional. The only stipulation was that Abraham leave family and home and travel to about letter, an unknown land that God would reveal to him (Gen 12:1). In the ceremony ratifying the essay rickroll covenant, God alone took an oath passing between the about letter pieces of the slaughtered animals (Gen 15:17). Abraham and his male descendants were required to be circumcised as a sign of the covenant (Gen 17:10-11). Galatians 3:17-18 emphasizes the promissory nature of the Abrahamic Covenant and affirms that the giving of the Mosaic Law did not set aside the wuthering nelly former covenant which came 430 years later.
After the passing of several centuries, God proved His faithfulness by remembering His covenant with Abraham and effected Israel's redemption from Egypt in order to bring the now great number of descendants of Abraham into relationship with Himself and give them the land of cover letter, Canaan even as He had promised Abraham (Exod 2:24; 6:5). In leading the sons of Israel out of Egypt God was separating them to himself, and in this process he proposed, at Mount Sinai, to make a covenant with them (Exod 19:1-5). The heart of the coursework university Mosaic Covenant is the Ten Commandments. The first of about cover letter, these commandments is simeon dissertation, foundational to the whole covenant-relationship forbidding Israel to have any other God but Yahweh––you shall have no other gods before Me (Exod 20:3). Significantly, this is the stipulation that Israel continuously violated from the very beginning until they were expelled out of the Land of Promise and about driven into Babylonian exile. The Mosaic Covenant differs from the Abrahamic Covenant in that it is not called an everlasting covenant. Yet certain aspects of the what are the two types of organization used in compare covenant are referred to as lasting or permanent. For example Israel was to cover, observe the Sabbath as a lasting covenant. Observing the Sabbath was the sign of the coursework studies section macquarie Mosaic Covenant, corresponding to circumcision as the sign of the Abrahamic Covenant.
Keeping the Sabbath signifies a continual acceptance of the Mosaic Covenant. After forty years of wandering in the wilderness, the cover letter Mosaic Covenant was renewed by the new generation as they were poised to enter into and take possession of the Land of Promise. This was necessitated by the fact that the Exodus generation had effectively broken the two types of organization and contrast covenant by about cover letter their defiant refusal to help in essay, obey Yahweh and enter and take possession of the land of Canaan. Such treaty renewal was apparently common among the letter Hittites when one of their vassal kingdoms had had a change in rulership. At the time of Israel's covenant renewal, the stipulations were brought up to date in light of Israel's changing conditions of going from a nomadic to nelly, a sedentary lifestyle. According to Deuteronomy 29:1, the covenant made with the new generation on the Plains of Moab contained some additional stipulations, but was still built on the foundation of the original covenant. Thus, this covenant renewal should not be viewed as a new, or even an about additional covenant, but an update to the original in view of Israel's changing situation. This is indicated by wuthering heights the repetition of the Ten Commandments recorded in Deuteronomy 5. The form of the Pentateuch covenants. The royal, or land grant covenant form of the Abrahamic covenant. Though Abraham's opportunity to participate in the covenant privileges was obviously conditioned on his leaving Ur and his family and cover journeying to Canaan, the subsequent covenant was unconditional.
As many scholars now recognize, the covenant and its circumstances were in the form of a royal (land) grant, a legal arrangement well attested in the ancient Near East. Dissertation? This type of grant was initiated by a benefactor such as a king who, for whatever reason, wished to confer a blessing on a subject. It was often construed as a reward for letter, some service rendered by essay rickroll the subject, but many times there was no expressed rationale. The grant was a boon explicable by nothing other than the sovereign pleasure of the benefactor. And just as its bestowal was unconditional so was its maintenance.
The covenant could stand regardless of the behavior of its recipient. Thus the Abrahamic Covenant should be viewed as an about cover letter unconditional grant made by Yahweh to self-improvement in kantian, His servant Abraham, a grant that was to serve a specific and irrevocable function. (See Weinfeld 1970 for cover letter, a detailed discussion of the covenant of grant in the OT and the ancient Near East.) The suzerainty-vassal covenant form. It has been observed (see Mendenhall 1955 1962, and what are the two types used and contrast essays Kline 1963) that in about cover, the Hittite international treaty texts there are nearly always found six elements which constitute the treaty between suzerain and vassals, but the two types used and contrast essays order is not fixed. Rather, there is considerable variation in the order of the elements as well as the wording. Occasionally, one element or another may be lacking.
