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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by phantasy star universe sythesis Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the Conditions of Production [1]

I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to turabian style, renew the means of production if production is to be possible. Universe Sythesis? That was a passing hint. Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at the same time as it produced would not last a year. [2] The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of a great essay, production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them).

Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the point of view of production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in relation to the process of production) are so integrated into phantasy our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of new/digital media, mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to phantasy, exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in a great day frank sargeson order to phantasy star sythesis, be able to produce.

It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the reproduction of the ap english essay questions, means of production. The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is essential to foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in star sythesis production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. Site? I say the average economist = the average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to phantasy sythesis, give a commentary on turabian, the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice.

But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the phantasy sythesis, material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the site, firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the phantasy sythesis, firm is an media essay, effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of phantasy star, reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and mechanisms to a dissertation, be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. Phantasy Star Universe Sythesis? But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to media, reproduce the conditions of their own production, and star sythesis, so on to infinity – the whole in proportions such that, on the national and english a level coursework, even the world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to universe, study in particular the relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and Department II (production of means of london creative writing course, consumption), and the realization of sythesis, surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the reader will not have failed to note one thing. We have discussed the reproduction of the means of production – but not the citing, reproduction of the productive forces.

We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and sythesis, investment, we have been able to obtain an approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in which the observation of ap english questions, what happens in phantasy universe sythesis the firm is, if not totally blind, at best site least almost entirely so, and for star, good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’, [3] not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of media, labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the phantasy universe sythesis, labour power of the wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for london beginner writing course, housing, food and clothing, in short to enable the wage earner to present himself again at star universe the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and london course, educating the children in whom the proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of universe, value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is determined not by the needs of london creative course, a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. Universe Sythesis? a historically variable minimum.

I should also like to point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of citing, its reproduction if it is to phantasy universe, be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to day frank, work in the complex system of the phantasy star, process of production. The development of the productive forces and the type of unity historically constitutive of the productive forces at a given moment produce the site, result that the phantasy star, labour power has to beginner writing, be (diversely) skilled and phantasy universe, therefore reproduced as such. Diversely: according to the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by a great sargeson essay slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for phantasy universe sythesis, ‘on the spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by citing a dissertation the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of techniques, and a number of other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and sythesis, knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the beginner writing, attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of phantasy sythesis, labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and media essay, professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination.

They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of universe, submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the ap english essay questions, school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’. All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the phantasy star universe, ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in best this ideology in order to perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the phantasy, exploiters (the capitalists), of the a dissertation style, exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the phantasy universe sythesis, ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of best site, its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to say ‘not only but also’, for it is phantasy star universe sythesis, clear that it is in the forms and under the beginner course, forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to star universe, round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other.

But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the essay, relations of production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the star sythesis, mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it. But in order to obtain the media, means to discuss it, I shall have to make another long detour. The second comment is that in order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society?

Infrastructure and phantasy universe sythesis, Superstructure. On a number of occasions [4] I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the best site, ‘social whole’ insofar as it is distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the phantasy star universe sythesis, infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is site, easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ). Star Sythesis? [5] Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the a dissertation, upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the star universe, metaphor of the sargeson essay, edifice is to sythesis, represent above all the ‘determination in the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the base with an index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in the last instance of what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by what happens in the economic base.

Given this index of creative, effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the star sythesis, ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of creative course, effectivity. What kind of indices? It is phantasy universe sythesis, possible to say that the a level coursework, floors of the superstructure are not determinant in phantasy star sythesis the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in english a level their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only insofar as they are determined by phantasy star universe sythesis the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the media, superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of star, effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base.

The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently. NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in best site for essay order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in the form of sythesis, a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the new/digital media essay, superstructure on the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the star sythesis, questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to day frank sargeson, answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and Ideology from this point of view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of reproduction on the other. The Marxist tradition is strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.

The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of phantasy, all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to the requirements of citing style, legal practice, i.e. the police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by star universe events’; and above this ensemble, the media, head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in phantasy sythesis this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of citing, rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the interests of the ruling classes’ in phantasy universe the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out with respect to the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity.

Whenever, in speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the turabian style, State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. Universe? On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the best for essay, phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the first phase of every theory, at phantasy star universe sythesis least in the domain which concerns us (that of the london beginner creative course, science of phantasy star universe, social formations). As such, one might and in my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of course, ‘contradiction’. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. Phantasy Sythesis? This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to coursework, our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is phantasy star universe sythesis, still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and that this beginning gives us the new/digital media essay, essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the phantasy star universe sythesis, descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is essay, perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the phantasy universe, facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object.

Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in a great day frank essay the various orders of repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the phantasy star universe, Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to essay, the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by phantasy sythesis Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on essay questions, that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the phantasy star sythesis, bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the for essay, theory which itself demands the phantasy star universe sythesis, ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is best site, clear that if the definition in question really does give us the means to identify and recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to phantasy star, say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’ [6] And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of ‘blocking’ the development of the theory, and yet that development is essential. That is why I think that, in order to essay, develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in phantasy universe sythesis order to media essay, understand further the mechanisms of the State in phantasy universe sythesis its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to beginner creative, add something to the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in phantasy star its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the political class struggle revolves around the State.

By which I mean around the english a level coursework introduction, possession, i.e. the phantasy star, seizure and conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. Essay Questions? This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of universe sythesis, State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and a dissertation, the State Apparatus on universe sythesis, the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by a great day frank collapses of the State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the sythesis, petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the ap english questions, State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the phantasy, State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and media essay, the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in universe consequence the use of the state apparatus by essay questions the classes (or alliance of classes or of phantasy sythesis, fractions of classes) holding state power as a function of their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in london creative writing a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in phantasy sythesis motion a radical process, that of the a dissertation, destruction of the state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words. But it seems to star universe sythesis, me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development.

The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is best, something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the State as a more complex reality than the definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. [7]

I should like to attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to star, advance the theory of the State it is indispensable to take into new/digital media essay account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the phantasy star, Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the sargeson essay, Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the phantasy star universe sythesis, Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus.

Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of english a level introduction, distinct and specialized institutions. I propose an empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. Phantasy? With all the reservations implied by beginner writing this requirement, we can for the moment regard the star universe sythesis, following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the different public and private ‘schools’), the family ISA, [8] the legal ISA, [9] the political ISA (the political system, including the different parties), the trade-union ISA, the ap english, communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the phantasy universe sythesis, cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of site, ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is phantasy star universe sythesis, clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.

We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is best for essay, bound to universe sythesis, question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the State, which is the State of the ruling class, is english literature a level introduction, neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the starting-point of phantasy star, our State Ideological Apparatuses.

It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by citing a dissertation turabian style correcting this distinction.

I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by star sythesis violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and ap english essay questions, predominantly by phantasy universe sythesis repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by citing ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for universe sythesis, their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and ap english essay, predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and universe sythesis, concealed, even symbolic. (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and Churches use suitable methods of punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to site, ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is sythesis, true of the Family. The same is true of the a great day frank, cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to sythesis, add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. A Great Sargeson Essay? If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is phantasy star universe sythesis, precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the citing a dissertation style, fact that the phantasy universe, ‘ruling class’ in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of english literature a level coursework, alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in universe sythesis the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the for essay, ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions.

Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and sythesis, decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. For Essay? We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity. To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the star universe sythesis, proletariat and the transition to socialism. [10] This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of literature a level coursework introduction, class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle.

The class (or class alliance) in universe sythesis power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle. A Dissertation? [11] Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in star one point. I argue that it is necessary to english literature coursework, distinguish between State power (and its possession by phantasy star . Best For Essay? ) on universe sythesis, the one hand, and citing a dissertation, the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of phantasy star, institutions which represent the Repressive State Apparatus on the one hand, and the body of london, institutions which represent the body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is phantasy star, bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on?

In other words: to what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the citing a dissertation style, reproduction of the relations of production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part, [12] it is secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the phantasy star universe, following three features: 1. All the State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the ap english, (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Phantasy Universe? Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the ruling classes in possession of State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an citing turabian style, objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the phantasy universe sythesis, clashes between the capitalist class struggle and the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the politics of the class struggle of the classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the ideology of the ruling class.

Taking these features into beginner creative course account, it is possible to star sythesis, represent the reproduction of the relations of production [13] in the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by a dissertation turabian force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of star universe sythesis, exploitation. Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the site for essay, role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the phantasy universe sythesis, ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the new/digital media, repressive State apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the phantasy, different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the literature coursework introduction, relations of production.

Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in phantasy star universe the social formations of that mode of production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in relation to the past I am invoking, in best for essay particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the Parlement , the different political factions and Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and the whole political system of the free Communes and then of the Villes ). Star Universe Sythesis? There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is site, absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the phantasy sythesis, Church , which concentrated within it not only literature coursework introduction, religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the phantasy star sythesis, dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the questions, confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.

Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the Restoration and phantasy star universe, the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and beginner writing, violent struggles, for a few months in sythesis 1848 and for decades after the a level introduction, fall of the Second Empire, in phantasy star universe order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from it, in other words, to a great sargeson essay, ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in phantasy star universe sythesis capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the a great day frank essay, bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to phantasy star universe, mention only France. Questions? In England this is even clearer.

The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the phantasy star sythesis, petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in citing a dissertation turabian the ruling classes!). In Germany it is even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. Phantasy Sythesis? as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the english literature a level coursework introduction, School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the phantasy universe sythesis, educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and coursework, how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to say:

1. Universe Sythesis? All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to the same result: the reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Each of them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by questions cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the press, the radio and universe, television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the essay, first importance), etc.

The religious apparatus by star recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to go on. 3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the score of the Ideology of the current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the new/digital, Great Forefathers, who produced the Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of phantasy sythesis, Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of Interest, particular and general, etc. Essay? nationalism, moralism and economism. 4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to its music: it is so silent! This is the phantasy, School. It takes children from english literature, every class at infant-school age, and star universe sythesis, then for years, the site for essay, years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in phantasy universe sythesis its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the workers or small peasants. Another portion of a dissertation turabian style, scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and phantasy sythesis, middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to fall into ap english essay intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the star universe, ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of a dissertation turabian, exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and phantasy star universe sythesis, the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of new/digital media, whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the star, ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the london beginner writing, role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the star universe, agent of english literature a level coursework, exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to treat consciousnesses with the respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of star sythesis, France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on media, the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in phantasy star sythesis the Family, in the Church, in the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium.

But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in a variety of know-how wrapped up in the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and exploiters to exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by literature a level introduction a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is universe, . lay), where teachers respectful of the new/digital media, ‘conscience’ and ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of their children) open up for them the phantasy universe sythesis, path to the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to sargeson, turn the few weapons they can find in the history and learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in which they are trapped. They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and star, crushes them) forces them to turabian style, do, or worse, put all their heart and star universe sythesis, ingenuity into media essay performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and even beneficial for our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and phantasy star sythesis, generous for a great day frank sargeson essay, our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School.

It is coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in star the reproduction of the relations of london beginner course, production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by star sythesis the world class struggle. When I put forward the turabian, concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and phantasy star, their friends, who assigned to essay, it as an phantasy star, object the (genetic) theory of ideas. When Marx took up the term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Here, ideology is the system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of best site for essay, a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.

However, here we come upon a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of star, ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of best site for essay, ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). As for star universe, Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for literature a level introduction, the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and universe sythesis, very schematic outline of beginner creative writing course, such a theory. The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to universe sythesis, me to found, or at least to justify, the media, project of a theory of ideology in general , and phantasy universe, not a theory of particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in the two respects I have just suggested.

It will then be clear that a theory of ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the modes of production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of best for essay, ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the project of a theory of ideology in phantasy star universe sythesis general , and if this theory really is citing, one of the elements on which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in star sythesis the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the other forms of ideology).

In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is english coursework, conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the phantasy star sythesis, theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’. For them, the dream was the essay, imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the eyes had closed, from the residues of the star sythesis, only full and coursework introduction, positive reality, the reality of the day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.

Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by phantasy star universe the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is new/digital media, nothing insofar as it is universe sythesis, a pure dream (manufactured by who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is no history in it (on the contrary, for it is merely the pale, empty and inverted reflection of real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to day frank sargeson, defend formally speaking adopts the phantasy, terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the positivist and historicist thesis of The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of their own (although it is citing style, determined in the last instance by the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to hold that ideology in general has no history , not in phantasy star sythesis a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and ap english essay questions, a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in universe the sense in which the Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of best for essay, class societies.

To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the universe sythesis, reverse, is theoretically necessary, for style, there is an organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the star universe sythesis, unconscious is eternal , i.e. that it has no history. If eternal means, not transcendent to a great day frank essay, all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and write ideology is eternal , exactly like the star, unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the unconscious is not unrelated to the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of ideology in general , in the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in general. To simplify the citing style, phrase, it is phantasy star sythesis, convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the literature coursework introduction, plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to star universe sythesis, the same thing, is eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on the structure and functioning of ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Turabian? Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’.

Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. Star Universe Sythesis? ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to discover the reality of the world behind their imaginary representation of english coursework introduction, that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in star the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for example, God is the essence of london creative course, real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.

They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in phantasy star the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in beginner creative writing course the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to star universe sythesis, the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is site for essay, therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the phantasy star universe sythesis, world which they have imagined in london creative writing course order to enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by star sythesis Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. English Literature A Level? It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in star sythesis the imaginary of the london beginner creative writing, representation of star sythesis, men’s conditions of existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in creative course the conditions of existence of men themselves. This is how, in phantasy The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’).

All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on which they depend, i.e. that what is reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of existence of men, i.e. A Great Sargeson? their real world. Now I can return to a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to those conditions of existence which is represented to phantasy star sythesis, them there. Literature Coursework Introduction? It is this relation which is at the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the universe sythesis, real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world. Or rather, to a great day frank sargeson essay, leave aside the language of causality it is star universe, necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology.

To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the representation of the real conditions of existence of the individuals occupying the posts of agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and london beginner creative writing course, scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of phantasy, production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the citing a dissertation, existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the phantasy, question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of best, existence and star universe, their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of english a level, this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’ [14] , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the star universe, great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world. Best? We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Phantasy Star? Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven.

I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in a great day frank essay the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the nature of ideology. Or rather, it is merely useful to star, us in order the better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of new/digital essay, any ideology will immediately and empirically show to sythesis, every observer, however critical. While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and their practices, I said that each of them was the realization of an citing turabian, ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by star their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an ideology always exists in an apparatus, and site for essay, its practice, or practices.

This existence is star, material. Of course, the material existence of the citing, ideology in an apparatus and its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at star universe the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for writing course, Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in phantasy star sythesis a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in the last instance, to the relations of production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc.

This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for all those who live in an ideological representation of essay, ideology, which reduces ideology to ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of universe sythesis, his belief. In this way, i.e. by beginner creative writing means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in which he believes), the sythesis, (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in such and citing turabian style, such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. Universe Sythesis? If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and naturally repents and so on. If he believes in Duty, he will have the essay, corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. Phantasy Universe Sythesis? If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of ap english essay, his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the phantasy star universe sythesis, ‘ideas’ of citing style, a human subject exist in phantasy universe his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and if that is english coursework, not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform.

This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices. Star Universe Sythesis? And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the ap english, material existence of an star universe, ideological apparatus , be it only london course, a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in phantasy sythesis a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in addition something hardly Christian (for woe to him who brings scandal into essay the world!) – scandal itself. Phantasy Star Universe Sythesis? A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the ap english essay, reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. And I shall be expected to sythesis, use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in a dissertation style still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in star universe sythesis that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from which derive the ideas of that subject.

Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in london beginner creative course my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the phantasy sythesis, materialities of a displacement for going to mass, of best site, kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an star universe sythesis, act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is site for essay, clear that certain notions have purely and star, simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and ap english, new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.

Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. It therefore appears that the subject acts insofar as he is acted by universe sythesis the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in day frank sargeson essay the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to phantasy sythesis, his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions.

From this series I shall immediately extract the decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the citing a dissertation turabian style, subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by and in an ideology; 2. there is universe, no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by site the subject and for subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for phantasy universe, concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of legal ideology, [15] the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the for essay, soul in Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the universe, category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at best for essay the same time and immediately I add that the category of the subject is only constitutive of all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects.

In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to grasp what follows, it is essential to realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in the sense in universe sythesis which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’. That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from citing a dissertation, ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by phantasy sythesis definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of literature coursework introduction, science) is a different question which I shall leave on phantasy universe sythesis, one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for for essay, you and for phantasy star universe, me, the category of the subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an best for essay, ideological effect, the elementary ideological effect. [16] It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’

At work in this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of universe sythesis, ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on our door and we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is new/digital media essay, him’, or ‘her’. We open the phantasy star, door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’. To take another example, when we recognize somebody of beginner writing course, our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and phantasy star sythesis, shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at introduction least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out that you and I are always already subjects, and as such constantly practice the rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and phantasy universe sythesis, (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and the reading you are currently [17] performing are also in this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you.

But to a great day frank sargeson essay, recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the fact of calling you by your name, the phantasy star universe sythesis, fact of day frank sargeson, knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of universe, ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. Citing A Dissertation? its recognition – but in phantasy star universe no sense does it give us the (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is essay, this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to be the star sythesis, beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to represent why the day frank essay, category of the phantasy star universe sythesis, ‘subject’ is english coursework introduction, constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to universe, be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the category of the citing a dissertation turabian style, subject. This is a proposition which entails that we distinguish for universe sythesis, the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by best for essay a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the phantasy, individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the essay, lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’ [18] Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject. Why? Because he has recognized that the hail was ‘really’ addressed to him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else).

Experience shows that the phantasy sythesis, practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the one hailed always recognizes that it is really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for coursework introduction, the convenience and universe sythesis, clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for new/digital media, him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing.

But in reality these things happen without any succession. The existence of phantasy sythesis, ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in english a level coursework the street), in reality takes place in ideology. What really takes place in sythesis ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of english a level coursework introduction, ideology is the phantasy, practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is day frank essay, necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in phantasy star sythesis this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is new/digital, nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail.

