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Elia and The Last Essays of Elia / …
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Elia and The Last Essays of Elia / …
Should essays and other “open-ended”-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in clinical medicine? © Hift; licensee BioMed Central. 2014. Published: 28 November 2014. Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the essay and of elia a number of variants of the sonnet, short-answer question, and last selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in the form of multiple-choice. It is of affection essay widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in last essay of elia, a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity.
An extensive review of the literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based. Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Top Resume Writing Services. Studies of construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at of elia, least in mathematics, the physical sciences, biology and medicine. The persistence of the open-ended format in shakespeare 30 essay, summative assessment may be due to the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and similar to actual experience than is selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the essay of elia, multiple-choice format. The evidence does not support the proposition that the open-ended assessment format is superior to the multiple-choice format, at least in exit-level summative assessment, in selected essays hume, terms of either its ability to test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. This is last of elia explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for objects of affection, which some empiric support exists.
Given the superior reliability and last cost-effectiveness of the essays, multiple-choice format consideration should be given to phasing out open-ended format questions in summative assessment. Whether the same applies to non-exit-level assessment and formative assessment is last a question which remains to essay be answered; particularly in terms of the last, educational effect of testing, an area which deserves intensive study. Learning and the stimulation of learning by assessment. Modern definitions of learning, such as that attributed to Siemens: “Learning is a continual process in which knowledge is transformed into something of meaning through connections between sources of information and the formation of useful patterns, which generally results in something that can be acted upon appropriately, in a contextually aware manner” [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and purposeful engagement with the material to be learned than the acquisition of factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in a vacuum; its existence is inferred from a change in the learner’s behaviour. This has led transfer theorists to postulate that knowledge transfer is the basis of all learning, since learning can only essay be recognised by observing the learner's ability to display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is now generally accepted that all cognition is last of elia built on selected hume, domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. Content-light learning does not support the ability to transfer knowledge to new situations and a comprehensive store of declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for essay of elia, transfer [ 4 ]. Furthermore, a high order of objects of affection essay, understanding and contextualization must accompany the declarative knowledge if it is to essay of elia be successfully applied later. Where transfer – in other words, the successful application of knowledge to shakespeare 30 essay new situations – has been shown, the essay of elia, common factor appears to writing review be deep learning, and the abstraction of general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Miller’s pyramid of assessment of clinical skills, competence and performance [ [ 15 ] ].
Assessment is essay central to sorting research the educational process, and has benefits beyond that of measuring knowledge and competence alone; principally in directing and stimulating learning, and in last essay, providing feedback to essays teachers and learners [ 17 ]. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in of elia, consolidating learning, and strengthening and facilitating memorisation and recall. Sonnet 30 Essay. There is accumulating evidence that the last of elia, process of school persuasive, stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and essay retention of learned material. This has been termed the testing effect , and several hypotheses have been put forward to explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and semantic processing, and increased attention to the properties distinguishing the learnt item from similar items, which strengthens the relationship between the cue which triggers the memory and the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. It appears to be principally the act of retrieving information from memory which strengthens knowledge and knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of whether retrievable is covert or overt [ 22 ]. Importantly, high-level questions appear to essay stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then those pitched at a lower level [ 23 ]. A number of strategies have been proposed to exploit this in educational practice, including those recently summarised for last essay of elia, use in medical education [ 24 ]. Selected. This is in last of elia, a sense related to the “generation effect”, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to algorithm research learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in educational practice. It is accepted that standards of assessment are inherently variable. There is essay therefore an obligation, in summative assessment, to ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Achieving this in the individual instance is challenging, given the wide range of antithesis in poetry, skills and knowledge to be assessed, marked variation in essay, the knowledge of assessment of those who must assess and sorting algorithm paper the highly variable environments in which the assessment takes place. There is now an extensive literature on assessment, in terms of research, guidelines and essay recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of services review, assessment is suitable for every purpose, and stressed the need for programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is best served by a careful combination of a range of instruments matched to a particular purpose at each stage of the learning cycle, such as for formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ]. Despite the proliferation of last essay, assessment methodologies which attempt to test the competence of research, medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and essay workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in widespread use. School Persuasive Essays. Much of the knowledge base required by the clinician is not necessarily testable in the performance format.
Additionally, in comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and deliver, requiring little more than pen and last essay paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and antithesis in poetry markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of written assessment may be placed into one of two categories. Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of written formats in which the student is required to generate an answer spontaneously in response to a question. The prototypical example is the essay. There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and single-sentence questions and the modified essay question (MEQ). The selected-response or closed-ended format is typified by last the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from a list of options rather than generating an answer spontaneously. Many variants of the multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the services, use of one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the term open-ended when referring to last of elia the constructed-response format, and objects of affection essay multiple-choice as a synonym for the selected-response format.
All high-stakes assessments should meet an adequate standard in terms of quality and fairness, as measured by a number of parameters, summarised recently in a consensus statement [ 30 ]. Principal among these are the classic psychometric parameters of reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and essay validity or coherence, which I describe in detail below. Other important measures by which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in paper, terms of efficiency and cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the assessment is thereby motivated to essay of elia undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into the educational programme, result in better teaching and algorithm research learning) and acceptability to both teachers and of elia learners. It is paper generally accepted that the multiple-choice format, in contrast to the open-ended format, has high reliability and is efficient, a consequence primarily of wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of its objectivity. In support of the open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at last of elia, testing higher cognitive levels of top resume writing, knowledge and has greater validity. This belief is intuitively appealing and last of elia appears to represent the use of antithesis, viewpoint of of elia, many of those involved in medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and experience in medical education.
In an attempt to gain the best of both formats, there has been a shift from the prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of sonnet, short, structured questions, a development intended to last essay of elia retain the perceived benefit of the open-ended question with the superior reliability of the MCQ. Thus the two formats are generally seen to school essays be in tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the essay, open-ended format having greater validity. School Essays. In this debate I will compare the essay, performance of the open-ended format with MCQ in summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations. I draw attention to the large body of evidence which supports the view that, in summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is intrinsically able to algorithm research provide all the value of the open-ended format and does so more reliably and essay of elia cost effectively, thus throwing into selected hume, question the last of elia, justification for the inclusion of the open-ended format in summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to why the multiple-choice format provides no less information than the open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is that assessment is not only of affection of learning, but also for learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. In the first case, the purpose of assessment is to determine whether that which is required to be learnt has in last essay of elia, fact been learnt. In the second case, it is acknowledged that assessment may in itself be a powerful driver for learning at the cognitive level. This is supported by selected a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of last, assessment on strengthening memorisation and recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. In this debate I concentrate primarily on summative assessment in its role as assessment of review, learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of last essay of elia, assessment best suited to top resume services review such summative assessment may not be identical to those best suited to of elia assessment for learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.
For the first part of the 20 th century, written assessment in essays, medicine consisted largely of essay-writing [ 30 ]. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for psychological testing by of elia Robert Yerkes immediately before the First World War and then rapidly expanded for persuasive essays, the testing of essay, army recruits. Yerkes was interested in assessing learning capacity—not necessarily human—and applied it to crows [ 32 ] and pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for school, a number of years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Essay Of Elia. Application to educational assessment has been credited to essays Frederick J. Kelly in 1914, who was drawn to it by its efficiency and objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the multiple-choice format has had many detractors. Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and last essay of elia that if the ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is objects of affection essay not actively assessed, there is a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on knowing which choice to of elia make instead of discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone.
The ability to invoke these higher levels of use of, cognition is clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Last Of Elia. Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and that therefore by inference open-ended questions evoke and test a reasoning process which is more representative of real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is a serious concern which I address in this review. We begin however with a comparison of the two formats in terms of reproducibility and feasibility. Reliability and efficiency of shakespeare, open-ended and multiple-choice question formats. Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for unevenness in a candidate’s knowledge, varying quality of questions and even the personality of examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. That the reproducibility of the multiple-choice format is much higher than that of the of elia, open-ended format is borne out in use of antithesis in poetry, numerous studies comparing the of elia, two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Recognition of these shortcomings has led to the design of open-ended-formats specifically intended to objects of affection essay increase reproducibility and of elia objectivity, while maintaining the sorting research, supposed advantages of this format in terms of validity.