These elements include a preamble, historical prologue, stipulations, provision for the preservation of the treaty, invocation to the gods, specification of curses and blessings, and a ratification ceremony. The preamble identifies the about suzerain, or great king, who is the author of the covenant and the one giving it to his vassals. The emphasis is upon the majesty and power of the king. The historical prologue describes in detail the previous relationship between the king and in kantian his vassals. In particular, great emphasis is placed on the deeds which the cover letter king has performed for the benefit of the vassals. What this description amounts to is that the vassal is obligated to perpetual gratitude toward the great king because of the benevolence, consideration, and favor which he has already received. Immediately following this, the devotion of the vassal to the great king is and contrast essays, expressed as a logical consequence.
The vassal, therefore, is exchanging future obedience to specific commands for about cover, past benefits which he received without any real right. The covenant stipulations state in detail the obligations imposed on and accepted by the vassal. They include typically: 1. The vassal must make a thorough commitment to the suzerain to the exclusion of all alien alliances. 2. What Are The Two Types Of Organization Used In Compare And Contrast Essays? The vassal agrees to about cover, a prohibition of any enmity against anything under the sovereignty of the great king. In particular, the parity between the vassals, created by the great king, must not be changed. One vassal cannot be a slave or dependent of another vassal. Every hostile action against a co-vassal is hostility against the king himself, and the king promises to take the part of the oppressed. 3. The vassal must answer the call to arms sent him by the king. In Kantian? To fail to letter, respond is coursework studies, a breach of the covenant. 4. The vassal must hold lasting and letter unlimited trust in the king.
The vassal must not permit any evil words against the king, for this is the beginning of rebellion. 5. The vassal must not give asylum to nelly, refugees from any source. 6. The vassal must appear before the Hittite king once a year, probably on the occasion of the annual tribute. 7. Controversies between vassals are unconditionally to be submitted to the king for judgment. Provision for deposit in the temple and periodic public reading. Since the treaty was under the protection of the deity, one copy of the treaty was deposited in a sanctuary of the vassal and another in the sanctuary of the about cover suzerain. Essay Rickroll? At periodic intervals the treaty was to be read publicly. Invocation of the gods as witnesses to the covenant. Both the gods of the suzerain and the gods of the vassal were invoked as witnesses of the oath. Most interesting is the inclusion of the mountains, rivers, springs, sea, heaven and earth, the about cover winds and the clouds, to witness the making of the treaty. The gods called upon to witness the oath are called upon to execute curses or blessings according to the vassal's obedience or disobedience.
In addition to the six fundamental components, there was a formal oath by which the vassal pledged his allegiance to the suzerain. Accompanying the oath was a solemn ceremony which constituted a procedure for ratifying the treaty. The Mosaic covenant form in essay rickroll, relationship to the suzerainty treaty form. On the cover surface, the covenant Yahweh presented to Israel at Sinai seems a complex of disparate elements; e.g., the Ten Commandments, the Book of the self-improvement an essay ethics Covenant, the priestly instructions, the enumeration of curses and blessings, etc. While the exact relationship of all these parts is not particularly clear from the perspective of a modern reader, it seems appropriate to define Israel's constitution in cover, terms of a suzerain-vassal relationship because there is a remarkable resemblance, as Mendenhall (1955 1962) and Kline (1963) have observed, between Yahweh's covenant with Israel and the suzerainty-vassal type of international treaty found in the Ancient Near East.
This is demonstrated in the following summary correlation. The preamble to the Mosaic Covenant is section, found in Exodus 20:2a where Yahweh declares, “I am the letter Lord your God.” Yahweh, who is the great king, is the author of the covenant and the one presenting it to His vassals, the Israelites, the essay rickroll descendants of Abraham. This covenant is established immediately following Yahweh’s great act of redeeming Israel from bondage in Egypt through the exercise of his majesty and power. The details of the historical prologue to the Mosaic Covenant are found in Exodus 20:2b––“I am . . . who brought you out of cover, Egypt, out of the land of slavery,” and in Exodus 19:4-5––“You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt, and self-improvement in kantian how I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to about cover letter, myself. Now if you obey me fully and keep my covenant, then out of writing, all the nations you will be my treasured possession.” This historical prologue does not relate back to Abraham, although that is clearly in view from Genesis, but rather back to the immediate past to which all of Israel could relate in as much as they had lived through it. A much more complete historical prologue is recorded in Deuteronomy 29 when Moses, at the end of his life, led Israel in a covenant renewal on the Plains of Moab, and again in Joshua 24:1-27 when Joshua, nearing the end of his life, led the about Israelites through a covenant renewal at Shechem. The stipulations of the Mosaic Covenant are declared in the form of the Ten Commandments recorded in Exodus 20:1-17. The first five of these commandments specify the self-improvement an essay in kantian fundamental framework within which Israel is to relate to Yahweh as their God and King.
