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Related Essays on Beka Lamb And Chrysalids. 6178 words - 25 pages. Question 1: Can you give an list, accurate definition of the phrase, ?Lamb of God?? Question 2: Why would the Catholic Church offer the Holy Eucharist at every Mass throughout the world in over 3000 languages? The Catechism of the Catholic Church states, ?The Eucharist is ?the source and summit of the Christian life.?? (CC 1324) Source: New American Bible ? Imprimatur www.usccb.org/nab/bible/ God Speaks to Moses Exodus 3:13-14 13 But, said Moses to best given essay, God, when I go to the Israelites and for persuasive, say to them, 'The God of papers blockbuster, your fathers has sent me to you,' if they ask me, 'What is his name?' what am I to t. 106853 words - 428 pages. unsA Thousand Splendid Suns Khaled Hosseini Rivekhead Books a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. Essays? New York 2007 From the Library of Nicolas Naprstek RIVERHEAD BOOKS Published by papers entertainment corporation, the Penguin Group Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, USA ? Penguin Group (Canada), 90 Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 700, Toronto, Ontario M4P 2Y3, Canada (a division of of hooks essays, Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.) ? Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England ? Penguin Ireland, 25 St Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) ? Penguin Group (Australia), 250 Cam. 1386 words - 6 pages.
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100570 words - 403 pages. Of Hooks? Applied Psychometry ii Applied Psychometry Applied Psychometry Narender Kumar Chadha Copyright © Narender Kumar Chadha, 2009 All rights reserved. No part of apa thesis proposal, this book may be reproduced or utilised in list essays, any form or by research on the of domestic violence on children, any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in list of hooks for persuasive, writing from the publisher. First published in 2009 by SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B1/I-1, Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road, New Delhi 110044, India www.sagepub.in SAGE Publications Inc 2455 Teller Road T. 81329 words - 326 pages. How To Unleash The Creative Power Within You CD #1 How To Unleash The Creative Power Within You JAY: This is Jay Abraham, and I?d like to research corporation, ask you a very provocative series of questions. Would you like to have your life be happier, healthier, more stress-free? Would you like your job or business or career to be much, much more enriching? Would you like your relationships with your loved one, spouse, significant other, your children, to be much more dimensional, much more fulfilling, much more enjoyable? Would you like to see your children accomplish more, have so much mor.
117622 words - 471 pages. List Of Hooks? For Senior Courses of the Foreign Language Faculties in blockbuster entertainment, Universities and list of hooks essays, Teachers' Training Colleges FOREWORD The book is designed for the students of the middle school writing essays, senior courses of the University faculties of foreign languages and Teachers' Training Colleges. The aim of the book is therefore to lead the list of hooks essays, students to research, a scientific understanding of new assumptions and views of language as system, keeping abreast of the latest findings set forth in the progressive development of grammatical theory by Soviet and foreign scholars in recent times. List Of Hooks For Persuasive Essays? The central interest in middle school writing, functional semantic correlation. 66494 words - 266 pages. Home Page Title Page LORD OF THE FLIES Contents Page 1 of list for persuasive, 290 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Home Page Title Page LORD OF THE FLIES Contents a novel by WILIAM GOLDING Page 2 of school writing, 290 Go Back G LOBAL V ILLAGE C ONTEMPORARY C LASSICS Full Screen Close Quit This e-book was set with the help of KOMAScript and LaTeX Home Page Title Page Contents Page 3 of list essays, 290 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Home Page Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The Sound of the effects on children, Shell Fire on the Mountain Huts on the Beach Painted Faces and for persuasive, Long Hair Beast. 703 words - 3 pages. You might not realize it, but chances are pretty good that a melody is running through your mind right now. It may be something that you heard yesterday on the radio, it might be music that you downloaded from the Internet, it might be a catchy jingle from a television ad, or it might even be something that you composed yourself. As soon as you start humming, singing, or whistling, you are performing a melody. Melodies do more than just pass through our minds, though -- they affect our entire bodies, causing us to tap our toes or move and dance without consciously thinking about it.
Marxist Criticism Of The Kite Runner. 354 words - 2 pages. Experience? Marxist Criticism of The Kite Runner Much of The Kite Runner can be explained through Marxist criticism. One of the best examples of this is the end of the passage depicting Hassan?s rape on pages 76 to list for persuasive essays, 77. The power struggle in this passage is prevalent on so many levels, the co op, most obvious being Assef?s domination of list of hooks, Hassan.
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Seminar: What Causes Gender Inequality? - A Working Syllabus - SOC-UA 937 – Spring 2017. Robert Max Jackson. In this course we will investigate what causes inequality between women and men . How does it arise, why does it take different forms, why does it vary in degree across societies, what are the list of hooks components that add up to gender inequality, how do various institutions and school writing essays practices contribute to it, and how does it change? The course will emphasize the history of of hooks for persuasive, gender inequality in the United States.
While we focus on gender inequality, we will also seek to understand social causation more generally. Co Op Experience? We will explore the diverse ways social causation works and how we can identify the causes behind important social phenomena. click on of hooks, a topic to go to apa thesis, that section. click on a topic to of hooks for persuasive essays, go to that section. Description – Scope, Organization, and Access: The Scope of the Topics and essay Materials. We know a lot about gender inequality – its history, how people experience it in their lives, the ways it varies in intensity and form across time and place, the beliefs that make it seem natural, and much more. The outpouring of research and of hooks for persuasive commentary on gender inequality over the past half century has been extraordinary.
Unfortunately, despite all this, our understanding of school writing, what causes gender inequality remains troubled. Both ordinary people and essays experts (such as scholars) commonly fluctuate between simplistic explanations that founder under close scrutiny and throwing up their hands in frustration over what can seem an enigma beyond human comprehension. Here we will seek to surmount this dilemma. We will explore diverse facets of gender inequality and varied ideas about co op essay, what causes might be decisive. We will also look carefully at list of hooks for persuasive essays the ways we can identify and verify the advice given causes of social phenomena. Through these efforts we will aim both to enhance our understanding of of hooks for persuasive essays, what produces gender inequality and to improve our general ability to do causal social analyses effectively. The class organization and goals. In this class, each week's work will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of research on the effects violence on children, readings. Rather than focusing on for persuasive essays, discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting a causal analysis of best advice given, some aspect of gender inequality related to of hooks, the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of a couple pages). Papers Blockbuster? The approach in essays this class seeks to williams decline, develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the relevant literature by stressing doing actual analyses of list of hooks essays, gender inequality. Papers Blockbuster Entertainment? (Note: this class does not have an exam nor a final paper.)
All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week. We will adjust the for persuasive essays time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Dr Eric Williams? Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and of hooks papers. To make this work, each week's papers will be exchanged (electronically) with enough lead time that we can all read all the papers prior to the class meetings. Each topic below includes – beside the common readings – three other subsections. These are: an analytical task , recommended readings , and related readings . The analytical task is the writing assignment for the week. Everyone should read the common readings while doing the analytical task (and be prepared to discuss them). In each of these papers – always brief papers – students will try out causal ideas related to the week's topic.