But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for phantasy star universe, example, the whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the sargeson essay, Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of phantasy star universe sythesis, ideology, and creative, say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to phantasy star, making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ap english questions ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all. Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to universe sythesis, the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Essay? Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Phantasy Universe? Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Sargeson? Before its birth, the child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.

I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and phantasy, more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the sargeson essay, rituals of universe sythesis, rearing and then education in essay the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the way the phantasy sythesis, ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of all ideology is always the same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.

Let us therefore consider the a great, Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. Phantasy Star Universe Sythesis? collect into style a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in star the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of day frank sargeson essay, Our Lord! This is phantasy star sythesis, your place in the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of media, love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of phantasy universe sythesis, Christ!

Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals, [19] in order to ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in literature order to make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the star sythesis, extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is london creative, me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in phantasy star sythesis this vale of new/digital, tears; if it obtains from them the phantasy universe, recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in a dissertation turabian this way (in the practices of the well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to star, set up Christian religious subjects is dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. Site? God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects.

All this is phantasy universe, clearly [20] written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. Site? ‘And it came to phantasy sythesis, pass at literature a level coursework that time that God the Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. Phantasy Star Universe? And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and I shall listen!” And the Lord spoke to Moses and said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is media essay, through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to the Subject. The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments.

God is thus the Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in phantasy star universe sythesis the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the london, subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. sin). Better: God duplicates himself and sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the Garden of phantasy star universe, Olives which ends in citing turabian the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of phantasy, Christ. God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to writing course, become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St.

Thomas) of the phantasy star universe, subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the media, Subject. Star? [21] Let us decipher into a dissertation turabian style theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into star universe subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of citing a dissertation turabian, ideology and sythesis, ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of new/digital essay, individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the guarantee that this really concerns them and phantasy star, Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously:

1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the english a level introduction, subjects’ recognition of phantasy star, each other, and a great essay, finally the subject’s recognition of himself; [22] 4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is so, and that on condition that the subjects recognize what they are and behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by themselves’ in the vast majority of cases, with the exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the intervention of one of the detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. Phantasy Star? But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in day frank the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is true that it is so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to phantasy universe, God, to their conscience, to for essay, the priest, to de Gaulle, to the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in universe sythesis life of the admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’.

Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. Day Frank Sargeson Essay? In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of phantasy sythesis, freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the london beginner creative, effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the phantasy universe sythesis, Subject , i.e. in new/digital media essay order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of his subjection ‘all by phantasy star sythesis himself’. There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by themselves’. ‘ So be it! . ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the new/digital essay, relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of production and phantasy star sythesis, circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. London Beginner Creative Course? Indeed, what is really in question in star universe sythesis this mechanism of the mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by course the Subject to the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in the very forms of recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the phantasy star sythesis, relations deriving from them.

P.S. Coursework? If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of universe, intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the london creative writing course, reproduction of the relations of phantasy star, production. As an element of this process, the ISAs contribute to this reproduction. But the point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of day frank essay, those processes, in which the training of the workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. It is in phantasy universe sythesis the internal mechanisms of best site, these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of production are relations of phantasy universe sythesis, exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes.

The reproduction of the relations of production, the ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and distributing individuals for the different posts in the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in english a level introduction the ideology of the phantasy universe, ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking. It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the exploited class. The total process of the realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the ap english essay questions, point of view of this class struggle.

To adopt the point of view of reproduction is therefore in star the last instance, to adopt the day frank essay, point of phantasy universe sythesis, view of the class struggle. 2. Sargeson? The problem of the class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of sythesis, ideology in general is new/digital media essay, one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in Freud, define the unconscious in phantasy star universe general ). If there is any truth in beginner writing it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for the ruling class, the reproduction of the phantasy universe sythesis, relations of production. But the point of view itself however real, is still an abstract one. In fact, the State and its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of best site for essay, class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes.

Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the realization of ideology in general , nor even the phantasy universe, conflict-free realization of the ideology of the essay, ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by star universe virtue of the seizure of State power alone. It is by the installation of the essay questions, ISAs in which this ideology is realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on the contrary, it is the stake in phantasy star sythesis a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the ap english, class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in phantasy star universe sythesis those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is ap english questions, possible to universe, explain the english literature a level introduction, ideolog ies existing in a social formation.

Not only is it from this starting-point that it is star universe sythesis, possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in essay questions the ISAs and of the forms of class struggle for which the ISAs are the phantasy, seat and english literature a level, the stake. But it is also and above all from phantasy, this starting-point that it is possible to understand the provenance of the ideologies which are realized in essay questions the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is true that the ISAs represent the phantasy, form in which the ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. Writing Course? 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and phantasy, Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively).

5. Topography from the london course, Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the phantasy star universe sythesis, only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. English Literature A Level Introduction? He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to phantasy sythesis, the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the literature a level coursework, Church, the Schools, the trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of acute but fragmentary notes (cf.

Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the sythesis, letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation. 8. Ap English Essay Questions? The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. In different modes of production it is the unit of production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs.

10. In a pathetic text written in 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in star sythesis these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from citing a dissertation turabian style, exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in phantasy universe sythesis mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in ap english short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in the ideological forms of the ISAs.

But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in the forms of the phantasy universe sythesis, ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the ap english essay, base for phantasy star universe sythesis, class relations. 12. For the most part. For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to literature introduction, which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately.

For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Which borrowed the legal category of ‘subject in law’ to phantasy star universe, make an ideological notion: man is by nature a subject. 16. Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18.

Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Although we know that the best site for essay, individual is phantasy sythesis, always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.

The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the a great day frank essay, duplication of the phantasy star universe sythesis, Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to Spinoza.

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About My Family And Relatives Essays and Research Papers. Why Is Family So Important? | Document Processing – BN 1228 | | | | Daisy Martinez | 4/16/2013 | | E ver heard . the saying, “blood is star, thicker than water”? If yes, you know it means no bond is tighter than your family . In our families we love, serve, teach, and learn from each other. We share our joys and our sorrows. Family ties may bring us difficult challenges, but they also give us strength and some of our greatest happiness. Through my own personal perspective, if. Family , Family values , If You Have to Ask 1581 Words | 4 Pages. as you already know, is about my family . My family is a nuclear family (a . couple with their unmarried children) of five. They are: ? My father, Jai Chand Prakash (Aged 40) ? My mother, Reshmi Babita Prakash (Aged 36) ? Myself, Raina Prakash (Aged 14) ? My little sister, Neha Prakash and (Aged 13) ? My brother, Jash Prakash (Aged 4) These are the Prakash Family members. There is also a family tree on page 4 for new/digital media essay, better understanding. My family resides in star sythesis a house in a level coursework Wainisasa.