Of particular significance is the first commandment, You shall have no other gods before Me. This is the first and most important obligation of the covenant because it required Israel to stop all forms of idol worship and accept Yahweh as their one and only God and King. The remaining commandments specify the fundamental framework within which the people of Israel are to relate to one another. Essentially, they proclaim that all vassals are equal and protected by the king. The fundamental laws presented here are expanded on in the remainder of the Pentateuch. Provisions for deposit in the Temple and periodic public readings.
Provisions for the deposit of the covenant in the ark are found in Exodus 25:16, 21; 40:20, and Deuteronomy 10:2-5, which require Israel to place the two tablets of the covenant in the ark of the covenant. Provision for the public reading of the covenant is specified in Deuteronomy 31:9-13 where Moses commanded Israel to about cover, read the Law at the end of every seven years. The invocation of the gods as witnesses. Since there is coursework studies section university, but one God, that being Yahweh, there can be no calling upon cover, the gods as witnesses. However, when Moses is leading the new generation of Israel through a covenant renewal on the Plains of Moab prior to their entering the Land, he calls on coursework section university, heaven and earth as witnesses (Deut 30:19). There is no explicit section of blessings and curses in the formulation of the covenant given in Exodus; there is only the promise of God that Israel would be his treasured possession if the people obeyed him (Exod 19:5). However, with the giving of the Levitical law for priests and about cover worshippers there is in Leviticus 26 a detailed specification of blessings in response to obedience to the covenant stipulations and curses as a result of disobedience. Further, at the time of the renewal of the covenant through Moses, a very distinct and comprehensive list of blessings and an essay in kantian ethics curses is added to the covenant in Deuteronomy 28:1-14 and Deuteronomy 28:15-68, respectively. The initial ratification of the covenant is about, recorded in Exodus 24. But ratification of the covenant was not restricted to this one event, but rather was necessarily repeated with each renewal of the nichter covenant as is cover, recorded in what are the two types of organization used and contrast, Deuteronomy 29 when Moses led Israel in a covenant renewal on the Plains of Moab, and in Joshua 24 when Joshua led Israel in covenant renewal at Shechem.
Summary of Mosaic Covenant in terms of Suzerainty Treaty Components. Further identification of the Mosaic Covenant components with the suzerainty treaty components is primarily based on a summary by Hannah (1985:137) as: Mosaic Covenant Compared with Suzerainty Treaties. Albright, William F. 1973a From the Patriarchs to Moses I. From Abraham to Joseph. Cover? The Biblical Archaeologist 36/1:5-33. 1973b From the Patriarchs to Moses II. Home Help In Essay Writing? Moses Out of Egypt. About? The Biblical Archaeologist 36/2:48-60.
1990 Numbers. In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol. 2. Genesis - Numbers. Nichter Dissertation? Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Archer, Gleason, Jr. 1979 The Chronology of the Old Testament.
In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol. 1. Introductory Articles. Cover Letter? Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Of Organization Used In Compare And Contrast Essays? Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1985 A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Letter? Chicago: Moody Press. Originally printed 1964. Revised edition 1974. Paperback edition. Ashley, Timothy R.
1995 The Book of Numbers. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. Simeon Dissertation? B. Eerdmans Publishing. 1884 Bible Studies on the Historical Fulfillments Of Jacob's Prophetic Blessings on cover, the Twelve Tribes.
London: J. Masters and Co. 1979 Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture . Philadelphia: Fortress Press. 1993 Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments . Wuthering Heights Essays Nelly? Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 1973 Exodus. The Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Cover? Ed. Home Writing? D. Cover? J. Wiseman. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. Craigie, Peter C. 1983 The Book of Deuteronomy.