Recommended and related readings are optional materials useful for those who want to dig deeper into a topic. Blockbuster Entertainment? To simplify navigating through the syllabus, these subsections are hidden until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then they will appear. Most of our readings will be articles available for downloading. The links will appear in the online version of the course syllabus. Excerpts from Down So Long . . .: The Puzzling Persistence of essays, Gender Inequality (book manuscript by RMJ not yet published) will similarly be available for downloading from the dr eric decline class web site. (As we will read selections from Jackson's book Destined for Equality [Harvard U Press] throughout the list of hooks course, you might want to buy it or borrow it.) Any student unfamiliar with the study of gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in school the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find). For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable.
The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to think about gender inequality in relationship to them. A note on the hidden material below : Each section of this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for an analytical task , one for list of hooks essays recommended readings , and one for related readings . To simplify navigating through the papers blockbuster corporation course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The contents of all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on a subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is list of hooks for persuasive essays, helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material (that is, if you search a page you are viewing in an internet browser, the dr eric decline thesis search will only of hooks examine what is shown on the page at middle school essays that time). To overcome this limitation, you can open all the hidden sections to show everything on list of hooks for persuasive essays, the page by research papers violence on children clicking the § symbol at of hooks essays the top of the page. (To restore the page to the normal condensed view, simply reload the page which will collapse all the dr eric decline thesis hidden sections to their usual look).
The table of for persuasive essays, contents at the top of this page will aid speedy navigation to research papers of domestic, any topic, which is particularly helpful if you reveal all the hidden material. I. Of Hooks Essays? Introduction. What do we mean by gender inequality? To analyze the advice essay causes of gender inequality, we need to know what we mean by gender inequality. How can we conceive of and talk about gender inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and wide spread. Women and men are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.
So, what counts as gender inequality? Can we characterize it in list of hooks for persuasive essays ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is experience, more or less of it? No task for the introductory meeting. Janet Saltzman Chafetz Feminist Theory and Sociology: Underutilized Contributions for Mainstream Theory Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 23, (1997), pp. List Essays? 97-120; or Janet Saltzman Chafetz The Varieties of Gender Theory in blockbuster entertainment corporation Sociology Handbook of the list for persuasive Sociology of Gender , 1999, p3-23, 21 Rachel A. Rosenfeld. What Do We Learn about Difference from the Scholarship on Gender? Social Forces , Vol.
81, No. 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. 1-24 Destined for Equality : Egalitarian Impulse. II. Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time. Apa Thesis? We all conduct our lives – choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others – based on theories about of hooks, why and how things happen in the world. From the papers blockbuster corporation early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social (and physical) world that makes it understandable.
Every action, every choice about what to do, is based on for persuasive, our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences. Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously. The general analytical problem . In this and experience other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently . Our analytical task this week is to attempt a simple causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. To the list of hooks degree that we can, we want to try to apa thesis, think of different kinds of causes based on varied ways of list, framing the causal question. Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the papers violence on children possible ways of interpreting this causal question and answering it. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in a couple pages. List For Persuasive? Thinking Tools . The starting point of papers entertainment, most causal analyses is a comparison. Of Hooks Essays? When we start with the general question what causes X? we turn it into possible comparisons to produce an answer. Examples of such questions might be why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?, why does X occur more often in summer than winter?, or why does the rate at which people do X go up and down with the business cycle?
The underlying idea is simple but powerful. If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to given essay, identify variations in the likelihood of X or the rate of X, and look for potential causes that (1) vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and (2) that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way. For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for list for persuasive dressing differently? Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of dr eric williams decline thesis, social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in a similar way. Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to of hooks, the expectations about male and school writing female appropriate clothing. Of Hooks? And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Here the basic comparison is corporation, between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of list of hooks for persuasive, people to conformity and nonconformity. Research Papers Blockbuster Entertainment? What causes differences in dress codes across cultures?
What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of dress? The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies (and time). Clothing differs between primitive cultures and modern ones, between warm and cold climates, and of hooks for persuasive essays between different parts of the world. But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern? Here the primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing.
Why do the expectations about clothing differences vary by context ? Why are gender differences in dress greater in some circumstances than in others? For example, both women and men may wear similar coveralls in middle a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to formal dances. List Of Hooks For Persuasive Essays? Our efforts to find causes behind any phenomena are improved by looking at variations. If male and apa thesis proposal female clothing is just a little different in some contexts but greatly different in of hooks for persuasive essays others, we can usefully focus on what might produce this variance in school writing essays gender differences. Here the primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in the expected clothing and contexts with lesser differences. Thinking Tools 2 . While considering how to explain the differences in the ways women and men dress, it can also be helpful to think through ways that this pattern could be considered an example of a larger pattern. The explanation for the broader pattern may be different or easier to for persuasive, develop. For example: The gender differences in apparel (and appearance adjustment more generally) could be considered as one example of apparel differences that find groups defined by age, ethnicity, or region dressing differently. That is to say, it is not only women and proposal men who consistently dress differently. Different ways of dressing also distinguish other groups.
If we think about those other groups, does it give us insights into explaining the difference between women's and men's clothing? The gender differences in dress could be considered as one example of a wider range of behavioral differences between women and men such as rules of proper decorum, speech patterns, or displays of for persuasive essays, sexuality. That is, we can point to other presentational differences between women and men. If we think about the range of research papers effects of domestic violence, these presentational differences, do they suggest ideas that might help explain differences in list of hooks for persuasive essays apparel? Wikipedia. Causality Richard Hamming, You and apa thesis Your Research, Bell Communications Research Colloquium Seminar (7 March 1986) Andrew Abbott. The Causal Devolution. Essays? Sociological Methods Research November 1998 27: 148-181. Ernest Nagel. 1960.
Determinism in History. Philosophy and co op experience essay Phenomenological Research 20:3:291-317. Lieberson, Stanley; Modeling Social Processes: Some Lessons from Sports Sociological Forum , 12. Of Hooks? March 1997:11-35. III. How is best advice given essay, gender inequality symbolized and reproduced in everyday life? To start our investigation of the of hooks essays causes of gender inequality, we will consider how people experience and act out dr eric williams decline thesis, gender in their day to day lives. We want to think about the most basic questions. Why and when do women and men act differently? Why and list for persuasive essays when do people respond differently to women than men?
How do all these private individual actions when taken together over time influence the understanding of gender in a culture and gender inequality? The general analytical problem . Using a typical setting where women and men meet, assess how Ridgeway's framing approach helps explain the role of gender in these interactions and papers on the where it might fall short. For this task, we choose some familiar (to us) setting or type of interaction where women and list of hooks essays men typically engage each other. For example, this could be a workplace, a bar, interactions between buyers and sellers, or parties. We use this as our source of empirical data and focus our argument on apa thesis proposal, explaining gender interactions there.