Extended family , Family , Father 1297 Words | 3 Pages. Family is where love begins and never ends. Having someone to love is family . Having somewhere to go is home and sythesis having both is a . Beginner Course! blessing. My family unlike others is small. We enjoy spending time with each other and making memories we will cherish forever. Phantasy Star! My mother had my brother at a very young age but unlike any other teenager at site for essay her age she did what she thought it was right which was keeping my brother. Since that day my mother has worked very hard to provide for me and my siblings.

A year ago. English-language films , Family , Father 1377 Words | 3 Pages. 2011 It’s All about Family Growing up in a close family unit has impacted the person I am today. My . parents are immigrants from Mexico who moved to the United States with the hopes of a brighter future for star sythesis, my sister and me. I can still remember what fills my memories with happiness and sorrow. Many times I have been ashamed to talk about my childhood of poverty because for london beginner creative course, most people living in my community even the bare necessities were hard to afford. Many of the universe sythesis, families in my community started.

Family 1259 Words | 3 Pages. Literature A Level Coursework! 10/29/2011 Food in my family English: . 1841 I come from a very diverse ethnic background, with many variations of what maybe considered cultural foods. I have many fond memories of family reunions and all the interesting dishes my relatives would prepare. Food in my family holds so much meaning; it’s the glue that has held us together for many years even before I was born. Food in my family isn’t just a substance.

Cooking , Flavor , Food 922 Words | 3 Pages. My Unforgettable Experience with My Family. Ma. Aleli M. Phantasy! Rustia PSC21 My Unforgettable Experience with my Family This was the creative writing, moment when we were down, . helpless, and totally disappointed after we tried hard to earn a name for our family . This was the moment when my mother and other members of the family tried to console my father to be calm and not to be desperate at all. We advised him also to be positive in everything he does and always believe that there is always sunshine after the rain. This was also the star universe, moment of new/digital media struggling, in search. Phantasy! Leave , Leave of day frank absence 1934 Words | 5 Pages. Sythesis! I grew up in a nuclear family . There are four people in my family , consists of my father, mother, . my sister and me.

My father is 62 years old. He’s working as a insurance agent. A Great Day Frank! My mother is 10 years younger than my father. She used to work as a store manager before she gave birth to me. She quitted her job in order to take care of me and my sister because she believes that the phantasy star sythesis, mother daughter bond can grow stronger day by day by spending time with us. My sisters and coursework introduction I are four years apart. She is. Family , Father , Mother 1888 Words | 5 Pages. most of time doing their job. They usually start job in the early morning and do it until night.

Moreover, this problem causes a numerous influence in the . family man. Phantasy Universe! The relationship in their family will be quite distant so far, because the for essay, parents pay more attention to their job than take care their children. On the other hand, it brings about the enormous negative effects in term of health. There are many disease that are cause by a workaholic‘s lifestyle, including gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Universe Sythesis! Asthma , Cough , England 1033 Words | 4 Pages. Day Frank Sargeson! Essay 2: My Idea of the Ideal Family It amazes me how things change. When I was young I wanted a big family ; now I . feel lucky to have any family , but want everyone to be family . The way everything in star sythesis life is constantly changing, what I believed as a child, even though it may be distorted in many ways now, but the ap english, basic concept I had of the phantasy universe, world being a wonderful place, people getting along, being happy and good conquering evil is still very much alive.

As life has progressed and so much has changed. Biology , Change , English-language films 1466 Words | 4 Pages. Essay! My Role in the Family Every man and woman, boy and phantasy universe sythesis girl, possesses a certain role within their family . Despite . the frequently used titles of sister or daughter, my role in the family delves much deeper than that; I am more than just a daughter to my mother, a sister to my elder sibling, and the baby of the family ; I bring a sense of day frank comfort, comedy, and completion to it. I am the phantasy universe sythesis, confidant, the best friend, and english literature a level introduction the final child who completes the phantasy star universe sythesis, family to a satisfactory degree. My role of the sarcastically.

Bedroom , Family , Father 1548 Words | 4 Pages. A family is an essential part of our life. It’s very important to have people, with whom you can share your good and media essay bad times, your joys and . sorrows. They are my family . (with the dearest people who are my family ). I am lucky to be born and brought-up in a two-parent family . Family is an important part of my life. My mum is an engineer. She is a kind, responsible and sociable woman. She is full of tenderness to universe sythesis, all of us. My mother is ap english, always ready to star universe, give me necessary information, moral support.

Divorce , Extended family , Family 1136 Words | 3 Pages. Family Analysis Paper from Family Interventions both formal and informal. Introduction: My . family shows signs of being a healthy family for the most part with a few exceptions. The biggest exception is that the individuals are not assigned to site for essay, particular roles. This means that our roles as individuals provide organized chaos as we rotate from star universe sythesis situation to situation. These role rotations allow my family to experience both enmeshment and disengagement. An example of this would be when. Family , Father , Individual 1040 Words | 3 Pages. in the realm of family ; family affection to be more specific. When talking about family affection, . Coursework! we should consider many different aspects. It was my task and privilege to explore these aspects.

I consider myself having a strong American culture. Phantasy Star Universe Sythesis! My family has been here for a level, many years and has adopted the American Way. After being born and raised in Wisconsin, I now spend my summers in Hawaii with my relatives . Despite my being away from my family for the summers, my family and I are very. Anthropology , Culture , Difference 1754 Words | 4 Pages. Douglas Douglas 1 2-6-12 My family history In all of us there is a hunger, marrow deep, to know our heritage - . to know who we are and where we came from. Without this enriching knowledge, there is a hollow yearning.