A widely used format in medical assessment is the modified essay question (MEQ) . The format is of a clinical scenario followed by a series of sequential questions requiring short answers. This was expressly designed to last of elia bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for more standardised marking than the standard open-ended question [ 45 ]. Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the advantage of the multiple-choice format remains. Sonnet. A large number of questions and multiple markers are required in order to last essay of elia provide acceptable reliability for research, MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Even for well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. Thus in an MEQ paper in a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in parallel by several assessors, statistically significant differences between the scores of the different examiners were shown in 50% of the questions, as well as significant differences in the median scores for the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of of elia, likelihood of failure were shown. This is of affection essay cause for concern. Schuwirth et al . have stressed the necessity for last, interpreting reliability in terms of outcome, particularly in terms of pass/fail misclassification, and not merely in services, terms of numeric scores such as Cronbach’s alpha [ 27 ]. In this and other such studies the open-ended questions were of the highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by skilled question writers working in teams, reviewed for appropriateness and scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to minimise inter-rater variability. These conditions do not hold for the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the reliability will be much lower, and the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Open-ended items scored on of elia, a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against a rigid marking schedule.
Therefore the discrepancy in paper, reliability for the graded essay marked on a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to the open-ended question format, the multiple-choice is objective and allows multiple sampling of a subject. Essay. The result is high reproducibility. Selected Hume. Furthermore it substantially reduces the essay of elia, potential for a perception of examiner bias, and thus the opportunity for legal challenge by the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. The multiple-choice format is selected essays hume efficient. Lukhele et al . Last. studied a number of 30 essay, national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and essay questions [ 49 ]. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the same amount of information as a single essay, and that the essay’s efficiency in providing information about the candidate’s ability per minute of essay, testing was less than 10% of that of an average multiple-choice item. 30 Essay. For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for an essay to obtain the same information as could be obtained from a multiple-choice assessment. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment. Though the relative gain in efficiency using multiple-choice in preference to essay questions varies according to last essay of elia subject, it is an invariable finding [ 49 ].
Though the initial development of an multiple-choice assessment is persuasive essays labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on the part of item-writers, and decreases further once a question bank has been developed from last essay of elia which questions can be drawn for research paper, re-use. The lower efficiency of the open-ended question is not restricted to examination time but also the requirement for grading by examiners. Typically an open-ended test requires from 4 to 40 times as long to administer as a multiple-choice test of equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the cost of essay of elia, marking the open-ended items was 300 times that of the essays, multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the relative cost of scoring the papers may exceed a factor of 1000 for a large examination [ 50 ]. The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over open-ended formats in terms of essay, reproducibility, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Objects. Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is because of a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in a manner that MCQ cannot, and last essay consequently have higher validity. It has been repeatedly stated that the MCQ format is limited in its ability to essays test deep learning, and is suitable for assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the strength of interconnected rules, the use of the of elia, mental models, and the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in short that open-ended questions permit the assessment of logical and reasoning skills in a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Is there evidence to support these assertions? The ability to test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is helpful in evaluating the level of cognition drawn upon by an assessment (Figure 1 ). Antithesis In Poetry. By convention, assessment questions targeting the first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the third level as intermediate, and the fourth to sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the principles underlying the last, setting of high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in accepting that multiple-choice is capable of assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. The shift from true-false questions, (which in order to shakespeare sonnet 30 essay avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to the one-best-answer and of elia EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to assess critical thinking skills and to measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and context-free questions.
In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is typically presented as a case vignette. Information within the vignette is presented to candidates in its original raw format, and top resume review they must then analyse, interpret and evaluate this information in order to provide the answer. The stimulus reflects the question which the candidate must answer and is therefore relevant to the content of the question. An example of a final-year question in Internal Medicine is shown in the following example. Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to the treatment of this patient? ) and evaluation ( Which of several possible treatments is the most appropriate? ), none of which can be answered without both knowledge and of elia understanding. Thus 5 of Bloom’s 6 levels have been tested. Example of a context-rich multiple-choice item in internal medicine.
Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by the candidate who attempts to essays shortcut the cognitive processes required in answering it by searching for clues in essay, the options themselves. All have a place in the therapy of patients presenting with a variety of similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . In order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to recognise (1) that this patient is highly likely to be HIV-positive (given the lymphadenopathy, evidence of oral candidiasis and the high local prevalence of paper, HIV), (2) that the presentation is suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the epistaxis, skin manifestations and very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by a number of negative findings. Evaluation . Further, in order to last of elia answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to (1) consider the selected essays hume, differential diagnosis for the principal components of the clinical vignette and, by process of evaluation, decide which are the most likely; (2) decide which of the diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of therapy will be most appropriate for this. Knowledge, understanding and application . It is utterly impossible to “recognise” the correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of analysis and evaluation, and the knowledge required to last essay of elia answer it must clearly be informed by deep learning, understanding and application.
Hence five of the essays, six levels of Bloom’s taxonomy have been tested. Furthermore it would appear an eminently reasonable proposition that the candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to manage such a patient in essay, practice, hence implying structural validity. Though guessing has a 20% chance of providing the correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by assessing performance across multiple such items and of affection essay applying negative marking to incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the of elia, open-ended format is not inherently better at assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. The fundamental determinant is the way in which the question is phrased in order to stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. Sonnet. A crucial corollary is that in comparing formats, it is essential to ensure that MCQ questions crafted to elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to the same level; it is of elia inappropriate to high persuasive compare high-order items in one format with low order items in the other. Last. Several studies have investigated the effect of the stimulus on thought processes in sorting, the open questions and have shown that the essay of elia, stimulus format is of affection more important than the response format . Scores on questions in open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for context-rich questions testing the same material. Last Essay Of Elia. In contrast, low correlations are observed for different content using the same question format [ 48 ]. In response to the low objectivity and reliability of the classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and rigid marking templates.
Yet this increase in reliability appears to come at a significant cost to the presumed advantage of the sonnet, open-ended format over the multiple-choice format in testing higher orders of last, cognition. Feletti and Smith have shown that as the number of items in the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to be replaced by questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Hence as accuracy and reliability increase, any difference between such an assessment and writing review a multiple-choice assessment in terms of other indicators tends to disappear; ultimately they converge on an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ]. Palmer and last of elia Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of multiple-choice and MEQ questions used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate exam. The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of review and objects of affection quality control. Yet they found that more than 50% of both MEQ items and MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in the assessment of higher-order cognitive skills. They reported that the modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge”. In a subsequent study of last essay, a rigorously prepared and controlled set of essays, exit examinations, they reported that the proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in last of elia, the MEQ paper then in the MCQ paper. Top Resume. More than 50% of the multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to of elia just 25% of the MEQ items.
The problem was compounded by a higher frequency of item-writing flaws in school persuasive, the MEQ paper, and flaws were found in the marking scheme in 60% of the MEQ's. The authors conclude that “The MEQ paper failed to last achieve its primary purpose of top resume review, assessing higher cognitive skills” [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to be dealing with a general rule: the more highly open-ended questions are structured with the last essay of elia, intention of essays, increasing reliability, the more closely they converge on an equivalent multiple-choice question in terms of of elia, performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the open-ended format over the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in the very area in which they are believed to hold the advantage. Thus the shift to these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in diminishing the potential for the open-ended assessment to evaluate complex cognitive processes. This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to MCQ; rather it is a warning that there is a very real risk in practice of “dumbing-down” such questions in an attempt to improve reliability, and empiric observations suggest that this is indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and open-ended tests in the same assessment, in sonnet, the belief that one is improving the strength of the assessment, leads to an overall less reliable assessment than is constituted by the multiple-choice section on its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ]. The second argument, frequently advanced in support of the essay, open-ended format, is of affection essay that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and reproducing knowledge is a better predictor of the student’s eventual ability to handle complex problems in real-life then is the ability to select an answer from a list [ 54 ]. Indeed, this argument is intuitively highly appealing. The case for the retention of essay of elia, open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and postgraduate assessment largely rests on high essays, validity, with the assumption that asking the candidate to describe how they would diagnose, investigate and essay treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the ability to select the right response from a number of options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. The question of validity is central. If the open-ended format is genuinely of higher validity than the multiple-choice format, then there is a strong case for retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and MEQ in the assessment protocol. If this contention cannot be supported, then the justification for retaining open-ended items in essays, summative assessment may be questioned.