New International Commentary of the Old Testament. Ed. In Compare And Contrast Essays? R. K. Cover Letter? Harrison. Grand Rapids: Wm. Help? B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. About Cover? 1976. Reprinted. 1904 The Theology of the Old Testament.
International Theological Library. Edinburgh: T. What Two Types Used Essays? T. Clark. Davies, G. About Cover Letter? Henton. 1967 Exodus. Torch Bible Commentaries. Eds. John Marsh Alan Richardson. London: SCM Press Ltd. DeCanio, Frank T.
2007 A Systems–Communication Approach to Biblical Hermeneutics from an Evangelical Perspective. Diss. (Th.D.) University of South Africa. 1985 Deuteronomy. Self-improvement An Essay? In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament. About Letter? Eds. John F. Walvoord Roy B. Zuck. Coursework Studies University? Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications.
Dillard, Raymond D., Tremper Longman, III. 1994 An Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Dumbrell, William J. 1988 The Faith of Israel: Its Expression in the Books of the Old Testament . Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
1987 Exodus . Vol. 3. Word Biblical Commentary. Eds. David A Hubbard Glenn W. Barker. Waco, TX: Word Books. 1961 Theology of the Old Testament. Volume One. The Old Testament Library. Eds. G. Ernest Wright, et al.
Philadelphia: Westminster Press. 1967 Theology of the Old Testament. Volume Two. The Old Testament Library. Eds. G. Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. 1985 Christian Theology. One-volume edition.
Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. Gruenler, Royce Gordon. 1986 The Trinity in the Gospel of John. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1989 John 17:20-26. Interpretation 43 (April): 178-183. Hamilton, Victor P. 1990 The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1-17. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
1995 The Book of Genesis: Chapters 18-50. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. 1985 Exodus. In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament. Eds. Cover? John F. Walvoord Roy B. Zuck.
Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications. 1990 Leviticus. In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol. 2. Genesis - Numbers. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Harrison, Roland Kenneth. 1980 Leviticus.
Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Ed. D. J. Wiseman. Are The Two Types Of Organization Used In Compare And Contrast Essays? Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press. 1985 Introduction to cover letter, the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. Self-improvement In Kantian? B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1969. Reprinted. Hill, Andrew E., John H. Walton.
1991 A Survey of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Hoehner, Harold W. 1977 Chronological Aspects of the Life of about, Christ. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Hollingsworth, Owen L. 1956 The Levitical and Melchizedekian Priesthoods Contrasted . Thesis.
Dallas Theological Seminary, May. Hulbert, Terry C. 1965 The Eschatological Significance of Israel's Annual Feasts . Dissertation. Dallas Theological Seminary. May. 1987a Genesis . Course Notes. Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary.
1987b Exodus . Home Help In Essay Writing? Course Notes. Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary. 1987c Leviticus . Course Notes. Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary. 1987d Numbers . Course Notes.
Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary. 1987e Deuteronomy . Course Notes. Dallas: Dallas Theological Seminary. 1984 The Law and the Covenant. Tyler, TX: Institute for Christian Economics. Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. 1990 Exodus. In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol.
2. Genesis - Numbers. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1992 Deuteronomy. About Letter? In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol. 3. Essay Rickroll? Deuteronomy – 2 Samuel. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
1967 Genesis. About Cover? Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Ed. D. J. Wiseman. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. 1966 Ancient Orient and Old Testament. Chicago: Inter-Varsity Press. Kline, Meredith G. 1963 Treaty of the Great King.
Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1972 The Structure of self-improvement an essay ethics, Biblical Authority. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1863 Sacrificial Worship of the Old Testament. Transl. by James Martin. Edinburgh: T. T. Clark.
La Sor, William Sanford, et al. 1990 Old Testament Survey. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1982. Reprinted. Levine, Baruch A. 1989 Leviticus. The JPS Torah Commentary. Ed. Nahum M. About Cover Letter? Sarna.
Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society. Lindsey, F. Duane. 1985 Leviticus. In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament. Eds. John F. Walvoord Roy B. Essay Rickroll? Zuck. About? Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications. Livingston, G. Herbert.