First, we need to read Ridgeway's argument carefully. Then we try to apply her argument to list, the setting we have chosen. We want to assess how much we believe people's actions (in the context we chose) fit the expectations we can derive from her argument and when they might not. As we work on our analyses, we are evaluating Ridgeway's approach as a tool. The right tool allows us to construct a better edifice with less effort; the research blockbuster corporation wrong tool does not. Of Hooks For Persuasive Essays? Thinking tools . The remaining notes for this analytical task look at some analytical steps that allow us to think through this problem effectively. Papers Blockbuster Entertainment Corporation? Systematic steps in the analysis . List Of Hooks? Doing this kind of thought experiment, we want our thinking to be as systematic as possible. Given? For all systematic causal analyses, we want to consider how the phenomenon being examined varies in regular or predictable ways across conditions, settings, types of people, places, or the like. List Of Hooks For Persuasive Essays? Then, we ask what conditions or events typically precede or occur along with the outcomes that could plausibly influence those outcomes. Research Of Domestic? For example, first, we simply consider possible differences between men's and women's actions. Then we consider how their actions might differ between opposite-sex and same-sex encounters.
We can broaden the range of the examples we use to think about list of hooks for persuasive, these differences by considering other characteristics that might affect interactions, such as the experience age or race of the list of hooks people, whether the interaction is research entertainment, cordial or unfriendly, how well the list for persuasive people know each other, and so on. We want to ask ourselves if the gender aspect of the interaction will be influenced by effects violence these other circumstances that seem relevant to interactions. List Of Hooks Essays? For example, does gender influence cordial interactions differently from the ways it influences confrontations in our setting? If we believe the answer is yes, then we consider how and why. Analogously, we want to dr eric williams, think about the ways that people's goals in gendered interactions vary in list essays these kinds of circumstances, and research on the effects on children how these goals influence their actions.
For example, in the same setting, a person seeking sex will commonly act differently than someone trying to of hooks, curry favor or sell a product. When we apply a systematic logic to the analysis, we usually do not want to write about all the possibilities we think about. Instead, we use the ones that we find telling. But we will not identify those telling possibilities unless we systematically work through all the relevant possible influences. Gender context . Research Papers On Children? We can take the analysis of interactions another step by considering how the influence of gender on these interactions is potentially affected by list of hooks essays conditions like: the presence or absence of onlookers (i.e., the entertainment corporation relative privacy of the interaction) or the gender distribution of other people present (i.e., mostly male, mostly female, or mixed) Conformity . Whenever we try to explain patterns like this, we want to consider the exceptions.
When will people violate the implications of gender expectations and what follows when they do? Are there circumstances that make it more likely people will depart from conventional behavior? Violations of norms or common expectations are valuable for causal analyses because cracks in the veneer of social order can reveal its structure and dynamics. Bring it together . After working through the steps above, we try to assess when Ridgeway's approach does a good job explaining how gender influences behavior in our chosen setting, and when her approach seems to fall short. Do we see ways that her approach neglects or misunderstands important causes influencing the gender character of behavior in the context we examine? Our central goal here is to explain how and why gender organizes interactions in our chosen example. We are not attempting a general evaluation of Ridgeway's ideas, but a focused assessment of their effectiveness in the setting we have selected to try them out. Erving Goffman, The Arrangement between the Sexes Theory and Society, Vol.
4, No. 3 (Autumn, 1977), pp. 301-331 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and list for persuasive essays Society , Vol. 2, No. 3 (Sep 1988), pp. 274-290 Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations. Gender Society 2009 23:145-160 Candace West and proposal Don H. Zimmerman Doing Gender Gender Society 1987 1: 125-151. Cecilia Ridgeway. Framed by Gender . Oxford: 2011. . IV. Why have women apparently occupied a subordinate position in list for persuasive all societies?
And how does explaining the origins of co op experience essay, gender inequality relate to explaining the persistence of gender inequality? Although some scholars may question if women have been subordinate in all societies, all agree that men have been dominant in most societies although the degree of dominance varies greatly. This raises the for persuasive essays very tricky question, how do we explain the prevalence of male dominance? This exceedingly elusive question continues to elude any answer that will evoke a consensus. Analytical Task Alternative 1: An analytical critique . As most of us lack the apa thesis substantive knowledge needed to develop even simple analyses of gender inequality's possible origins, we will explore the causal possibilities by responding to the arguments of people who are knowledgeable. Please read the Basics of Causal Descriptions on list essays, a separate page for some simple, beginning ideas about describing a causal analysis. Isolate what you believe are the most important causal arguments in the common readings . Give a critical assessment of their different approaches . In doing this, try to pay attention to what it is that makes you find the papers blockbuster corporation causal arguments more or less persuasive. The recommended and related readings provide a range of material that you can look at as you need to of hooks, deepen and proposal sharpen your arguments.
It can be helpful to look back at list of hooks for persuasive essays the material from best advice essay, Topic II, especially Gerring's list of criteria for causal arguments. Analytical Task Alternative 2: A hypothetical scenario . When we cannot hope to research a social phenomenon with empirical observations, we can sometimes gain some traction by trying to think through hypothetical possibilities. Here is an essays example. Assume that sometime in the near future we launch a rocket into space with a crew of 1,000. This crew is evenly divided between women and men, the papers effects of domestic women and men have similar credentials and accomplishments, and the two sexes are about equally represented at each level of authority. The crew members' cultural understandings are similar to of hooks essays, those of college students today. This ship reaches a far away planet much like earth but lacking intelligent life. Unfortunately, the middle essays ship's engines have become unstable and the crew must abandon it. So they must start life on this new planet. While they possess much advanced knowledge, they have no technology. They must start from scratch, producing food, organizing themselves into a community, pairing off to reproduce, slowly building toward some kind of technological development over generations. [Note: If the distant planet scenario seems unnerving, we could have the same effect by dropping a 1,000 people on a remote island that is list for persuasive essays, isolated as a social experiment.] Under these conditions, what are the alternative possibilities for papers on the effects of domestic on children women's status?
What might decide which alternative occurs? Sapolsky, Robert. Testosterone rules Discover . Chicago: Mar 1997. Vol. 18, Iss. 3; p. 44 Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. Evolutionary Psychology and similar approaches : The debates over evolutionary psychology - in general and as applied to gender inequality - are very important but often difficult to list for persuasive, follow and assess.
Here are some starting points for learning the basics. Papers Blockbuster? Buller's supplies a sophisticated overview and critique of the most influential paradigm in evolutionary psychology (while supportive of the more general venture), Downes and Walter present guided views of the field, and other pieces provide further commentaries and some studies that explore key issues facing this approach. For Persuasive? Downes, Stephen M., Evolutionary Psychology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2014 Edition) Sven Walter, Evolutionary Psychology, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2009 Bolger, Diane. Introduction. In A Companion to Gender Prehistory , edited by decline Diane Bolger, 1-19. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 2012. [doi:10.1002/9781118294291.ch0] Buller, David J. Evolutionary Psychology: A Critique. In Conceptual Issues in for persuasive essays Evolutionary Biology , edited by effects of domestic on children Elliott Sober. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, 2006. [also, compare David Buller.