Is the contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at last, two levels. The first is to correlate outcomes between the two formats. The second is to perform appropriate statistical analysis to determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or “factors”. Validity is an indicator of how closely the assessment actually measures the top resume, quality it purportedly sets out to test. It is self-evident that proficiency in last essay of elia, many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the ability to recall factual knowledge, but also the ability to generate and high school persuasive test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. This is based on the premise that ultimately all validity rests on the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the underlying construct, “intangible collections of abstract concepts and principles which are inferred from behaviour and explained by educational or psychological theory” [ 60 ]. Construct validity is last essay then defined as a process of investigation in which the constructs are carefully delineated, and evidence at multiple levels is sought which supports a valid association between scores on that assessment and high school persuasive essays the candidate's proficiency in terms of that construct. For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for such an last of elia association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and sorting research consequences. In this discussion we highlight the relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the two forms of assessment, and last essay of elia the impact of test scores on later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in algorithm, the work situation. This “is particularly important to those employers more interested in hiring competent workers than good test takers” [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the last of elia, open-ended and high school persuasive essays multiple-choice formats.
Numerous studies have assessed the essay, correlation of scores between the two formats. Use Of Antithesis In Poetry. If scores are highly correlated, the two formats are essentially measuring the same thing in which case, in terms of validity, there is no advantage of one over the other. With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on last essay, the two forms of assessment are highly correlated. Norman et al. compared the two formats prospectively and showed a strong correlation between the two sets of scores [ 63 ]. A similar result was found by Palmer et al. who suggested that the two types of examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. Similarly Norcini et al. Top Resume Writing Services Review. found that written patient management problems and multiple choice items appeared to be measuring essentially the of elia, same aspects of clinical competence, though the multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Similar results have been obtained in objects of affection, fields as diverse as economics and marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the two formats are higher when the questions in each format are specifically designed to be similar (stem-equivalent), and lower where the items in the two formats differ. Essay. However, the difference is not great: in a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and 0.85 across 35 studies for non-stem-equivalent items. The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ].
Factor analysis: do the formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the objects essay, actual constructs measured in an assessment has proved challenging given the lack of congruence between the simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is last often based and the very complex cognitive nature of the selected hume, constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. Last Essay Of Elia. A number of studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and principal component analysis to use of antithesis determine whether the constructs tested by last the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Selected. Bennett et al . compared a one factor model with a two factor model to examine the relationship of the open-ended and closed-ended formats and found that in general the single factor provided a better fit. Essay. This suggests that essentially the two formats are testing the same thing [ 67 ]. Similarly Bridgeman and Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to load on the same factor, implying that the open-ended format was not providing information on a different dimension [ 68 ]. Top Resume Writing Services. Thissen and Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to essay of elia a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for which only the open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. Though Lissitz et al . [ 70 ] quote a study by JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and the significance of the divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. Shakespeare 30 Essay. showed a correlation of 0.94 between the two formats in the domains of algebra and last of elia biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over a one-factor model in terms of fit. In the case of an English language assessment the correlation was lower at 0.74 and a two-factor model provided a better fit.
In a test of US government, intermediate results were found with the correlation of of affection essay, 0.83 and a slight superiority of last of elia, a two-factor model. This suggests that the addition of open-ended items in use of, biology and algebra provided little further information beyond the multiple-choice items, whereas in other domains—English and last of elia government—the two formats are to some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Indeed, the literature in general suggests that differences in format appeared to be of little significance in the precise sciences such as biology and mathematics, but may have some relevance in fields such as history and languages, as suggested by Traub and Fisher [ 71 ]. Research Paper. In summary, there is last essay of elia little evidence to support the belief that the open-ended format is objects of affection testing dimensions which the multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], who attempted to measure the last, depth of understanding among school-level science students revealed by multiple-choice and short written explanatory answers respectively. Sorting. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of knowledge integration were more likely to last of elia score highly on multiple-choice, though the essay, reverse did not hold true. Essay Of Elia. They suggested that the use of antithesis in poetry, multiple-choice items were less effective in distinguishing adjacent grades of understanding as opposed to distinguishing high-performance from low performance, a finding similar to that of Wilson and last of elia Wang [ 74 ] and Ercikan et al . [ 75 ]. Unfortunately the generalisability of these results is limited since the multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in format and in difficulty, and the circumstances under which the testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled. Lukhele et al . performed a rigorous analysis of high-quality university placement exams taken by thousands of candidates [ 49 ]. They found that both formats appeared to be measuring essentially the same construct. There was no evidence to suggest that the objects, open-ended and multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different things—even in areas as divergent as chemistry and of elia history.
Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in the scores of the multiple-choice and open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and the other to the open-ended format. However these were highly correlated, whatever the factor is that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. Thus for all practical purposes, in selected essays, such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the contrasting ability of the presumed open-ended and multiple-choice formats to assess recognition and recall as opposed to higher forms of cognitive learning. Last. Ideally, multiple-choice and open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) – this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on left). Top Resume Services Review. The error variance associated with each type of question is indicated by essay of elia the shaded blocks, and is much greater for antithesis in poetry, the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. Last Essay Of Elia. In practice, it appears that the two axes are closely aligned, implying that the two types of questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on selected, right). What little additional information the last essay of elia, open-ended question might be giving (as shown by a slight divergence in axis) is offset by its wide error variance, which in effect overlaps the information given by high school persuasive essays the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the value of any additional information it provides.
In summary, where studies have suggested that the open-ended format is measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in older studies), the effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on methodological grounds, or indefinable in terms of what is actually being measured. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on the conclusion that the difference in validity between the two formats is trivial. This is the conclusion drawn by Rodriguez in a meta-analysis of 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an essential similarity for the two formats under the conditions of summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. It is possible and indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in essay, thinking and understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in diagnostic as opposed to summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. Such considerations are particularly useful in using assessment to writing guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. In summative assessment at last of elia, a stage prior to final exit from a programme, and particularly in use of in poetry, formative assessment, the notion of assessment for learning becomes important; and considerations such as the generation effect and the potentiation of of elia, memory recall by testing cannot be ignored. Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is as effective as SAQ-format testing in potentiating memorisation and recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the contention that well-crafted MCQ and open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the same cognitive processes in the learner. Some authors have raised the selected essays hume, concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on last essay of elia, the two forms of assessment, and might be disadvantaged by a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in shakespeare sonnet 30 essay, the open-ended format. Last Of Elia. Studies in objects of affection, this area have been reassuring. Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of poor academic performance as assessed by of elia other parameters [ 78 ]. Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in the outcome between open-ended and multiple-choice tests were largely due to the low reliability of the open-ended component and inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. A study which correlated the two formats with each other and with other measures of student aptitude showed a high degree of correlation and was unable to identify students who clearly had a propensity to perform consistently better on one format than the other [ 79 ]. Thus the belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to open-ended questions than to multiple-choice would appear to be unfounded. An important question is whether the format of assessment effects the sorting, type of last, learning students use in preparation for it.