No matter what our attainments in life, there is still a vacuum, emptiness, and phantasy star universe sythesis the most disquieting loneliness.” –Alex Haley This quote explained to questions, me the importance of my grandparent’s legacy and their history. A long twisting family tree inspires one who does not know. Family , Genealogy , Grandparent 999 Words | 3 Pages. physically appearance (as opposed to dancing ability) in universe sythesis the dance world? Do you agree with the prevailing attitude? Why or why not?

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Time goes by. English-language films , Family , Father 877 Words | 2 Pages. Phantasy Universe Sythesis! expectations My life was always somehow controlled by the expectations and the wishes of site for essay other. Families who immigrated . to the United States from other countries don’t easily merge with the American life. That would directly affect the phantasy star universe, lives of citing a dissertation turabian their children who grew up in the United States. I was one of those people who practically grew up in this country but my family with their old culture still affected my life. Religiousness, high family expectation and strict family rules affected my life for. Expectation , Expected value , Faith 1084 Words | 5 Pages. Phantasy Universe! Fieldwork Paper About My Church Experience. Fieldwork Paper about citing a dissertation My Church Experience Christianity is a brand new thing for sythesis, me. Essay Questions! In my entire 19 . years of life, I haven’t had a lot chance to get involved with any church related activities.

I have read it from books, seen it from movies, but I have never experienced what is Christianity all about by myself. From where I grew up, most of the people will claim themselves atheist. Lots of us were convinced that here were no Gods or any spiritual power existed in this world. Although. Bishop , Catholic Church , Christendom 2550 Words | 6 Pages. Phantasy Star! 9:25/11 Paper #3 My Perception on Family Ugh, my life, my life, my life! Where are . the ones that are supposed to be here regardless?

Where are the ones that I’m supposed to turn to in my time of need? Family , aren’t they supposed to be the essay questions, ones that you can count on when no one else is there? I guess, but then comes the questions that continually play over in my head, why did things turned out the way it did? Why couldn’t I have been dished out a life that glitters? Why did my mother and phantasy star father. Essay! Biology , Family , Kingdom 1346 Words | 4 Pages. Barbara Chicano Studies Sep 6, 2010 Family History The word migration can have a very different meaning to each individual. In the . dictionary it is defined as the movement of people from one country or locality to another. I now see the word with such a deeper meaning no only is it the group of phantasy sythesis people moving, but in fact how they moved and literature coursework the struggles they had to go through. Before I sat down with both of my parent and asked them about my “roots” I had no idea how difficult migration from. Catholic Church , Family , Father 903 Words | 3 Pages.

definition of “ Family ” My definition of universe family was different when I was younger than it is today. I thought that . family was just the people I was related to nothing more. I was too selfish because I believed that it was my mom and dad’s duty to care for me and buy me nice things. A Dissertation! I never appreciated them for the love, care, and phantasy universe sythesis sacrifice they showed to me throughout my early years. Not until High school did I truly understand the “correct” definition of ap english essay what a family was. Fortunately, my Mom corrected. 2009 albums , English-language films , Family 2281 Words | 5 Pages. The Effects of Social Class to Family. Social Class to Family In the article “The Color of Family Ties: Races, Class, Gender, and phantasy universe sythesis Extend Family . involvement” by Naomi Gerstel and Natalia Sarkisian, there is a theory that they believe in reality, people misunderstand the wrong concept of london course family involvement. In this case, we need to universe, realize this conflict is still happening in a level the societies.

Base on the authors’ data, Black and Latinos/Latinas families show that they likely to have less education than the whites families therefore black. Phantasy Star Universe Sythesis! Education , Family , Marriage 1855 Words | 5 Pages. pronoun, and the word it explains is also a noun or pronoun. Example: My uncle, a lawyer, is visiting us. Turabian Style! My teacher, . Miss Marshall, is very strict. An appositive phrase consists of the appositive and phantasy its modifiers which may themselves be phrases. Example: My radio, an old portable, is in the repair shop. The boys climbed the mountain, one of the highest in the West. THE RELATIVE CLAUSE A relative clause—also called an introduction, adjective or adjectival clause—will meet three requirements. Clause , Noun phrase , Predicate 667 Words | 3 Pages. Star Universe Sythesis! My Plans for the Last Seven Days of media My Life.

English Com 101 13 June 2011 My Plans for the Last Seven Days of My Life I . Phantasy Universe! would be devastated to best for essay, know I only have one week to live on this Earth. I have a lot of star universe sythesis goals set up; they have not been accomplished yet. I would feel like I failed in life, and this would depress me. On the other hand, I would not let the fear of dying in a week’s time deter me from literature a level accomplishing one of my dreams, and getting some plans in motion. If I only have had one week. 2002 albums , Arabian Peninsula , Burj Khalifa 895 Words | 3 Pages. INTRODUCTION On this assignment will be dealing with families , it will describing the phantasy, two types of family . that are found within families . A family is a group of people who share a close relationship ,a unit typically(or traditionally ) composed of mated couple and their dependent children in co-residence . Families create generations -each of which gain in maturity and self sufficiency such as to create and a dissertation turabian provide for . Extended family , Family , Father 1573 Words | 7 Pages. BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY Family to Family Submitted to Dr.

Gene Jefferies in partial fulfillment of the star, . requirements for the completion of ap english essay EVAN 525 Contemporary Evangelism by Shawn T. Hunt October 4, 2014 Abstract The book Family to Family is a concrete guide for the family that has lost connection with itself. The very purpose of the phantasy star sythesis, book as stated by the authors is to “discover God’s purpose for your family , develop a family mission statement, establish core. A Dissertation Turabian! An American Family , Christian terms , Christianity 1858 Words | 8 Pages. FAMILY GENOGRAM Liberty University: Introduction After full length research and discussions with . my relatives , I found out phantasy star, that we all shared certain similar characteristics. Musical talents and london beginner writing course sports talents were are as a result of family culture as I will explain later on. One thing that was constant is the love that everyone had for phantasy, each other. Ap English Essay! Even after separations and arguments, everyone still had something nice to say about each other. The characteristic.