A Guided Tour of list for persuasive essays, Evolutionary Psychology (In A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind . Eds. Apa Thesis? Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa. An official electronic publication of the Department of list of hooks for persuasive, Philosophy of University of Rome 2000.) Also by Buller see: Evolutionary Psychology: The Emperor's New Paradigm, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (2005): 277-283 and for middle essays a full treatment his book Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books, 2005.] Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Beyond Difference: A Biologist's Perspective. Journal of for persuasive, Social Issues 53, no. 2 (2010): 233-58. Dr Eric Decline? [doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02442.x] Goodman, Madeleine J., P. Bion Griffin, Agnes A. List For Persuasive? Estioko-Griffin, and dr eric williams John S. Essays? Grove. The Compatibility of experience, Hunting and Mothering among the Agta Hunter-Gatherers of the of hooks for persuasive Philippines. Sex Roles 12, no. 11-12 (1985): 1199-209. [doi:10.1007/bf00287829] Rigby, Nichole, and Rob J. Kulathinal. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Dimorphism in Humans. Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, no.
10 (Oct 2015): 2304-10. [doi:10.1002/jcp.24979] Stulp, Gert, and Louise Barrett. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Height Variation. Biological Reviews 91, no. 1 (Feb 2016): 206-34. [doi:10.1111/brv.12165] Joseph Henrich. A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution Psychological Science Agenda . Science Brief. 2009 Rosemary L. Hopcroft. Gender Inequality in Interaction – An Evolutionary Account. Social Forces 87.4 (2009): 1845-1871. Randall Collins.
A Conflict Theory of Sexual Stratification. Social Problems , Vol. 19, No. 1 (Summer, 1971), pp. 3-21 Rae Blumberg. A General Theory of Gender Stratification. Best Given? Sociological Theory 2 (1984): 23-101. Rae Blumberg.
Extending Lenski's Schema to Hold Up Both Halves of the essays Sky.aˆ?A Theory-Guided Way of Conceptualizing Agrarian Societies that Illuminates a Puzzle about Gender Stratification Sociological Theory 22:2 (June 2004):278-291 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38 (2009): 83-97 Laurie Wermuth and Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges. Gender Stratification: A Structural Model for Examining Case Examples of Women in Less-Developed Countries. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 23.1 (2002) 1-22 Randall Collins, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Rae Lesser Blumberg, Scott Coltrane, Jonathan H. Turner Toward an Integrated Theory of Gender Stratification Sociological Perspectives , Vol. 36, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 185-216 Janet Saltzman Chafetz Gendered Power and Privilege: Taking Lenski One Step Further Sociological Theory, Vol.
22, No. 2, Religion, Stratification, and Evolution in Human Societies: Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. Lenski (Jun., 2004), pp. 269-277 Joan N. Huber. Comparative Gender Stratification. Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p65-80 Maurice Godelier, The Origins of Male Domination New Left Review , May-June 1981, pp. 3-17 William Tulio Divale, Marvin Harris.
Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex. American Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 521-538 [See also: William Divale, Marvin Harris, Donald T. Williams. On the Misuse of Statistics: A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. Papers Violence? American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol.
80, No. List For Persuasive? 2 (Jun., 1978), pp. 379-386; William Divale, Marvin Harris. The Male Supremacist Complex: Discovery of a Cultural Invention American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No.
3 (Sep., 1978), pp. 668-671 C C Mukhopadhyay, and dr eric P J Higgins. Anthropological Studies of Women's Status Revisited: 1977-1987. Annual Review of list for persuasive essays, Anthropology Vol. 17 (1988): 461-495 Naomi Quinn. Anthropological Studies on research blockbuster entertainment corporation, Women's Status. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 6 (1977): 181-225 Chris Hann.
Reproduction and list essays Inheritance: Goody Revisited. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. Entertainment? 37 (2008): 145-158. V. What determines men's and list for persuasive essays women's roles and positions within families? Family and kinship are potentially relevant to gender inequality in varied ways and a lot of work had pursued such issues. Best? Probably the two most important general issues involve the list of hooks for persuasive essays ways that women and men are unequal within families and the ways that family organization both contributes to and is influenced by gender inequality beyond the family institution.
We will just touch the surface of these issues this week. The general analytical problem . We want to provide an integrated analytical overview of the principal causal arguments about research on the violence, gender inequality and list of hooks family organization that appear in the common readings. Research Corporation? Each of the readings has various causal arguments about family organization, some directly about gender inequality, some relevant to gender inequality but not directly exploring it. Some of the causal questions may receive different causal analyses by these authors. Sometimes two or more authors may use a similar causal approach to explain different causal problems. Our goal is to sort this out. Our overviews should be organized around the of hooks essays causal arguments, not a series of summaries of what each author wrote (see Thinking Tools). Thinking tools . We want to use one of the following two possible ways to organize the causal assessment (unless one of apa thesis, us has a better way). The first organizes around what is to essays, be explained, the second around the causes. First approach . We start by identifying the principal causal problems addressed by the group of papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest needs to be explained.
Then, we organize these causal problems in a sensible order (including consideration of some problems potentially being secondary or sub-problems of others). Under each causal problem, we summarize and assess all the co op essay relevant explanations found in the readings. Second approach . We start by of hooks identifying the principal causal frameworks used in the papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest are the conditions or processes that have the most important influence over research blockbuster entertainment corporation the outcomes. Then, we organize these causal frameworks in a sensible order, taking into account which are entirely different and list which might be variations of a similar theme, and which are competing versus complementary. For each of these, after summarizing the causal logic of the framework, we show how it has been used by these authors, describing the range of outcomes the framework is papers blockbuster corporation, supposed to determine and of hooks essays how it has such effects. Note that regardless which way we organize our analysis of competing causal arguments, it can be valuable to think about not only what is considered by the authors being examine, but also which theoretical questions and which causal frameworks seem relevant but absent. Please reread the Basics of Causal Descriptions on the starting point for describing a causal analysis. Bringing it together . Experience? In short, our aim is to produce a critical overview of the list for persuasive essays principal causal arguments concerning the family and co op gender inequality, starting with the ideas present in the common readings for this week. To do this effectively, we need to identify all the relevant causal arguments, deduce the logical structure of each causal argument and determine how to present that clearly (even if the original source is inconsistent or ambiguous), detect how the of hooks causal arguments (from different sources) relate to each other and present them in apa thesis proposal a way that makes those relations clear, and, where possible, summarize the list for persuasive essays important analytical strengths and dr eric thesis weaknesses of each argument (or facet to of hooks for persuasive, an argument). (We should start with the understanding that this kind of analytical overview is rather easy to do poorly and very demanding to do well and thoroughly.
At this stage we are not aspiring to a professional job but hoping to achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis.) Destined for Equality : Institutional Individualism: Individualistic Family 157-169 Coltrane, Scott. 1989. Household Labor and the Routine Production of apa thesis, Gender. Social Problems 3 Stephanie Coontz. List? The Historical Transformation of Marriage, Journal of Marriage and blockbuster entertainment corporation Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 974-979) November 2004.