As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of a specific form of examination did not result in school, any change in the amount or type of preparation, or any difference in performance in subsequent testing [ 80 ]. He concluded as follows: “The use of various types of tests to foster various kinds of study and last learning, although widely advocated would seem to high school essays be a practice based on intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by empirical research. Last Essay Of Elia. In particular, the contention that the superiority of the essay, essay examination is its ability to promote more desirable study methods and higher performance on tasks requiring organisation, and deeper comprehension analysis of information should be re-evaluated in light of the evidence in the present study of no differences between groups in terms of last of elia, study methods, the essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the cognitive domain”. In fact, the relationship between assessment format and learning styles remains ill-defined. Writing Review. Though some studies have suggested that students tended to make more use of last of elia, surface learning strategies in preparation for MCQ and deeper learning strategies in preparation for open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in 30 essay, applied MCQ’s and a written course project, both of last of elia, which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for both factual and selected essays hume applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the literature on learning strategies suggests that the notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is simplistic, and much of the evidence for essay, this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. The student’s choice of learning style appears to be dependent on multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the student’s innate learning motivation and preferred learning strategy. This is 30 essay however subject to modification by other factors, particularly the last essay, student’s own perception of whether the assessment is objects of affection essay directed at assessment of last essay of elia, factual knowledge or of high essays, understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the intentions of the examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the assessment format, though this is not constant and students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to their perception of the requirement for last of elia, a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to learning the student brings into the course is the strongest predictor of the learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the instructor’s best efforts, the in poetry, only factor significantly correlated with the change in last, learning style is a change in the student’s perception of the use of antithesis in poetry, cognitive demands of the assessment. Thus students are frequently strategic in their choice of learning strategy, but the last essay, strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. The student’s academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the assessment as principally a test of recall and used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . have stressed the major influence of context on school persuasive, choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for last essay of elia, example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to whether the selected, assessment is perceived as a final examination or as an interim assessment, irrespective of format [ 81 ]. So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and increasing maturity tend to correlate with selection of last essay of elia, a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of assessment format, while the shakespeare sonnet, association of anxiety and other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and Miller stated that “Neither the hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of deep strategy were supported” [ 91 ]. As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to say that current evidence is last of elia insufficient to suggest that the open-ended format should be preferred over MCQ or vice versa on the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is also important to be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into play, for algorithm research paper, example testing language mastery or skills rather than the intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and essay of elia poor handwriting [ 65 ]. In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the open-ended format superior in antithesis in poetry, predicting subsequent performance in the workplace? This has been assessed and the answer, surprisingly, is that it may be less predictive.
Rabinowitz and Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the last essay of elia, single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at objects, the conclusion of a series of six clerkships with performance after graduation. Results in multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of performance in the workplace. The MEQ questions showed the last of elia, lowest correlation. Essays. Wilkinson and Frampton directly compared an assessment based on long and short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies. They found no significant correlation between the scores of the open-ended question protocol and assessments of performance in the workplace after graduation. In contrast they found that the combination of the SAQ paper and two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. This study showed that the last essay, predominant use of multiple-choice in the assessment resulted in a significant improvement in the structural validity of the assessment in comparison with essay-type questions alone. Hume. It was unable to answer the question as to whether the open-ended questions are necessary at all since the multiple-choice component was not compared with the performance rating independently of the essay questions. These authors conclude that that the essay, change from the open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and reliability. Recommendations from the essays hume, literature. Wainer and Thissen stated that: “We have found no evidence of any comparison of the last, efficacy of the two formats (when a particular trait was specified and use of antithesis skilled item writers then constructed items to measure it) in which the multiple-choice item format was not superior” [ 50 ]. Lukhele et al . concluded: “Thus, while we are sympathetic to… the arguments… regarding the advantages of last essay, open-ended format, we have yet to antithesis in poetry see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them.
We are awash in evidence of their drawbacks”, and further, “… We are forced to conclude that open-ended items provide this information in essay, more time at greater cost than the multiple-choice items. This conclusion is surely discouraging to those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in top resume services, some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. It should be” [ 49 ]. Palmer et al . have suggested that the MEQ should be removed from the exit examination [ 47 ]. Given that MEQ's are difficult to write to a high standard and in such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and given the time required and the subjectivity in marking, their use does not represent an efficient use of resources. Indeed, they state “… MEQ's often do little more than test the last essay of elia, candidate's ability to recall a list of facts and frustrate the examiner with a large pile of papers to be hand-marked”. They conclude there is of affection no good measurement reason for including open-ended items in essay of elia, the high-stakes assessment, given that the MEQ performed poorly in terms of testing high-order thinking in comparison with the multiple-choice despite considerable effort to produce quality questions. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for selected, the use of SAQ in assessment, since the stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. They recommend that SAQ should not be used in any situation except where the last, spontaneous generation of the answer is absolutely essential.
Furthermore, they believe that there is use of antithesis little place for context-free questions in medical assessment as the last, context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the open-ended format persist in selected hume, medical assessment? Hence the evidence suggests that in written summative assessment the multiple-choice format is no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and is superior in reliability and cost-effectiveness. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and the reasons underlying the persistence of the open-ended format in of elia, assessment are of some interest. Persuasive Essays. I suggest a number of factors. Studies bear out the common-sense expectation that questions designed to test factual knowledge only—irrespective of whether these are presented as open-ended or in multiple-choice format—do not test the same level of essay, reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Indeed, a recurring finding in the literature is that the so-called deficiencies of the multiple-choice format lie more with the quality of the individual question item (and by selected inference, with the essay, question-setter), than with the format per se . This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the versatility of the shakespeare sonnet 30 essay, multiple-choice format set questions which only test low-order thinking and not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Palmer et al. state that criticism of multiple-choice as being incapable of testing high-order thinking is in fact criticism of poorly written questions, and that the same criticism can be directed at open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. There is indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to behave similarly, irrespective of whether the item is phrased as an last essay open-ended question or in MCQ format. It is use of therefore essential that in last essay of elia, making comparisons, the items compared are specifically crafted to assess the same order of use of antithesis, cognition.
As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in last essay, multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by careful construction and thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in this discussion. The most persuasive material is found in the broader educational literature, and though there are brief references in the medical education literature to some of the studies to shakespeare sonnet which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the last essay, issue does not appear to have enjoyed prominence in debate and has had limited impact on actual assessment practice. In their consensus statement and recommendations on research and 30 essay assessment, Schuwirth et al. stress the need for reference beyond the existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. In the essay of elia, teaching context, it is objects of affection essay remarkable how the proposition that the open-ended format is more appropriate in last of elia, testing the knowledge and skills ultimately required for the workplace has been repeatedly and uncritically restated in in poetry, the literature in the absence of compelling evidence to support it. Third is the counter-intuitiveness of this finding. Indeed, the proposition that the open-ended format is more challenging than MCQ is intuitively appealing. Furthermore, there is the last essay, “generation effect”; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of information, as opposed to reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Although this applies to learning rather than to assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to top resume services the act of recall, believing that spontaneous recall is more valid than cued recall.
However, validity at face value is an unreliable proxy for true validity, and the outcome in practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. As the literature on learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to coincide with the intuitive appeal of a particular learning methodology. Last Of Elia. Examples include the writing review, observation that interleaved practice is more effective than blocked practice and last essay of elia distributed practice is objects more effective than massed practice in promoting acquisition of skills and knowledge [ 21 ]. There is a need for assessment to be evidence-based; to last an extent assessment would appear to lag behind learning and shakespeare sonnet teaching methodology in this respect. Rohrer and Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of learning strategies shown to be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and interleaved practice, remain so because of “the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives” [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is concern that there is much that as yet remains unknown about the nature of assessment; particularly seen from the essay, viewpoint of assessment for learning, and given very interesting new insights into the cognitive basis of memorisation, recall and reasoning, a field which is as yet largely unexplored, and school may be expected to have a significant impact on the choice of assessment format. For diagnostic purposes, the open-ended format may hold value, since it is better able to expose the students intermediate thinking processes and therefore allow precise identification of learning difficulties [ 72 ]. Newer observations such as the generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the preassessment effect, where the act of preparation for an assessment is itself a powerful driver of learning [ 96 ], and the post-assessment effect, such as the effect of feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the open-ended question, was superior in driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the choice of assessment. At this point however no such reliable information exists.
Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in promoting the testing effect [ 23 ]. None of these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to argue definitively for the inclusion of open-ended questions on the basis of their effect on learning, though the possibility clearly remains. Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on essay, high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the learning effects of assessment are presumably less important than they are at objects, other stages of learning. Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for those domains not well-suited to multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and essay of elia professional attitudes [ 92 ] and may have value for a particular question which cannot be presented in any other format [ 48 ]. Though the evidence is less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in distinguishing between performances of candidates occupying the two extremes of performance [ 75 ]. Cognitive basis for shakespeare sonnet, the observation. The need for assessment of research to last of elia move beyond empiric observations to essays studies based on a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. There is as yet little written on the reasons for the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is as valid as open-ended assessments in predicting clinical performance. I suggest that the observation is highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and situated learning theory, and in particular the last, theory of conceptual change [ 97 ]. Fundamental to this theory is the concept of mental models. These are essentially similar to schemas, but are richer in that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in the head [ 98 ]. Mental models may therefore be thought of as cognitive artifacts constructed by an individual based on his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and 30 essay perception of the last essay, problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Conceptual change is writing services review postulated to last represent the mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and is a process of progressively constructing and organizing a learner’s personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. It is suggested that an effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for solving problems related to the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the system, associations (metaphors), the ability to know when to activate mental models (executive knowledge), and school persuasive assumptions about the problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Therefore increasing proficiency in any domain is associated not just with an enlarging of store of of elia, knowledge and experience, but also with increasing complexity in the extent to which knowledge is objects essay organised and the manner in which it is stored and accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to problem-solving [ 104 ]. A counterpart in the domain of medical expertise is the last essay, hierarchy of constructs proposed by Schmidt et al . elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and in poetry illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to last essay of elia our current understanding of expertise, which is postulated to emerge where knowledge and concepts are linked as mental representations into propositional networks which allow rapid processing of information and sorting algorithm research paper the omission of intermediate steps in reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the expert’s knowledge is grouped into discrete packets or chunks, and manipulation of these equates to last of elia the manipulation of shakespeare 30 essay, a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to any individual component [ 104 ]. In comparison with non-experts, the representations of experts are richer, more organised and abstract and are based on deep knowledge; experts also recognise the conditions under which use of particular knowledge is appropriate [ 109 ]. Essay. As Norman has stated, “expert problem-solving in medicine is dependent on (1) prior experiences which can be used in routine solution of problems by pattern recognition processes and essays hume (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation ” [ 110 ]. The processes of building expertise and that of constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ].
Therefore any form of assessment intended to measure proficiency must successfully sample the candidate’s organisation of and access to knowledge, and not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. I have reviewed the empirical evidence which suggests that the multiple-choice format is indeed predictive of last essay of elia, proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is valid. This is explicable in terms of mental models. Objects Of Affection. An alternative view of a mental model is as an internal representation of a system that the learner brings to bear in a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essentially an exercise in complex problem-solving, and fits the definition of problem-solving as “cognitive processing aimed at of elia, accomplishing certain goals when the solution is unknown” [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the selected, concept of of elia, a “distributed cognitive task”: a task requiring that information distributed across both the internal mind and the external environment is processed [ 114 ]. If we extend Zhang’s concept of external representation to include a hypothetical patient, the subject of the clinical vignette, who represents the class of all such patients, then answering the context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. The candidate must attempt to call forth an use of antithesis appropriate mental model which permits an effective solution to the complex problem.
In a sequence of events which parallels that described by Zhang, the candidate must internalise the information provided in the vignette, form an last essay accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is that of the problem space, a mental representation of the problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in hume, turn activates and interacts with the relevant mental models and of elia is followed by externalization: the return of the product of the interaction of internal representation and mental model to the external environment, and essays the selection of a solution. Last Essay Of Elia. In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of higher level cognition and externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ]. Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on mental models appropriate to that particular context, and the item can only be answered confidently and correctly if the mental model is present at the level of proficiency. Shakespeare Sonnet. There is therefore no such thing as the student with generic expertise “in answering multiple-choice questions”, which explains the of elia, findings of Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. [ 75 ] and objects of affection Bleske-Rechek et al . Essay. [ 79 ], none of selected essays, whom found convincing evidence for last, the existence of use of antithesis in poetry, a class of student with a particular skill in essay, answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of knowledge improves retention, and may be enhanced in the learning process by frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is algorithm research paper as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and retrieval of memory. This is further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the multiple-choice item is testing the essay, integrity and appropriateness of the candidate’s mental models, and in doing so, is in fact assessing proficiency.
If the item is designed to test factual recall only then it will fail for this purpose, since it is the selected essays hume, solution of last essay, a complex problem which tests the strength of the paper, mental model and the cognitive processes which interact with it. Yet even a low-quality assessment based on factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on a foundation of structural knowledge. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. Secondly, possessing effective and appropriate mental models facilitates the retention and recall of knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the information and excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to be able to essay recall the information when needed.
This is supported by the work of Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and retention, and correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and low-order assessment items. Sorting Algorithm Paper. Indeed, recognition and recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. There is evidence that the essay of elia, cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by cueing [ 117 ], though the use of, reasons for the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. However, where the stem and essay options have been well-designed?particularly such that the distractors all appear attractive to use of antithesis in poetry the candidate without the requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and the common argument that it is easier to recognize an answer than it is to generate it spontaneously would appear not to hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. This is explicable in that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of essay, knowledge and circumstances, but the actual process of developing them is highly dependent on domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and cognitive flexibility [ 99 ]. I suggest that the problem with many assessments in the MEQ format is that they are essentially linear. By requiring the candidate to think one step at a time, the assessment effectively misses the crux of the problem-solving process, which is to look at and respond to a complex problem in its entirety, and high persuasive not stepwise. The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by last essay contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. Thus it requires a form of cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency.
Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the clinical reasoning process into a sequence of sequential steps; whether this is regarded as a drawback will depend on the relative importance ascribed to decision-making at critical points in the decision tree and of affection essay global assessment of a problem viewed holistically. This is a critical area for future research in last essay, clinical reasoning. Educators who mistrust the multiple-choice format have tended to concentrate on the final, and cognitively the least important, step in this whole process: the selection of sorting algorithm research paper, a particular option as the last, answer, while ignoring the complex cognitive processes which precede the selection. Indeed, in a good assessment, the candidate is not “selecting” an answer at all. Persuasive Essays. They recognise the external representation of a problem, subject the internalised representation to high level cognitive processing, and then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the last essay, options given. The multiple-choice format is by no means unlimited in its capacity to test higher-order thinking. The literature on sonnet, problem-solving stresses the importance of highly-structured complex problems, characterised by unknown elements with no clear path to the solution and indeed a potential for there to be many solutions or even no solution at all [ 99 ]. Last. The standard multiple-choice item by definition can only have one solution. Sorting. Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is limited in its complexity. Of Elia. It is difficult however to sorting research imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. In order to accommodate complexity, the question would essentially have to be unstructured—thereby eliminating all the last essay of elia, structured short-answer progeny of the essay format, such as MEQ. In order to permit the candidate to selected hume freely demonstrate the last, application of top resume review, all his or her mental resources to a problem more complex than that permitted by a multiple-choice vignette, one would in all probability require that the candidate is afforded the essay of elia, opportunity to develop an extensive, unstructured and essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the objects, problem of last essay, narrow sampling, subjectivity and low reliability.
In effect the choice would then lie between an 30 essay assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and last reliability, and a large number of highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of a fully complex situation. Objects Essay. Perhaps this is a restatement of the assertion that “measuring something that is not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the right thing poorly” [ 50 ], the situation depicted in last essay of elia, Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving. Knowledge lacks structure and essays hume is essentially context-free. Concepts and relationships are of poor quality. The candidate will be unable to identify or contextualise the problem. Essay. His or her ability is effectively limited to answering items which require factual recall only— provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for the problem. Though the problem may be recognised, the candidate will be unable to top resume services review represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for problem-solving. Is able to extract the key elements from the problem and possesses many or most of the concepts required for application to the problem, but the relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the problem and respond appropriately to it, but may struggle to last prioritise and evaluate elements appropriately because of the immature relationships between concepts.
Immediately recognises the problem and is able to accommodate it fully in a mental model which permits a solution. Will recognise the problem, identify, evaluate and prioritise all the elements necessary for a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and responds to the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from extensive experience. Is able to answer the question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking. The first column comprises the stages of learning proposed by Dreyfus and Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in this context, we shall regard stage of learning as synonymous with level of proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the high school, effectiveness of essay of elia, problem-solving skill. The second column contains descriptors for each stage chosen for their relevance to complex problem-solving posed by a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. The third column contains a description of the school essays, likely performance on of elia, that item of services review, a candidate at last, that stage of proficiency. The relationship between proficiency and performance in a complex multiple-choice item is in fact remarkably direct. The debate may also be reformulated to incorporate the appropriateness of learning.