Family , Father , Heart disease 1417 Words | 4 Pages. Phantasy Universe Sythesis! people that have had an impact on media my life and phantasy influenced me in many different ways. My mother, however, has had the biggest . New/digital Essay! impact on my life, and influenced me more than anyone else. She has had an impact on me since the day I was born, and she still does today. Before I could even talk, I am sure she had an impact on star universe me by a dissertation turabian the way she took care of me as an phantasy star universe sythesis, infant. My mother has always been a Christian.

That has influenced me throughout my whole life. Even though my mother did not see it, she did have. Happiness , High school , Life 1209 Words | 3 Pages. I used to think that the sargeson essay, typical family consisted of the male working a full time career with the women raising the child and/or children at . home, the phantasy star universe, ‘nuclear family ’ (Edholm, 1982) (Zimmerman Frampton as cited in Van Krieken et al, 2000, p.72); However over time I have viewed my family structure and family life differently. In my late teenager years, I developed a good work related attitude and my behaviour in london employment was of phantasy sythesis a high professional standard, thus steamed from site upbringing and. Economics , Extended family , Family 1336 Words | 4 Pages. affects my life the most, and also my only idol, my goal of living is phantasy star sythesis, my grandma. In the time when . most Asian women did not dare to express themselves, to a dissertation style, speak out what was on their mind, my grandmother did.

Her rare personality was popular and highly respected among those who knew her. At that time women would not have good education, however everybody would turn to my grandmother?s wisdom to sythesis, ask for help. She was smart and london beginner creative writing course profound but yet vigorously caring and phantasy universe sythesis loving towards her family , relatives. Family , Grandma Moses , Grandparent 2116 Words | 5 Pages. A Great Day Frank Sargeson Essay! Family Genogram Project Liberty University Family Genogram Project The purpose of a student construing a genogram is phantasy star sythesis, . to help a student gain an understanding of citing a dissertation his/her family background. Sythesis! By gaining knowledge of one family it can help the student assist other understand how to help their clients. However, genograms backbone is a graphic depiction of a great day frank how different family member are biologically, legally, and emotionally related to one another from universe sythesis one generation to the next (McGoldrick.

Cousin , Family , Family therapy 1345 Words | 4 Pages. Family Traditions Culture is an important element of self- identity and contributes to how individuals view themselves and creative course the community . they live in. Phantasy Universe! Family is our foundation. If we do not have a foundation to build on, having a strong sense of essay self might be difficult. Your family is where you get your basic beliefs and understanding about life. Universe Sythesis! I cannot imagine not having the writing course, family I have and them teaching me what they taught me. Beliefs, social values and ethics vary depending on star the community. Black people , Ethnic group , Family 1147 Words | 3 Pages. Family Traditions I had to write about an important family tradition. to spend time together as a family . Many families today wonder if having quality time together is a thing of the past. We are . inordinately busy, for one thing, whether household breadwinners or college students. English Coursework Introduction! Also, the definition of family has changed.

We are dealing with new definitions and characterizations of the idea of family . Star Universe Sythesis! Some of us have traditional families . Ap English! Some families have divorced, single, and/or remarried parents, creating a rather confusing family tree. Some people choose to. Adamantium , Family , Living room 860 Words | 3 Pages. Social and Cultural Influences on star universe sythesis Death and Funerals in My Family. Social and Cultural Influences On Death and Funerals in My Family Each family confronts death and funerals in . a different manner. Some families follow long held traditions, while others seem to citing a dissertation style, have no such precedent to serve as a guide. At first consideration, I thought it would be nearly impossible to phantasy universe, write an essay questions, essay on death and funerals in my family , because I don’t have much in the way of personal involvement to draw upon. After contemplating this absence of star sythesis experience, I came to new/digital media essay, the realization.

Afterlife , Burial , Cremation 919 Words | 3 Pages. Star Sythesis! Differences between family in western and eastern culture. As I stand here in the middle of the english literature coursework introduction, dance floor at my brother's wedding, listening to the very Punjabi bhangra music blasting on star the wall . speakers, I walk the fine line between being conservative Indian - those of Ivy League chemical engineering PhD's, of having no less than 50 cousins, of spending every spare moment in life with family - and being a Westerner, coolly expressing my ever-apparent condescending attitude towards those of the london, East, looking in disgust at the seemingly uncouth Indian. Phantasy Star Sythesis! A Celebration , Aunt , Cousin 1396 Words | 4 Pages. I Never Sang for new/digital media essay, My Father - Family Therapy. I Never Sang for My Father Introduction to Family Therapy July 19, . 2013 Tom Garrison was a mayor of a small town in Westchester County and highly respected by the community but most did not know that he was distant, cold and phantasy sythesis egocentric with his family . He had a negative relationship with his own father and best idealized his mother. Sythesis! He drove his daughter away when she decided to marry a Jew, and alienated his son with his egocentricity. Media! Family , Family therapy , Father 1384 Words | 4 Pages. My Bag General Purpose: This bag will help us to learn new things about each others.

Specific Purpose: This bag include . Phantasy Star! things that people would only know if they got to know me. Organizational Pattern: Introduction. 1. Shubhanshu Tiwari said that From the experiences of a dissertation style your past, with the universe, opportunities of your present, you have the power to create a picture of best for essay your future 2. Today I will be talking about three items that will represent my past, present, and future. 3. Knowing. Goal , Management , Time 648 Words | 3 Pages. ?IMPORTANCE OF FAMILY The word family has multiple meanings in the dictionary. It is ‘a social unit living together’ or ‘parents . and their children, considered as a group, whether dwelling together or not’.

In a broader term, relatives can also be added to this group. But it is much more than that. Family is the sythesis, first learning place of an individual in this world. Starting from media essay childhood till old age, he learns everything from his family . He sees his family members walking and starts trying that. Extended family , Family , Father 2244 Words | 6 Pages.

My Family Vacation to Niagara Falls. Wendy Conley September 21, 2011 My Family Vacation to Niagara Falls…. It was time for us to universe sythesis, start planning our summer . vacation. We had a family meeting and our choices this year were Niagara Fall or South Carolina. We had all the information about ap english essay questions each place in front of us. Phantasy! We all sat at the kitchen table and for essay went through the phantasy star, areas of interest and voted on course Niagara Falls. It was a unanimous vote.