Beth Anne Shelton, Daphne John. The Division of Household Labor. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 22, (1996), pp. 299-322 Andrew J. List? Cherlin, The Deinstitutionalization of middle writing, American Marriage Journal of Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 848-861) November 2004. Kathleen Gerson. List Of Hooks? Moral Dilemmas, Moral Strategies, and decline thesis the Transformation of Gender: Lessons from of hooks for persuasive, Two Generations of Work and Family Change Gender Society . Vol. 16 No. 1, February 2002 8-28 Sara B. Raley, Marybeth J. Mattingly, Suzanne M. Bianchi.
How Dual Are Dual-Income Couples? Documenting Change From 1970 to 2001. Journal of Marriage and Family 68:1 (2006), 11-28 Davis, S. N., T. Greenstein and J. G. Marks, Effects of Union Type and co op experience essay Division of Household Labor, Journal of Family Issues 28 (2007):1247-72. [doi: 10.1177/0192513X07300968] Scott Coltrane. Father-Child Relationships and the Status of Women: A Cross-Cultural Study. List Of Hooks For Persuasive? American Journal of Sociology, 93 (1988): 1060-1095. Joann Vanek. Time Spent in Housework. Scientific American 231 (Nov 1974):116-120.
Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. The Sociology of Women's Economic Role in the Family. American Sociological Review , Vol. 42, No. Middle School Writing Essays? 3 (Jun., 1977), pp. Of Hooks? 387-406 Kathleen Gerson. Research Papers Effects Of Domestic Violence On Children? (2004) 'Understanding work and family through a gender lens', Community, Work Family , 7: 2, 163 - 178 Rodrigo R. Soares, Bruno L. S. FalcA?A?o. For Persuasive Essays? The Demographic Transition and papers blockbuster corporation the Sexual Division of list, Labor. The Journal of middle writing, Political Economy , Vol. List? 116, No. 6 (Dec., 2008), pp.
1058-1104 Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality , 9:1, 33-69 Veronica Tichenor. Maintaining Men's Dominance: Negotiating Identity and Power When She Earns More. Dr Eric Williams Decline? Sex Roles 53:3-4, (2005): 191-205 Becker, G. S., Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor, Journal of Labor Economics 3(1) (1985):33-58. [ VI. What is the role of sex differences in the functioning and perpetuation of gender inequality? Attempts to list, explain gender inequality at all levels are haunted by middle essays essentialism . Essentialist arguments impute distinctive attributes to women and men and attribute the social differences between women's and men's activities, opportunities, statuses, and list of hooks for persuasive essays roles to these distinct attributes.
Even theoretical analyses of gender inequality that expressly reject the blockbuster entertainment possibility of consequential, inherent sex differences, commonly build their explanations of inequality on gender differences. To complicate matters, essentialist arguments proclaiming superior attributes for women exist alongside of the arguments proclaiming women inferior. Moreover, while for some, essentialism always means a difference based in biology or genetics, for list essays others it includes cultural differences that are embodied in women and men. The general analytical problem . To investigate how essentialist arguments work, we will examine how different kinds of essentialist arguments might be applied to explain some aspect of essay, gender inequality, in contrast to list of hooks for persuasive, a non-essentialist argument. Apa Thesis? We aim to see both the attraction of essentialist arguments and the possibilities for alternatives. Select one form or facet of gender inequality that you will try to explain for list for persuasive essays this task.
This instance or aspect of gender inequality should be sufficiently important, widespread, and papers blockbuster corporation enduring or recurring to merit thoughtful theory and explanation. Of Hooks For Persuasive? It should also be narrow or specific enough that the goal of middle school, explaining it is plausible. For example, the facet might be that wives commonly defer to husbands. For the selected type or aspect of gender inequality, you will suggest five alternative explanations, each one representing a different approach to of hooks for persuasive essays, explaining such social phenomena. The explanations should be succinct but clear. They should also be plausible to the extent that a reasonable person might make such an argument. Plausible does not mean true, of course. Rather, we are trying to imagine an argument that would seem plausible to people who are advocates for each of the perspectives. The five types of explanation . Attempt to devise the best explanations you can for the relevant facet of inequality from each of the following perspectives.
Explanations may be categorized in many ways. Research Effects On Children? The five perspectives defined here are meant to engage different responses to the problem of of hooks for persuasive essays, essentialism. Direct biological - Devise an explanation claiming that some biological difference between the sexes produces the relevant aspect of inequality by making women and men act differently. For example, an argument might be that men are stronger than women so men dominate women as a simple result of superior strength. (More complex biological explanations might be derived from evolutionary psychology.) This type of williams, explanation is usually purely essentialist. Note that this type of explanation can be divided further into those relying on for persuasive, real biological differences and those imputing fictional biological differences.
Let us stress biological differences that are at least potentially real here, leaving the fictitious ones for below. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the apa thesis proposal biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the list of hooks for persuasive essays emergence or persistence of the selected aspect of school, gender inequality. For example, someone might argue that women's child bearing makes them anxious about the welfare of list of hooks essays, their children, and best that anxiety makes them feel weak and in list for persuasive want of a protector, leading them to defer to husbands. Or, others might suggest that women's biologically induced child rearing orientation encourages both women and men to make men responsible for warfare, and that men's resulting skill at combat, their possession of weapons, and men's organization around mutual defense leaves wives typically in research on the effects of domestic violence on children their husbands' control. The key for this type of explanation is that the relevant biological differences do not directly cause the of hooks for persuasive gender inequality being explained, but have effects on apa thesis proposal, social behavior and social organization that lead to of hooks, gender inequality. Given Essay? These types of explanations have essentialist origins in a biological difference, but the explanation as a whole may invoke mediating causal influences that reduce the list of hooks essentialist quality, sometimes greatly. Non-biological sex difference - Suggest how some socially constructed difference between women and men – one that is neither biological nor a direct result of biological differences – initiates or preserves the co op experience essay aspect of gender inequality being explained. This will usually be an enduring individual characteristic (a difference that people carry with them, not a difference in their circumstances). For example, one might claim that women are fearful and dependent because of socialization processes (that have no biological basis), and this psychological condition induces wives to defer to of hooks for persuasive essays, their husbands. Or, one might argue that childhood sports available only to apa thesis proposal, boys result in a higher competitive drive that accounts for adult men's greater success in business.
This type of explanation claims a real difference exists between women and men (in the essays society or social context where the inequality being explained occurs; the relevant sex difference need not exist in all or any other society or social context), but this difference is a social construction. This type of explanation often becomes redundantly circular: each aspect of inequality exists as a result of inequality, and that overall inequality is constituted by the various aspects. Best Given? Fictitious sex difference - An imputed sex difference that does not really exist is for persuasive, claimed to play a significant role in research effects of domestic on children producing the selected facet of gender inequality. For example, someone might suggest that although women have no better capacity for child rearing, people commonly assume they do because women bear children, and that this false expectation produces a division of labor and power favoring men. This type of explanation focuses on the consequences of beliefs, relying on the observation that beliefs can organize behavior even if they are false beliefs. While such fictitious differences are commonly assumed to be biological, they need not be. Causes independent of sex differentiation - A causal process that does not involve any difference between the sexes is argued to produce the inequality being considered.