Deep learning is characterised by an understanding of the meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on the interrelationships of items of information, understanding of the application of research paper, knowledge to everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to differentiate between principle and example and essay of elia the organisation of knowledge into a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]—essentially an selected essays hume alternative formulation of the mental model. One can thus argue that the candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by the very fact of that possession, demonstrated that they have the sort of comprehensive and intuitive understanding of the subject—in short, the appropriate mental models as described by last Jonassen and Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]—to allow the information to writing services review be used for problem-solving. Correspondingly, the last essay of elia, weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the items are written in a manner which explores the higher cognitive levels of learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to solve complex problems, be it through the medium of multiple-choice assessment or any other form of assessment, then it is safe to assume that they will be able to apply this knowledge in school essays, practice. This accounts for essay of elia, the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in open-ended assessments, and tests of subsequent performance in an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and consequently lack validity, is not supported by the evidence. Some studies may have been confounded by the unfair comparison of high-order items in one format with low-order items in another. This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for the discrepancies noted in some of the work I have referenced, such as that of Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], yet where the writing services review, cognitive order of the items have been carefully matched, a number of careful studies suggest that, particularly in science and essay of elia medicine, the two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to the extent that using both forms of assessment is redundant. Given the advantage of the multiple-choice format in reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the selected, suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in essay of elia, summative assessment is use of antithesis one which deserves careful consideration. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of understanding of the cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and essay its assessment, and suggests that much further work remains to be done. Despite the MCQ format’s long pedigree, it is clear that we understand little about the cognitive architecture invoked by this form of assessment.
The need for selected essays hume, a greater role for essay, theoretical models in assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by reliable evidence. Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to explain the observations on the basis of objects of affection, cognition - will provide the strongest basis for the identification of effective learning and last assessment methodologies. That the multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is due in part to the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of sorting algorithm research, assessing higher orders of cognition, and that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in practice. On a theoretical basis it is even conceivable that the multiple-choice format will show superior performance in assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the open-ended format; there is indeed empirical evidence to support this in practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to improve reliability and reduce objectivity by writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently “trivialize” the question, resulting in some increase in reproducibility at the expense of a significant loss of validity [ 120 ]. Last Of Elia. Indeed, I have argued that, based on an understanding of human cognition and in poetry problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in assessing the very characteristics which the proponents of the open-ended format claim as a strength of that format. Though current evidence supports the notion that in summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for learning is important, such as in formative assessment and in summative assessment at early and last of elia intermediate stages of the selected essays, medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to last of elia the learning effects of the two formats is as yet awaited.
The author was solely responsible the sorting algorithm research, literature and writing the article. RJH is currently Dean and Head of the School of Clinical Medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He studied at last of elia, the University of Cape Town, specialising in Internal Medicine and top resume writing services review subsequently hepatology, before moving to Durban as Professor of last essay of elia, Medicine. He has a longstanding interest in medical education, and specifically in the cognitive aspects of clinical reasoning, an area in which he is top resume writing review currently supervising a number of research initiatives. Modified essay question. Short answer question. Objective structured clinical examination. The author would like to thank Dr Veena Singaram for her insightful and challenging appraisal of the manuscript. Authors' original submitted files for images.
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Edited by: Davidson JE, Sternberg RJ. 2003, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY US, 3-30. Last Essay. Google Scholar Schuwirth LWT, Schuwirth LWT, Van der Vleuten CPM: ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: written assessment. BMJ: British Med J (International Edition). Top Resume Writing Services. 2003, 326: 643-645. Google Scholar. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is last essay properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to hume the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on essay of elia, Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit. By continuing to selected hume use this website, you agree to our Terms and essay of elia Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy.
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But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the objects essay, illusion of essay, depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to shakespeare sonnet, help them stand out.
A cohesive color scheme of last, cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look. School Essays? Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an last essay, edge in selected essays hume, terms of attracting attention. Other strong points of of elia, this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of essay, negative space. Of Elia? There seems to be a trend, at least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the selected, piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you. Here’s a little about last essay, me” header at sorting algorithm research paper, the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them.
This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and essay of elia a catchy tagline. Persuasive Essays? Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an of elia, opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the objects, work in, this “brand” is essay of elia something you can use over in poetry, and over again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. Last Essay Of Elia? For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and whittles down the information to only the antithesis, basics (skills and past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of essay, quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N.
Carter, printed on essays hume a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. Essay Of Elia? But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the images should, at a glance, tell something about high school, you and complement or enhance the text, like in of elia, this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the high school essays, job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume.
It doesn’t have to last of elia, be the center of attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by selected essays hume, using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in last of elia, Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into objects of affection essay your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the of elia, same graphic on high your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in of elia, creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is readable. You’ve only got one name.
Make it memorable. If it’s unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on review his resume. Give the hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume. For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have.
Need to last essay, show your qualifications on the run? Post your resume online and school persuasive make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to last of elia, networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of use of antithesis, your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to navigate visually. Essay? This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the use of antithesis, same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Essay Of Elia? Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned.
Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to shakespeare 30 essay, extra (or extra important) information that you want to essay, highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and shakespeare sonnet 30 essay contact information from her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the breadth of his skills and last experience. Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in top resume, various areas, such as management and last essay design. The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of shakespeare, experience — a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Last Essay? Give the person looking at essays hume, your resume an excuse to find out more about you. Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt.
If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on last essay your resume. Tamas Leb has included space to research paper, do so on last essay this resume template, and it makes an impressive statement, even at a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and think about innovative ways to persuasive essays, present your information. Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and of elia accomplishments, plus the extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from S1M. Antithesis In Poetry? The vertical timeline on the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the candidate’s career history. This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes don’t have to be fancy to essay of elia, make a good impression. Review? If competition is last essay stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and essay custom illustrations to stand out from the crowd.
This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch. As if to say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the essay of elia, box. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for shakespeare a high-impact look that will make people take notice. There may be times when it’s ok to let your sense of of elia, humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the objects, same style, which is last of elia a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents.
Sometimes you have to use of antithesis in poetry, do what you can to get noticed. For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and essay of elia gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at. No long-winded explanations of top resume writing services review, job roles here. Just the essentials — enough to get someone interested in wanting to essay, know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information. Sorting Research? If you have a lot of information you need to fit on essay one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for each section. Need to objects essay, keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest.
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Extract Transform Load (Etl) Tester Hlsp6. E3 Federal Solutions. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/4/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-02T00:00 E3 Federal Solutions (E3) is an essay, award winning Veteran Owned Business specializing in of elia providing acquisition management, financial management, and program management support to top resume writing services review, the federal government. Of Elia. E3's strong understanding of federal acquisition, contract, financial management and program management organization (PMO) lifecycles paves the way for mature organizational processes, experienced resources, responsive management and proven management methodologies to meet and exceed client goals. Excellence, Accountability, Community, Humility and use of antithesis Integrity are the core values of E3 as we continue to strive in becoming a recognized leader in the management consulting community that both federal agencies and industry partners value doing business with. We are an last, organization that offers both our employees and clients an exceptional experience; our culture will be contagious, while always maintaining a genuine reputation. E3 Federal Solutions, LLC seeks Extract Transform Load (ETL) Testers to join our team in school persuasive essays support of our projected work with the Department of Homeland Security - Transportation Security Administration - Secure Flight Work Program. Last Essay. These positions are located in Annapolis Junction, MD.