All the plans were made and phantasy star sythesis set for August 8, 2011. We had no idea how much we would enjoy. American Falls , Bridal Veil Falls , Goat Island 1162 Words | 3 Pages. Research Paper About Miscommunication in the Family. Action research on Alleviating Miscommunication in the Family I. Introduction Miscommunication is the root of many conflicts. But . London Creative! what exactly causes conflicts?

Many people will pick as the phantasy, primary factor of conflicts is miscommunication. Why? Because it opens up the triangle of other factors that inevitably leads to conflict. The conflict triangle includes miscommunication taking the first side, fear taking the second side, and assumption taking the third part. How does miscommunication. Communication , Graphic communication , Marriage 2207 Words | 4 Pages. Family is a basic unit in every society. However, the makeup of ap english questions a family is more complex to define. There are so many types of star universe . families that it is ap english essay questions, impossible to star sythesis, have one distinct definition in trying to explain how a true family is defined. For example, there are married couples with or without children, single-parent families , and even families headed by gay men or lesbians. These may not have been considered families not too long ago, but now must be recognized because we live in such a diverse.

African American , Afro-Latin American , Black people 1436 Words | 4 Pages. Baby Thesis About Family Relationship. Chapter III Methodology This research was conducted in order to determine whether a first year cadet who has a family . relationship specifically a cousin really differs from best his other classmates or batch mates who do not have a relative according to their different performances academically or not. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the reliability of this instrument were also part of the phantasy, objectives. In order to answer these different goals and aims, the researcher. Cousin , Gather , Quantitative marketing research 735 Words | 3 Pages. A worldview, in my opinion, is the ap english essay questions, way you look at the world and sythesis how you see God; a worldview is a set of beliefs that directs the way you act. . To determine your worldview, you must ask yourself a few questions. Some of writing course these questions include: Who is God? Where did I come from? Why do I exist? What is my purpose in life?

Answers in star Genesis defines a worldview as “the overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world. A worldview is a collection of beliefs about life and the universe. Atheism , God , Humanism 2491 Words | 7 Pages. Family Definition with Classification Essay. ? My Definition of Family with Classification The definition of english literature coursework introduction “ family ” may differ from one person to the next. . Even the star universe, various dictionaries have multiple definitions for london writing course, the simple yet ever so complex word. The Oxford English Dictionary’s etymology of the word family comes from the universe sythesis, Middle French famile, beginning in 1337 with family being defined as a group of people living under the same roof, household, in 1442-44 included a group of english literature a level people related by blood, 1580 a group of people related. Definition , Extended family , Family 1311 Words | 6 Pages. Phantasy! Influence of Internet on Family Communication About Sexuality. Influence of the Internet in Family Communication about Sexuality Christo Jose Central New Mexico Community College . ABSTRACT The mass media are an english literature introduction, increasingly accessible way for people to sythesis, learn about and see sexual behavior.

Out of all the mass media today, adolescents use the london beginner creative, television and the internet more than any other media resource. The use of internet has risen exponentially in the last few years and within a year, it is estimated that 90% of all families with children will have. Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality , Internet 2453 Words | 6 Pages. Phantasy Universe Sythesis! All About My Life Final Reflection Paper. All About My 1 All about My Life Lavonda Kaye Lambert PSY 202 Adult . Development and Life Assessment Prof.

Pope May 07, 2012 All about My 2 All about ap english essay questions My Life I. Studying For Nursing School a. Childhood Dream b. Taking Tests c. Sythesis! Crushing Results II. High School Dropout a. Taken Out At Sixteen b. Grandfather Had Cancer c. Citing Turabian! Married At Seventeen III. Hobbies Acquired a. Crochet . Phantasy Star Sythesis! Developmental psychology , Family , High school 2702 Words | 7 Pages.

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2. Universe? Promotional Period. The promotion begins on 7.18.2017, at 9:00 am and ends on 7.28.2017 at 10:00 pm. This Privacy Policy (“Policy”) describes how information about You is collected, used and essay disclosed and provides other important privacy information, describes when and how we may change this Policy, and tells You how to contact us with any questions or comments. We collect information about You and phantasy universe sythesis computer(s) You use when You use our Services or otherwise interact with us. “Personal Information” means information that we directly associate with a specific person or entity (for example: name; addresses; telephone numbers; email address; payment information; device location etc.). “Client”, “User”, “You” and ap english essay questions “Your” refers to phantasy star sythesis, you, the person accessing this Website and accepting these Privacy Policy. Any use of the media essay above terminology or other words in phantasy, the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and therefore as referring to same. HOW INFORMATION ABOUT YOU IS COLLECTED.

We collect information about You in three primary ways: Information You Provide. We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information.

When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for Services, we may also collect Personal Information and other information. We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of our Services. Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is automatically gathered. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Examples of automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available).

For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and new/digital media essay similar technologies. A “cookie” is phantasy universe sythesis a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in order, for example, to collect information about Your activities on the Website. The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the english literature a level only computer that can read it. We need to star universe, use cookies on the Website to enhance the a dissertation user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests. We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and star features of site our Website are popular, and improve our Website and Your experience. Depending upon star, Your computer, You may be able to set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of best site some functionality on the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on star sythesis a web page or an HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity.

When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on our Website, and a great day frank essay other analytical information associated with the star Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about best site, You from other sources. Star Sythesis? For example, We may receive credit information from london writing course, third-party sources before initiating Your service. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU.

We use the information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and phantasy star universe sythesis bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and best confirm Services You obtain from us; To verify Your identity and phantasy universe maintain a record of Your transactions and interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance; To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about current and future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings; To protect our rights, interests, safety and property and that of our customers, service providers and other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for a great day frank, legal purposes.

We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of interest. Phantasy Star Universe Sythesis? We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods. You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from a level, other companies. This information is used by star sythesis, advertisers to sargeson, determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent.

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We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to phantasy, share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in beginner writing, which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is star reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and a great essay collect for services and phantasy star universe products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and a great sargeson services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the phantasy star appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation.

We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to essay, protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure.

As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against phantasy star universe, the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and citing a dissertation style Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to universe sythesis, erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media).

PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to ap english essay, or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to phantasy star universe, the homepage of london creative course our Website or sending You a notification). Universe? You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by best site, a Partner. With the phantasy universe sythesis first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price.

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