For example, some might argue that for families to fulfill their social functions effectively, they need one spouse/parent to perform the critical emotional actions needed and the other spouse/parent to of hooks for persuasive, perform the school writing practical and leadership actions (this is essentially a well-know idea of Talcott Parsons). This role differentiation can then result in spouse inequality, as an indirect and unintended consequence. This category includes highly diverse explanations, the of hooks for persuasive essays one critical similarity among them being that they do not rely on a sex difference in their central causal argument. It may be worth noting that one reason explanations based on sex differences (including all the preceding perspectives) are more common is that formulating a plausible analysis that forgoes the mechanism of sex differences is often a hard task. (Note, in this task we are aiming to produce explanations that those advocating each of the above types of explanation would think are reasonable. It is often hardest to conceive good explanations from the co op experience points of view we find unconvincing or unappealing, but the capacity to do this is a valuable skill.) Bringing it together . The point of this exercise is to for persuasive essays, examine how it is possible to devise a range of research papers on the effects violence on children, alternative causal explanations of gender inequality stressing some mechanism of sex differences, while developing alternative theories that do not rely on list for persuasive, sex differences is rather hard. The difference arguments run the thesis full range from being directly and fully biological to list of hooks for persuasive essays, relying on non-biological or fictitious differences in indirect ways.
The arguments that exclude not only biology but all dependence on sex differences commonly derive from dr eric, another theoretical approach, such as functionalism or conflict theories. The challenge with these approaches is not only to make the immediate causal process eschew differences, but to of hooks essays, avoid relying on sex differences one or two steps earlier in the causal chain. Uri Gneezy, Kenneth L. Leonard, And John A. List. Gender Differences in dr eric Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society. Econometrica, Vol.
77, No. For Persuasive? 5 (September, 2009), 1637-1664 Review : Section II Common Readings above and the DeLamater and Hyde piece from Section VI. Douglas Schrock, Michael Schwalbe. Dr Eric Thesis? Men, Masculinity, and Manhood Acts. Annual Review of list essays, Sociology , Vol. 35: 277-295 (August 2009). [doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115933] Janis S. Bohan. Regarding gender: Essentialism, Constructionism, and Feminist Psychology.
Psychology of Women Quarterly , Mar 93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p5-22 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 83-97 (October 2009) Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). Research Blockbuster Entertainment Corporation? A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.699] Nancy Chodorow. List For Persuasive? Oedipal Asymmetries and Heterosexual Knots. Social Problems , Vol. 23, No.
4, Feminist Perspectives: The Sociological Challenge (Apr., 1976), pp. 454-468. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W. (1999). The Origins Of Sex Differences In Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408-423. Valian, V. (1999). The Cognitive Bases Of Gender Bias.
Brooklyn Law Review, 65, 1037-1061. Clopton, Nancy A.; Sorell, Gwendolyn T. Gender differences in moral reasoning. . Psychology of writing essays, Women Quarterly, Mar93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p85 [doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00678.x] Pamela L. Geller. Identity and Difference: Complicating Gender in Archaeology. Annual Review of list of hooks for persuasive essays, Anthropology , Vol. 38: 65-81 (October 2009) [doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414] Barbara J. Risman, Intimate Relationships from a Microstructural Perspective: Mothering Men. Gender and Society 1:1 (March 1987).
Nancy Chodorow. Mothering, Object-Relations, and the Female Oedipal Configuration. Feminist Studies , Vol. 4, No. 1 (Feb., 1978), pp. 137-158 [jstor: 3177630] Timothy J. Biblarz Judith Stacey. How Does the Gender of Parents Matter? Journal of Marriage and Family 72:1 (2010):3-22 [doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x] Adrienne Rich. 1980.
Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and apa thesis Society 5 (4): 631-660 Judith Butler. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. Of Hooks For Persuasive? Theatre Journal , Vol. 40, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. Co Op Experience Essay? 519-531. For Persuasive? Nussbaum, M. C. The Professor Of Parody [J. Butler]. Papers Blockbuster Entertainment Corporation? The New Republic v. 220 no. 8 (February 22 1999) p. 37-45.
Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn. Fashionable Subjects: On Judith Butler and the Causal Idioms of Postmodern Feminist Theory. Political Research Quarterly , Vol. 50, No. List Of Hooks Essays? 3 (Sep., 1997), pp.
649-674 Veronica Vasterling. Butler's Sophisticated Constructivism: A Critical Assessment. Experience Essay? Hypatia , Vol. 14, No. 3 (Summer, 1999), pp. For Persuasive? 17-38 Barbara F. Reskin.
Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality. American Sociological Review, Vol. Middle School? 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21. VII. What is the role of sexuality? Sexuality has been evoked in list of hooks for persuasive essays multiple ways in the study of gender inequality.
Some have considered it as a possible motivating cause for apa thesis inequality, others have explored how gender inequality can mold the list for persuasive experience and practice of sexuality, and others have tried to theoretically incorporate sexuality as a peculiar tension between women and men that mediates both the causes and effects of gender inequality. Essentially, everyone recognizes sexuality is critically important to gender inequality, but we lack agreement or clarity on how it matters. The general analytical problem . Writing? Focusing on heterosexual behavior, it appears that men seek to have sex with women much more than women seek to have it with men, relative both to how often they have sex and with how many partners . Our central task this week is to propose causal accounts that plausibly explain this. Give a brief account of possible explanations from the following perspectives. In each case, describe a plausible approach (accepting the assumptions of the list of hooks perspective), then assess its strengths and weaknesses.
Evolutionary Psychology - Trying to explain this phenomenon (well, part of it) has been a highlight of the work that evolutionary psychologists have done on gender differences. Provide an appropriate brief explanation of this sort, identify the fundamental assumptions it requires. Also, consider the evidence and what might be important shortcomings. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence and persistence of this sexuality difference. Also, consider under what social conditions this sexual difference should be larger or smaller, assuming that this explanation is co op, correct. A Fictional Difference - Try to explain how this purported difference in essays sexuality might not be real. This includes explaining why the fictional belief in this difference would arise and become prevalent. Secondary effect of violence on children, gender inequality - Consider how this difference can arise as a result of gender inequality. Examine what social conditions must be true for this causal sequence to of hooks essays, occur. A different approach - What plausible explanation can you provide that does not fit into the above categories?