1974 The Pentateuch in Its Cultural Environment. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. Mendenhall, George E. 1955 Law and essays Covenant in Israel and The Ancient Near East . Pittsburgh: Presbyterian Board of Colportage. 1962 Covenant In The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible.
Vol. 1 Ed. George Arthur Buttrick. Nashville: Abingdon Press. Merrill, Eugene H. Fixed Dates in Patriarchal Chronology. Bibliotheca Sacra 137:547 (July-September):241-51.
1985 Numbers, In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament. Eds. John F. Walvoord Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton: Scripture Press Publications. 1987 Kingdom of Priests. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. 1990 Numbers. The JPS Torah Commentary.
Ed. Nahum M. About Cover Letter? Sarna. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society. 1991 Leviticus 1-16. Vol. 3. The Anchor Bible. Eds. William Foxwell Albright David Noel Freedman. New York: Doubleday. Mitchell, John J. 1970 Abram's Understanding of the essay rickroll Lord's Covenant.
Westminster Theological Journal , 24-48. 1955 The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. About Cover Letter? Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1983 The Atonement. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. 1977 The Revelation of the Divine Name. Leicester: Theological Students Fellowship. Reprinted. 1962 Exodus. Coursework? The Old Testament Library.
Eds. G. Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. 1968 Numbers. The Old Testament Library. Eds. G. Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. 1877 The Prophecy of Jacob. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, and Co.
Rad, Gerhard von. 1966 Deuteronomy. The Old Testament Library. Eds. G. Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, Revised ed. 1972 Genesis. The Old Testament Library. Cover Letter? Eds.
G. Ernest Wright, et al. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. Rev. ed. 1985 Genesis. In The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Old Testament . Eds. John F. Home Help In Essay? Walvoord Roy B. Zuck. Wheaton: SP Publications. 1988 Creation and Blessing. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
1987 Words of Delight: A Literary Introduction to the Bible . Grand Rapids: Baker Book House. Ryken, Leland, Tremper Longman III (eds.) 1993 A Complete Literary Guide to the Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Sailhamer, John H. 1990 Genesis In The Expositor's Bible Commentary . Vol. 2. Genesis - Numbers. Ed.
Frank E. Gaebelein. About Cover Letter? Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1992 The Pentateuch as Narrative. The Library of Biblical Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1989 Genesis. The JPS Torah Commentary. Ed.
Nahum M. Sarna. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. 1991 Exodus. The JPS Torah Commentary. Ed. Self-improvement In Kantian Ethics? Nahum M. Sarna. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. 1969 Law, Prophets, and letter Writings. London: S.P.C.K. 1983 The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings .Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Deuteronomy.
The Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Ed. D. J. Wiseman. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. Tigay, Jeffrey H. 1996 Deuteronomy. Self-improvement In Kantian? The JPS Torah Commentary. Ed. Letter? Nahum M. Sarna. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society. Unger, Merrill F.
1954 Archaeology and the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. 1964 Studies in Old Testament Sacrifice. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. 1965 Ancient Israel: Religious Institutions. Essay Rickroll? Vol.
2. Transl. by John McHugh. About Cover Letter? New York: McGraw-Hill Co. 1961. Paperback. 1972 Palestinian Artifcatual Evidence Support the Early Date of the two types in compare Exodus. Bibliotheca Sacra 129 January–March. 1990 The Date of the Conquest. Westminster Theological Journal 52:181-200. Waltke, Bruce K. with Cathi J. Fredricks.
2001 Genesis: a commentary . Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House. Walvoord, John F. 1951 The Abrahamic Covenant and Premillennialism. Bibliotheca Sacra 108/432 (Oct-Dec):414-22. 1970 The Covenant of letter, Grant in the Old Testament and in the Ancient Near East. Journal of The American Oriental Society 90/2 (June):184-203.
Wenham, Gordon J. 1981 Numbers. The Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries. Ed. D. J. Wiseman. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press. 1992 The Book of Leviticus. New International Commentary of the Old Testament. Ed. R. K. Home Help? Harrison.
Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1979. Letter? Reprint. Wilkinson, Bruce, Kenneth Boa. 1983 Talk Thru the Bible. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers. 1991 An Introduction to the Old Testament Pentateuch . Chicago: Moody Press. 1970 The Toledot of the Book of Genesis and Their Redemptive-Historical Significance. Calvin Theological Journal 5/2 (Nov):184-9.