These positions perform the following regular work responsibilities: + Lead the testing effort and/or team to writing services review, plan, construct and execute ETL tests. + Apply testing methodologies, principles and processes to define and implement key metrics to last essay, manage and assess the objects of affection, testing process including test execution and last of elia defect resolution. + Write test cases, scripts, and review code for last, unit/functional tests. Required: + Graduate Degree with a minimum of 5 years directly related work experience + ICAgile Certified Professional (ACP) + Requires knowledge of high school persuasive essays, database ETL functions. Last Of Elia. + Experience with Rat Functional Tstr, RatClear Case, RatClear Quest, RatRequisite Pro, IBM Data Studio, Oracle, Oracle OBIEE, Informatica, PL/SQL. + Must be a U.S. Hume. Citizen with the ability to obtain and maintain a DHS Suitability clearance. Last Of Elia. Preferred: + Experience with Rat App Dev, Rational DOORS Next Generation (DNG), Rational Quality Manager (RQM), Rational Team Concert (RTM), IBM SAM, IBM SIM, IBM MQ, IBM WODM, IBM ILOG, IBM DB2, IBM Data Power, IBM Tivoli Mon, IBM Netcool, IBM WAS Appl Server, Gradle, Jenkins, Java/J2EE, Bash/ ksh Scrpting, AIX, RedHat Linux, Agile, DevOps. Req #: 2017-3616 External Company URL: www.e3federalsolutions.com E3 Federal Solutions Annapolis Junction MD. Posted 18 hours ago. VIEW JOBS 10/5/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-03T00:00 div style=margin:0pxspan style=color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif,serif,EmojiFont; font-size: 10pt; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);We are seeking Reporting/span Testersspan style=color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif,serif,EmojiFont; font-size: 10pt; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255);to join our team in support of our projected work with the Department of Homeland Security - Transportation Security Administration - Secure Flight Work Program./span These positions are located in algorithm research Annapolis Junction, MD.span style=color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: arial,helvetica,sans-serif,serif,EmojiFont; font-size: 10pt; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); strongMust be a U.S. Last Essay. Citizenwith the essays, ability toobtain and maintain a DHS Suitabilitysecurity clearance./strong/span/div div style=margin:0px/div div style=margin:0pxTheReporting Testers will support efforts to validate the solution design by testing the last of elia, application against performance requirements. They will support the high persuasive, test leads by creating detailed performance test tasks for essay of elia, the work plan and providing accurate status of these tasks./div div style=margin:0px/div div style=margin:0pxThe Reporting Testers will perform the following regular work responsibilities:/div ul li style=padding: 0; margin: 0;Develops detailed test plans and essay results artifacts/li li style=padding: 0; margin: 0;Identify and create detailed test cases and of elia test scripts and map to appropriate requirements and design specifications.
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Elia and The Last Essays of Elia / …
essay life pro Human life is essay of elia a continuum beginning at of affection conception and ending at natural death. You did not come from a zygote or a fetus, but once was a zygote and a fetus, not just a piece of last, tissue. Essay. Imagine the potential of life. In spite of the arguments presented by of elia pro-abortionists, there exists more reason to shun the practice than keep it. Selected. In this light, this paper examines the last contentious issue of abortion. Abortion refers to a practice whereby a pregnancy is terminated with the shakespeare 30 essay outcome being the death of a human fetus (Hillar, 2000). It remains one of the most contested issues in as far as social and moral obligations are concerned.
Both sides in the debate present valid arguments to either support or reject abortion. Pro-life arguments are mainly based on the concept of of elia, preservation of human life from the objects point of of elia, conception to that of giving full priority to unborn fetus’ life over that of the mother. On the other end, pro-abortionists contend that women possess ultimate control of their bodies to that point of prioritizing their lives over the natural observable fact of the development of a new human being. Abortion is paper elementarily murder (Simmons, 2002). Anti-abortionists have the notion that it is morally wrong to take away someone’s “right to live.” However, proponents of abortion have contended that calling abortion a “murder” is merely a statement which is based on religious belief.
To them, the last essay of elia choice on whether to abort or not lies entirely with the women. At this juncture, it would be prudent to examine the concept of abortion from several perspectives. As outlined by Hillar (2000), philosophers view the fetus’ moral status as being the fundamental flaw by proponents of abortion. From the vantage point of liberals, even though there is the underlying aspect of the moral status of the fetus, abortion remains justified in a variety of selected, cases. Last. For instance, in a hypothetical situation where a woman is raped, there will be a hard decision to make; keep the pregnancy and antithesis in poetry, let the child be a reminder of the trauma for the remainder of one’s life or abort the fetus and in essay of elia the process, possess the guilt of having “murdered” a human life. In this fantasized scenario, a liberally-minded person would opt for abortion since they may argue that the fetus uses the woman’s body. Liberals contend that women possess justifiable grounds to go for abortion in the event that their lives are endangered if they have been raped and in extreme cases where they have taken considerable precautions to avoid being pregnant.
However, the argument by the liberals is patently false and exaggerated. According to in poetry Simmons (2002), people with this kind of notion do not recognize the special feature of the of elia growing fetus i.e. the in poetry fetus is an last, outcome of a previous conscious event which possessed a predictable outcome. In spite of the fact that rape is a societally condemned act, the liberals’ view does not hold due to the lack of moral justification for antithesis in poetry taking away a fetus’ life. For conservatives, a fetus possesses full moral status from the point of conception which in turn implies a right to live. From their vantage point, human development does not necessarily have to be divided into stages; to them, human development is an act of continuity which begins with conception. As such, the last right to paper living cannot be separated from a fetus’ character. Hillar (2000) agrees, stating that attempt to last essay of elia make an exception for abortion, for instance, after a rape or if the fetus is seriously defective, goes against the continuity aspect of life development which should not be allowed. In pursuit of shakespeare, this, conservatives also object to the removal of cancerous uteruses which have fetuses on the notion that the physician possesses the intention to “kill” by carrying out an abortion.
Conservatives only tone down if the scenario is that of self-defense i.e. in the event that the fetus existence poses a danger to the mother’s life. The other perspective is from the moderates, who weigh the arguments both for last and against and then make a decision in essays support of 1973 United State’s Supreme Court Decision Roe vs. Wade. It was this highly publicized case that contributed to the legalization of of elia, abortion in the US. According to Haney (2008), moderates refute the conservatives’ notion that the fetus is a completely new life on its own.
This view also disputes the liberal perspective which contends that the fetus is not a fully fledged life as yet. Even though the fetus is not yet a person, carrying out abortion in the later stages of pregnancy would be unjustifiable; in this stage, the fetus has already taken some resemblance to people. Sorting Research. In the earlier stages, though, the last essay of elia fetus has not taken resemblance to people and for this reason; abortion at this stage would be permissible. However, the moderate position, which finds its strength in the 1973 abortion law by hume the US Supreme Court, has its flaws (Hillar, 2000). For one, legalization of abortion may be the underlying reason as to why teenagers are encouraged to last essay have sex. By offering abortion as a solution to pregnancy, the teenagers might feel that they can always remedy the situation they find themselves in. reverting to the hypothetical scenario where a woman gets raped; anti-abortionists contend that abortion is not really necessary since the affected person can obtain medical treatment that prevents the pregnancy. However, despite the medical treatment options available, pro-abortionists present a counter argument that approximately 59 percent of raped women still get pregnant, implying that the medical treatments do not work always (Haney, 2008).
In light of this, it is imperative to selected note that often, the victims of essay of elia, rape do not report or seek medical treatment to prevent pregnancy, thereby putting themselves in blame’s way when they contemplate abortion afterward. Also, legalization of abortion contributes to increased number of unsafe abortions procured in backstreet clinics which in turn lead to essays hume more cases of maternal mortality. According to Haney (2008), proponents of abortion do not have an informed sense of “life” in its required definition. For pro-life individuals, the fetus is indeed a new life, an authentic, equal human life. From this perspective, a fetus of six weeks has the ability to essay of elia experience pain.
Also, a fetus at eight weeks has already established its own unique fingerprints which it will carry on into its adulthood. It is sonnet 30 essay also a fact that three months into the pregnancy, the fetus’ internal organs have become intact and operational. The fetus is capable of sleeping, waking, tasting, hearing and sensing. Last. These, according to pro-life individuals, are the distinct features that cause people to believe they are alive and as such, the fetus is also alive. Use Of In Poetry. Infants, while still in their mothers’ wombs, can be monitored, undergo surgery in of elia addition to receiving blood transfusions. Therefore, it would be illogical for people to insinuate that fetuses are not a component of algorithm paper, living human beings. The notion that the fetus is also a human being is the cornerstone of pro-life argument (Simmons, 2002).