Can you provide reasoning or evidence to show that one of the explanations is better than the others? Bringing it together . Research Papers Blockbuster Corporation? In short, our aim is to list of hooks, construct and assess alternative basic causal arguments seeking to understand a widely accepted difference in the sexuality of women and men. Advice Given? In each case, try to be clear about the of hooks logic of the causal argument. In each case, provide a logical description of the mechanisms that link the causes to the outcomes. Alternative Analytical Task [ignore]
The general analytical problem . Best Given Essay? Our central task this week is to propose a causal account that plausibly explains the relationship between one aspect of sexuality and essays gender inequality. Best Essay? Everyone who analyzes gender inequality considers sexuality important, but they have highly varied ideas about what matters and why. List? This disagreement suggests that the underlying problems are difficult. We cannot hope to apa thesis, solve them in list of hooks this brief effort. So, our aim is to propose a simple and reasonable account of some part of the relationship between inequality and proposal sexuality. We are not trying to develop a full, professional analysis. We also want to consider how our proposed accounts agree with, differ from, or challenge the existing scholarly arguments. Again, our goal here is limited. The aim is to give a reasonable first sense of how the proposed account fits (or does not fit). Thinking tools As suggested above, we can use any aspect of sexuality that seems interesting. However, it may help if the selected facet of sexuality: has a relationship to gender inequality that at least some writers think is important.
Which way it is important is wide open. The role of the of hooks chosen sexuality characteristic relative to gender inequality may be cause, effect, catalyst, or whatever else seems causally relevant. allows discussion of relevant ideas from at least three scholarly works. These may be part of the common readings, any of the dr eric thesis other readings recommended here, or another legitimate source. This doesn't mean that the texts must directly discuss the specific relationship we write about, but that they include ideas or arguments which we can apply or to which we can respond. A basic approach to the task presentation might have the following three parts: First, we lay out the causal, explanatory problem. What are the outcomes, patterns, processes, or relationships that we would like to explain by identifying reasonable causes? And why is this important enough to merit attention? (The latter part may seem self-evident, but we still want to describe why we think explaining the phenomenon is important.) Second, we provide the list for persuasive causal analysis. Advice Given? We want to of hooks for persuasive, be as complete as possible within reasonable space limits. And, we want to be clear, simple, and direct. Third, we try to show how our proposed causal analysis relates to the existing literature. Proposal? For our purposes, we can limit ourselves to of hooks for persuasive, considering a couple theories or perspectives that would support or compliment our approach and a couple that would be likely to question our proposed causal analysis. (In a professional effort, we would need to consider every important relevant argument.) These may come from the of domestic on children common readings or any other relevant scholarship.
When discussing those who might disagree, we want to be as specific as possible about what criticism we would expect from list of hooks, each of these opponents and how we might respond. Bringing it together . Papers Entertainment Corporation? In short, our aim is to construct a basic causal argument seeking to understand how some aspect of of hooks for persuasive, sexuality is best advice given, related to gender inequality, and to assess how that causal argument relates to list of hooks essays, the existing literature (as represented in apa thesis proposal our readings). Zaylia, Jessica Leigh(2009) 'Toward a Newer Theory of list, Sexuality: Terms, Titles, and the Bitter Taste of Bisexuality', Journal of Bisexuality , 9 (2): 109 - 123. Crawford, M., et. al., Sexual Double Standards: A Review and Methodological Critique of Two Decades of Research. The Journal of co op essay, Sex Research v. 40 no. 1 (February 2003) p. 13-26 Dennis D. Waskul, Phillip Vannini, Desiree Wiesen. Women and Their Clitoris: Personal Discovery, Signification, and Use. Symbolic Interaction May 2007, Vol. 30, No. 2: 151-174 Breanne Fahs.
Compulsory Bisexuality?: The Challenges of Modern Sexual Fluidity. Journal of Bisexuality , Volume 9, Issue 3 4 July 2009 , pages 431-449 John A. Miller, Joan Acker, Kate Barry, Miriam M. List Of Hooks? Johnson and Lois A. West. Comments on MacKinnon's 'Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State'. Papers On The On Children? Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 168-184; [jstor: 3174252; and Catharine A. MacKinnon, Reply to Miller, Acker and Barry, Johnson, West, and essays Gardiner. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 184-188 [jstor: 3174253] Steven Epstein.
An Incitement to experience essay, Discourse: Sociology and the History of list for persuasive, Sexuality . Sociological Forum , Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 485-502. Nicole Constable. The Commodification of Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and Reproductive Labor.
Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 49-64 (2009) Impett, E. A., Peplau, L. A. Best Advice? (2003). Sexual Compliance: Gender, Motivational, And Relationship Perspectives. Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 87-100 [doi: 10.1080/00224490309552169] Ronald Weitzer. Sociology of Sex Work. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 213-234 (2009) Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of for persuasive, Bisexuality, 9: 1, 33-69 Lisa Duggan From Instincts to Politics: Writing the co op experience essay History of Sexuality in the U.S. The Journal of Sex Research , Vol. 27, No. 1, Feminist Perspectives on Sexuality. Part 1 (Feb., 1990), pp.
95-109 Michael W. Wiederman. The Truth Must Be in Here Somewhere: Examining the Gender Discrepancy in Self-Reported Lifetime Number of Sex Partners. The Journal of of hooks, Sex Research, Vol. 34, No. Research Effects Of Domestic On Children? 4 (1997), pp. 375-386 Norman R. Brown, Robert C. Sinclair.
Estimating Number of Lifetime Sexual Partners: Men and Women Do It Differently. Of Hooks For Persuasive Essays? The Journal of on the effects violence, Sex Research, Vol. List For Persuasive Essays? 36, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. 292-297 John Levi Martin, Matt George. Theories of Sexual Stratification: Toward an Analytics of the Sexual Field and a Theory of Sexual Capital. Research Violence? Sociological Theory, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp.
107-132 Judith Treas, Deirdre Giesen. Sexual Infidelity among Married and Cohabiting Americans. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 48-60 Blow, Adrian J.; Hartnett, Kelley. Infidelity In Committed Relationships II: A Substantive Review . Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Volume 31, Issue 2, (2005): 217-33. Lever, J., Frederick, D., Peplau, L. A. (2006). Does Size Matter? Men's And Women's Views On Penis Size Across The Life Span.
Psychology of Men and for persuasive Masculinity, 7(3), 129-143. VIII. What is the role of violence and intimidation in the relationships between men and women? Most theoretical approaches to gender inequality suggest that violence between women and men plays a role in sustaining inequality; some also point toward violence as an initial cause. A recurring issue concerns the degree to which violence is an expression or result of gender inequality or, alternatively, is a cause of inequality. Middle School Writing Essays? The separate roles of list essays, rape, harassment, and domestic violence, and their relationships to school essays, each other are another critical question. Much research and argument has also been focused on the question of women's aggressive impulses and list of hooks essays actions. Analytical Task : Try to develop a reasonable explanation for why women do not engage in apa thesis proposal sexual harassment or sexual violence at rates similar to those of men.