1991 A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament. Chicago: Moody Press. Frank DeCanio holds a Bachelor's degree in essay rickroll, Electrical Engineering and a Master of Science degree in Systems Science from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. He later earned a Master of Theology degree from Dallas Theological Seminary, and then a Doctor of Theology degree from the University of So. More.
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Developing and cover letter, constructing long-term, strategic business plans. Essay Rickroll. Monitoring to economic change and market trends. Researching other factors that affect organisational performance. Monitoring and analysing competitor performance. Steering mergers and acquisitions. Researching and making recommendations on investment strategy.
Executing international capital-raising campaigns to cover letter, fund expansion and investment. Creating monthly reports and cash flow projections to predict future trends and wuthering nelly, developments. Revising business plan recommendations according to research findings and analysis. Developing and overseeing financial management systems that operate at minimal risk. Liaising with external auditing agencies, legal bodies and cover, statutory organisations to ensure financial compliance. Managing organisational borrowing and debt. Managing the organisation's insurance budget. Financial institutions also employ additional finance managers to oversee specific functions. Individual managers may be responsible for mortgages, investments, trusts, electronic financial services, etc. Finance Managers and Finance Directors also perform duties that are particular to their organisation and industry. For instance, healthcare and home help writing, government organisations all have particular types of financing and accompanying regulations, so managers must possess or acquire the required specialist knowledge.
Skills Required on a Finance Director CV / Finance Manager CV. A Finance Manager or Finance Director must have outstanding accounting skills and management abilities, matched by analytical thinking capabilities strong enough to inform on investment and management actions and decisions. This means a proactive personality is required. Letter. On a Finance Manager CV / Finance Director CV, you must demonstrate and provide evidence of having: Comprehensive, exacting accounting skills and knowledge of procedures. Powerful analytical thinking and problem solving skills. Superb communication skills for preparation of and delivery of reports and analyses. Depth of business management and economics knowledge to enable research and evaluation of change and trends.
Ability to operate at senior management level, provide input and recommendations to executive team decision making processes. Outstanding strengths in information technology skills, particularly accounting packages and systems, with ability to utilise modelling programs and optimise financial management systems. Essay Rickroll. Confidence in about letter, liaising with regulatory representatives and what are the two types of organization in compare, professionals in external organisations. Staff management skills, with strengths in supervising and motivating a team, sometimes over different sites. About Cover. High level of integrity, being trustworthy and respectful of confidential information.
Our executive CV writing service can produce a Finance Manager or Finance Director CV for nichter dissertation you that assists you win the cover letter, interviews you want. What are an nichter, Employer's Concerns on letter, a Finance Manager CV / Finance Director CV? The employer is primarily concerned with management and reduction of risk. While they are seeking stability within the organisation's financial management operations, they are also seeking optimisation of profit through investment, which is in itself a risky activity - you need to demonstrate this on your Finance Director CV / Finance Manager CV. Employers are seeking someone who is strong enough to make forward thinking recommendations that will yield financial benefits, but who will also base those recommendations in comprehensive research and essay rickroll, analysis.
The employer's main concerns are: Will this manager's economic knowledge and judgement be reflected in letter, profitable investment and two types of organization used, financial management strategy? Can they contribute directly to growing the organisation by steering positive acquisitions and attracting outside investment? If they are of a sufficiently high enough calibre, how rapidly can they improve the organisation's bottom line? Is this person capable of driving growth while maintaining financial stability? All of letter these questions can be addressed in your CV and what two types of organization in compare and contrast essays, you should ensure that they are. They must be substantiated with evidence of your performance to date, adding weight to about letter, the employer's belief that your work will help to used in compare and contrast essays, consolidate the organisation as it moves forward. You have to cover letter, sell yourself to the employer by addressing their concerns in every line of self-improvement in kantian ethics your CV, while providing more information to show that you are not only a suitable candidate for about cover letter the position, you are the best candidate. To achieve this to wuthering essays, greatest effect, you need to undertake research and ensure that you understand every aspect of their organisational objectives, so that your CV of a finance manager is a supremely informed and focused document. Finance Director CV / Finance Manager CV Profile.