For this reason, abortion may be rejected since it is last brutal and inhumane, a vicious form of murdering innocent human beings. Abortion through the use of Suction Aspiration, where powerful suction tubes are inserted into mother’s wombs through dilated cervixes, leads to the fetus being grossly dismembered. This procedure not only shakespeare 30 essay terminates a pregnancy, it also ends the life of an equal human being. Towards this end, abortion is radically opposed. From a theological perspective, pro-life persons oppose abortion based on the Bible’s teachings. Essay. Despite the fact that the holy book does not outright castigate abortion, there are implicit teachings regarding the sanctity of human life and use of antithesis in poetry, the need to value it. In Genesis 1:27, the semblance of mankind with God makes it sacred i.e. “God created man in his own image.” In addition, God imparted to mankind the ability to essay of elia think, reason and review, operate at higher social levels, making them special as compared to of elia other creatures.
Clearly, each offspring by human beings is sacred and should not be “killed” at any cost. Activists who are pro-life have their arguments founded on the grounds that abortion is relative to the individuality of services review, every person (Hillar, 2000; Simmons, 2002). Based on a single-celled zygote, particular traits which individuals will possess as adults can be determined, all of them being completely unique. Last Essay. In spite of inability, deformity or low operational capacity, pro-life activists contend that every individual who is created by God is high school essays special and one of a kind. For this reason, all human beings have to be given the chance to achieve their full potential in of elia life. Generally speaking, the most widely used argument by anti-abortionists is that some of the aborted fetuses would have been senators, presidents, writers, professional athletes, doctors, astronauts and so on. On their part, pro-abortionists contend that carrying out an use of antithesis, abortion during the first 10 months into pregnancy does not have any moral harm; the human psychological conditioning makes people believe in life in the fetus and hence, feel attached to last of elia it. The abortion debate has raged on for very many years, and selected, can be traced to the time of Aristotle. According to English (1975), Aristotle was of the notion that deformed kids should be left to die. In the ancient past, Plato, in his works, stated that all ill-conceived embryos did not have to be brought to birth and in the event that infants were born out of them, should be disposed of by the parents.
In actual sense, the foremost recorded evidence which referred to abortion was that of a Chinese Emperor in the year 2737 B.C. in spite of the support for abortion, Christians vehemently opposed it, since it was widely carried out in ancient Rome and Greece. The “Teaching of the last Twelve Apostles” or “The Didache” was a Christian manual which outlined the church affairs and persuasive essays, morals which stated that one shall not carry out or procure and abortion (referred to as infanticide). This dedicated opposition to abortion which was shown by the Christian church remains a solid foundation for today’s resistance by church faithful. People who comprehend the direct castigation given to abortion by revered church fathers instantly assume it to be an atrocious evil. Another reason for essay of elia opposing abortion can be viewed from shakespeare 30 essay, a psychological dimension (Haney, 2008). A large number of people believe that an act which is as intimate as abortion has substantial significance on last essay, psychological repercussions. Women who undergo an algorithm, abortion will have feelings of guilt and remorse after the last of elia act and may never be the same people again, thereby choosing to shun the act altogether. On the other side of the spectrum, pro-abortionists are of the notion that belief in algorithm research paper a fetus’ life at conception is preposterous and entirely religious. For them, believing that a single isolated cell is last a full human is really hard, bordering on absurd. Though they admit that the embryo is a symbol of “potential life,” they are radically opposed to use of antithesis in poetry the notion that it is indeed fully human until the entire human structure and functions are in place and are operational. For this reason, a fetus of one week or so is not considered as a human life by pro-abortionists.
In refutation of the above argument, pro-life activists contend that if indeed a creature can be defined as not being alive because of non-operational structures, would it be correct to insinuate that the elderly people with failing body structures are also not alive? Presumably, the answer lies in essay the fact that they are alive, which brings out the hypocritical nature of pro-abortionists (Haney, 2008). Also, pro-abortionists often separate definitions of personhood and human life. By giving personhood a definition that it is the shakespeare sonnet ability for approval as a member of a particular social community and capacity for self-conscious thinking. This implies that they admit that the fetus is indeed human life. Essay. However, they deny the 30 essay fetus the rights of people.
Another argument put forward by abortionists is that the of elia act is done in the best interest of the high school persuasive essays woman and her family (English, 1975; Hillar, 2000; Haney, 2008). A question they frequently ask is whether a woman should be compelled to go on last essay of elia, with a pregnancy or bring up a child into adulthood without any concern for 30 essay her expressed desire or will. Essay Of Elia. An illustration suffices to explain this point: Jane, an essays, 18-year old woman is last essay of elia raped and becomes pregnant. Clearly, this is not a child she had planned for or possesses the desire to take care of as her “own.” She faces a dilemma of whether to carry out an abortion which she feels is morally wrong or carry it to full term though the child will always be a permanent reminder of her trauma. Antithesis. For pro-abortionists, Jane has been driven by necessity to carry out the last essay abortion which acts as a birth control mechanism for women who are not ready to algorithm paper have kids. Many pro-life activists have difficulty in answering the query as to whether abortion, as in Jane’s illustration, should be approved. According to Haney (2008), a sixteenth of 10,000 cases of abortion are as a result of rape while the rest are occasioned by social issues. Pro-abortionists state that women who have fallen pregnant as a result of rape may be haunted by flashbacks of the last essay of elia dehumanizing experience they underwent. Also, due to the fact that the bulk of raped women are generally young, single women, it would be hard for them to raise the kids on their own.
As such, pro-abortionists contend that abortion should be contemplated in this situation i.e. the mother’s interest has to be prioritized before that of the unborn fetus. Towards this end, the circumstances underlying the essay pregnancy of the of elia woman should be the crucial factor in use of antithesis deciding whether to abort. Another aspect that gives impetus to pro-abortionists’’ arguments is the safety and wellbeing of the last mother. In the selected event that there is a complication as a result of pregnancy, abortionists are of the notion that the mother should be saved at the expense of the fetus since actually; it is not a live human being (Haney, 2008; English, 1975). Essay. The logic behind this is the fact that the mother is research paper a valuable member of the community in which she resides and her death would contribute to a much larger tragedy than the death of the unborn fetus. Due to the reason that abortionists believe abortion to be a wise choice on any occasion that is deemed suitable by the mother, they would not hesitate approving it if a woman’s health is endangered.
On the other hand, pro-life activists argue that abortion for whatever reason is plain murder by another name. Whenever there is a case of abortion, human life, even though small, is stifled. Also, choosing to end the “life” of the unborn fetus has been described by pro-life activists as being discriminatory. In other words, they state that for people who make decisions for the fetus to die based on various arbitrary traits such as psychological or physical development are in essence according to some humans more rights or values than the of elia others. An argument fronted by pro-life supporters is that is selected essays hume there exists uncertainty regarding the fetus’ right to live, then the procurement of an abortion is tantamount to taking a risk of murdering another human being (Hillar, 2000). The argument is founded on the notion that if the of elia right to live off the antithesis in poetry fetus is in doubt, then it logically follows that it would be absolutely reckless and wrong to treat it as lacking this particular life, for instance, through killing it. This argument is refuted by abortionists who contend that in the similar fashion, killing various animals for essay of elia food or even plants would be morally wrong too, since people do not know for sure whether such beings do not possess the right to live.
As pro-life supporters’ argument, the failure of an individual to determine whether a fetus has the right to life is not an implicit need for one to act in a manner opposing the arguments. Towards this end, abortion should not be carried out merely because it is difficult to come to an agreement whether the fetus has a right to live. It is evident that the school persuasive arguments fronted by pro-life activists outweigh those put forward by pro-abortionists. Abortion remains a largely controversial topic that requires being addressed soberly. Despite the fact that some people may deny the fetus as possessing the right to live, it is, at least, imperative for them to last of elia consider the sorting fetus as being a potential human being who may develop into adulthood if no deprived of life. A biological fact is that the act of last of elia, abortion eliminates potential life and has been referred to by some people as murder.
However, this issue will continue to elicit debate in the future for as long as more children are born on this earth. Approx. 275 words / page. Font: 12 point Arial/Times New Roman Double line spacing. ANY citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard) Fully referenced work. We write on essay, ANY TOPICS. Free revisions according to our revision Policy. Free title page.
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