You need to create immediate impact from the start with a Profile on your Finance Manager CV / Finance Director CV that leaves no doubt as to about cover, the high-flying nature of your skills, experience and essay rickroll, knowledge. It establishes the basis for your greatest strengths and attributes, thereby compelling the employer to want to learn more about your background. Whatever your area of expertise, you will need to show an accounting qualification and certification - or advanced study towards one. So, how many years of accounting experience do you have and which accounting qualification - AAT, ACCA or CIMA? Your certification needs to about, be shown in the Profile, next to essay rickroll, your name or listed under qualifications. As important are the areas of greatest experience. Which industries are your most experienced in and, within these, which sectors? As described earlier in the article, different positions have different focuses. You need to cover, specify which areas of the financial management function you are most experienced in.
For example, investment, cash management, risk management, international banking, mergers, acquisitions, etc. In addition to these experience areas, you can further sell yourself by highlighting three or four areas of excellence in ethics, your skills and abilities. These can be accounting skills or transferable skills, such as persuasive communication, excellent data analysis, etc. You can also mention personal attributes - what do you bring to your work? What stands out most about your management? As with every part of your CV of a Finance Manager / Finance Director, ensure that the about cover letter, Profile you write is aligned to the employer's needs. What Two Types Of Organization Used. There is about cover, little point in highlighting cash management mechanisms if the coursework studies section macquarie, advertised position is primarily concerned with investment strategy. Demonstrate Outstanding Achievements on Your Finance Manager CV / Finance Director CV. Now you have hooked the employer's attention with a dynamic profile, you need to reel them in with an exciting and inspiring Achievements section on about cover letter, your Finance Manager CV / Finance Director CV. This needs to be packed with evidence of your ability to bring about positive developments that drive the organisation's financial success.
Compelling data does much to simeon nichter, add weight to your achievements, so be prepared to about cover, provide quantitative evidence. In Essay. This shows, in measurable terms, how you made a significant contribution for other organisations you've worked for. Achievements are highly individual and do an enormous amount to differentiate you from cover, other candidates - most recruiting employers will be more influenced by your achievements than by a straightforward record of your previous jobs. Outstanding achievements that are relevant to simeon, the vacancy will actually inspire and motivate the employer, as they will be able to envisage what you might do for about cover their organisation. Achievements on a Finance Manager CV / Finance Director CV might include some of the following: Oversaw preparation of coursework section university group annual budgets, providing budget for borrowing cost base on £6 million secured loans. Formulated a strategic plan for sale of group assets, achieving a total sale price of £32 million, 10% higher than forecast. About. Led team project to help writing, establish a funding strategy for the PBL Group Ltd, designed to about cover letter, meet the operating costs and essay rickroll, payments required to fund development of Alexis, a new product line. Five or six strong achievements should be included, ensuring that these reflect the employer's priorities as closely as possible. In conjunction with your Profile, the Achievements section can really set you apart, before the employer has even considered your previous jobs. Others may have the same experience or qualifications, but your achievements are usually unique and, when well put together, can genuinely convey that 'wow' factor.
Can't identify your achievements or make them sound great? The CV writers at Bradley CVs know exactly what employers expect to see on your CV. Career History on a Finance Director CV / Finance Manager CV. Here is a checklist of the information you should ensure is included for each job that you list in the Career History section of your Finance Manager CV / Finance Director CV. Your bullet points should not be paragraphs, but you can make them around two sentences long without losing impact.
Name of the employer and your job title. A brief description of the about cover, employer's business area, if this is not well-known. The number of wuthering heights staff in cover letter, the team you worked within. Your role and key responsibilities, presented as sentences with bullet points. Details of any special projects you worked on, such as expansions, financial management systems reviews, mergers, etc. Your Career History is wuthering nelly, really another opportunity to present your solid achievements. A list of duties and responsibilities is uninspiring, whereas if you use each duty as an opportunity to present an achievement, you can hammer home your greatest strengths. So, the about cover letter, trick here is to cover your responsibilities in different positions, but at the same time to present as much information about your skills, abilities and responsibilities as possible. Write these bullet points in the same style as your achievements. This way, you communicate more important information about your selling points in an interesting way that motivates the employer. With each point, always state your action and the outcome, encompassing duties and what of organization, responsibilities as part of that statement.
The aim with each sentence is to create a complete picture, in a nutshell, of how you made a difference. Always be specific, rather than generic, as this will help ensure that the about letter, employer trusts what you are describing. Wuthering. Always be positive - even if describing a negative situation or a challenge, convert this into details of your positive response. Cover. In this way, even the most arduous challenges can be presented as achievements. You can make your past employment sound particularly impressive by starting every sentence with a powerful verb. Active language is extremely engaging and heights nelly, can really convey a sense of how you approached your work as an individual manager. About Letter. You can make yourself sound highly proactive simply by using strong, active language. Some obvious examples of financial verbs are 'administered, budgeted, planned, and programmed'. Others that are not so obvious are 'allocated, appraised, measured, balanced, assessed, retrieved'.
Stress your strengths through action verbs, such as 'analysed, reviewed, established, pioneered, powered' etc. These all convey management strengths. Keywords are also important, as so many employers now scan CVs with specialised scanning software. Some of the studies section, keywords will be included in the job description and person specification, so try to borrow some key phrases from the vacancy's literature. These can influence whether your Finance Manager CV / Finance Director CV helps you to cover, get shortlisted or not.
However, do use them carefully and ensure that they do not stand out amidst the flow of your content. Do not compromise quality by inserting too much repetitive jargon. Look on of organization in compare, numerous CV writing websites for hints on which words are worth using. IT Skills to List on a Finance Manager CV / Finance Director CV. If you have a good portfolio of IT skills relating to management and accounting, then it is certainly worth adding a Skills section especially to about cover letter, highlight these on your Finance Manager CV / Finance Director CV. List the expected MS Word, Excel and what two types of organization used essays, Outlook, but specify whether your skills are advanced or competent. Cover Letter. Also, list accounting software such as Sun Ledger, Magnitude and home help writing, Business Objects in the same way.
You do not need to go into extensive detail about your education and training on a Finance Manager CV / Finance Director CV. About. It is what are the of organization used and contrast, enough to list your qualifications with the important information such as dates and institution. Your accounting qualification comes first, whichever of the letter, six main professional accountancy bodies you are qualified with: the essay rickroll, Chartered Institute of letter Public Finance Accountants (CIPFA), ACCA, ICAEW, ICAS or ICAI. Provide the dates of your certification. If you took a Master's degree in accounting, business studies, economics or another highly relevant subject, list this next. Include details of any secondments or special projects you undertook only essays, if they are highly relevant to this vacancy. Give the institution's name, your degree result and the date you completed it. Do the same for your Bachelor's degree.
If your degree was in an unrelated subject, include it beneath relevant training, allowing vocational training or training taken with an employer to come first. Provide the organisation you trained with and relevant dates. If you attended a further education college to take a different kind of letter qualification, list that next. As a general rule, you do not need to home writing, include schools once you are at this level. As a Finance Manager or Finance Director, your standards should be impeccable, as is appropriate at executive level.
You therefore need to ensure that the overall presentation of your Finance Director CV / Finance Manager CV reflects these standards. It is important that the about, employer can feel confident in every aspect of essay rickroll your communications - if the cover letter, employer thinks you are prone to errors, they will not want to dissertation, entrust their company's financial management with you. You cannot claim to be an attentive and detail-focused manager if your CV is peppered with spelling mistakes. Check and double check your CV for letter errors, using the spell checker, your own eye (print a copy out) and a friend's second opinion. It is important to used in compare and contrast, write in a confident but cool professional tone.
Sound motivated, but not over about cover, enthusiastic, as over enthusiasm is a risk-prone emotional state. Therefore you should be using clear, specific and what two types used, positive language, adding impact to the statements you are making. Every word should be supporting the cover, core message of wuthering heights nelly your CV for letter a Finance Manager or Finance Director: that the recruiter should invite you to interview because you are the best candidate for the job, capable of adding more to the role, making crucial decisions, while understanding yet never posing a risk. Other pages financial personnel may want to view: Need a CV review? Discover the deadly mistakes that you've made and what two types of organization in compare and contrast essays, how to fix your CV and land far more interviews. PROFESSIONAL CV SERVICE. Would you like a better CV? Bradley CVs can create an interview-grabbing CV for you that will impress employers. With over about, 23 years' experience, it's easy to see how Bradley CVs can guarantee that your CV will generate the job interviews you crave.
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