Here, our strategy is to list for persuasive essays, reverse the usual way people approach the problem of gender violence, aiming to experience, explain the (suppressed) rates for women rather than the (elevated) rates for list of hooks for persuasive essays men. In addition to the reading materials, consider carefully the pointers below in the sections on Thinking Tools and Well Formed Causal Arguments In short , taking into account the pointers below and co op essay the ideas in the materials we have read up to this point, you want to develop a reasonable explanation why women do not engage in of hooks essays harassment or violence toward men at apa thesis the rates that men do toward women. Thinking Tools: ( click to open ) To pursue this task, we need to consider what we mean by violence or aggression. When people refer to the patterns of violence between women and men (in modern societies), they are usually referring to several kinds of aggressive behavior, particularly: (1) sexual violence (especially rape), (2) sexual harassment, and list essays (3) intimate partner violence (which includes wife battering). Best? These three categories implicitly distinguish patterns of aggression based on several criteria: (1) the degree to for persuasive, which the aggressive acts involve sexuality, (2) the severity of the aggressive acts, and research corporation (3) the existing relationship between the relevant men and women. In simple terms, the aggressive actions in these three categories have two obvious potential relationships with gender inequality: (1) inequality produces them, and for persuasive essays (2) they reinforce gender inequality. These actions are especially linked to inequality by the ways they contribute to women’s fears and sense of physical vulnerability. That fear is crucial. For it is the best given essay prospect of essays, possible violence that induces women to restrict their behavior, to research blockbuster corporation, seek male protectors, and to heed men’s wishes.
The fear of of hooks essays, violence is commonly a more prevalent and effective mechanism of control than the experience of violence. Note, however, that we cannot assume that sexual violence would not exist in the absence of gender inequality (although we might wish to examine this as a hypothesis). We know, for example, that partner violence occurs in apa thesis proposal gay male and lesbian couples at rates comparable to those of heterosexual couples. To put it differently, we have good evidence for inferring that gender inequality is a contributory cause for sexual violence, but not for the claim that it is a necessary cause. Similarly, we must be wary of simply assuming that sexual violence leads to gender inequality. To simplify our task, we will set aside the question of intimate partner violence and for persuasive essays focus on thesis, the other two kinds mentioned above, sexual violence and sexual harassment. So, our goal is to explain why women, seemingly, indulge less often in sexual violence and list of hooks for persuasive essays harassment toward men than the reverse . We can also note that one analytical starting point to research papers on the effects on children, explaining such differences would be to decompose the possible causes into two possible types that raise different causal questions: Women and men may resort to violence and harassment at different rates under comparable circumstances.
This would lead us ask what conditions, expectations, or the like cause women and men to act differently. Women and men may face the conditions that induce or allow violence and harassment at different rates. This would lead us to ask how and why women and men find themselves at different rates in circumstances that promote aggression toward the other sex. [Both men and women vary greatly, so we must decide if we will abstract away all that variation (and thus talk of men or women in the most generic or abstract possible manner) or if we feel that some variations (e.g. wealth or age) require consideration for the analysis. List Of Hooks For Persuasive Essays? Remember that you can restrict the scope of given essay, your analysis.] Try to for persuasive, approach the problem of research on the on children, defining potential causes as systematically as you can. List Essays? For example, consider a list of potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the anticipated consequences of alternative actions.
Another way to look at it is the old detective's script: motives, means, opportunity. The key here is to avoid randomly attaching yourself to one or two possible causes, just because they happen to be what you first think about. School? You want to of hooks for persuasive, think seriously about what you might have neglected. It is apa thesis, often useful to start this kind of analytic reasoning concretely, concentrating on circumstances we know best. List Of Hooks? We think about the kinds of williams thesis, people we know best, either through personal experience or from studying them.
We ask ourselves why the women in these circumstances or groups do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence toward men as much as do men toward women. If we can gain an explanatory foothold in these familiar circumstances, we have a starting point for developing a more general explanation. Also, try to introduce appropriate connections between the argument(s) you present and the readings. Consider not only the common readings from this week, but also past readings and optional ones from this week that seem particularly relevant. The causal arguments should try to conform to the standards for list essays a good causal argument that we have read about and discussed. Among other things this means: The causal analysis should clearly state what is papers on the effects on children, being explained. The analysis should describe the social mechanisms linking causes to effects. List Of Hooks For Persuasive? It should show what happens in decline the world that produces the of hooks essays outcomes, what kinds of papers of domestic violence on children, people or organizations behave in manner, what circumstances arise that induce the relevant behavior, and so forth.
This may be abstract at the level of the list for persuasive causal model. The analysis should consider why the decisive causes exist and take the form that they do. That is, the causal analysis should push back at least one step past the causes being invoked to ask what causes them. A strong analysis will consider what alternative causal arguments could be made (i.e., how the causal processes could be different from what you describe) and show what evidence or logic favors the argument you have presented. A thorough causal analysis will recognize that other causal models might be considered plausible, and williams decline try to list for persuasive essays, compare the causal model being promoted to the alternatives. Apa Thesis Proposal? The analysis should consider the generalizability of the the arguments presented. It should consider to what periods, places, types of societies, parts of society, kinds of social relationships or interactions do the arguments apply? Most will find it difficult to do all of the above effectively, so consider these to be suggestions about what would be ideal, then apply your judgment about allocating your time and effort.
Try to of hooks, develop a clear causal analysis of the role played in best advice given gender inequality by a fear of violence. This analysis should include a causal explanation why fear of (gender related) violence exists within a system of gender inequality. While thinking through how to explain this fear, you might consider comparisons or circumstances under which these fears vary, including Women's fears vs. men's fears The circumstances under which women experience greater fear and those where they feel safe Differences in the amount of fear typical amongst groups or categories of women according to their age, affluence, location, companions, or any other relevant social condition Differences in for persuasive the distribution of fear across societies distinguished by given such conditions as forms of list of hooks essays, economic and political organization, degree of development, prevailing religious or cultural institutions and experience essay the like This analysis should also include a causal explanation of the consequences for gender inequality of the distribution of fears of violence. List Essays? In what ways do fears of violence influence the behavior of women or the relationships between women and men? Consider how such fears may affect various kinds of women under various circumstances. But remember to return to aggregate effects – it is the impact of these fears on the pattern of women's experiences and behavior that affects gender inequality writ large. Avoid the analytic temptation to best advice essay, argue as if equality might imply an list for persuasive essays absence of discord and aggression. Realistically, equality between two groups by itself only experience leads us to expect that acts of aggression will occur with equal frequency and effect between members of the two groups.
Removing inequality as a source of discord should reduce one kind of frustration that motivates aggression. List For Persuasive? Other sources of discord still exist, however, and some forms of aggression that could be suppressed by inequality might even rise. Archer, J. (2002). Co Op Essay? Sex Differences In Physically Aggressive Acts Between Heterosexual Partners: A Metaanalytic Review. Aggression Violent Behavior, 7(4), 313-351. [doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00061-1] Saguy, Abigail C. Employment Discrimination or Sexual Violence?: Defining Sexual Harassment in American and French Law. Law Society Review.
34:4 (2000):1091-1128. List Of Hooks? also see Saguy, Abigail C. What is Sexual Harassment? From Capitol Hill to the Sorbonne, Thomas Jefferson Law Review , 27:45, (2005):45-56. Manuel Eisner. Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime. Crime and Justice , Vol. 30, (2003), pp. 83-142 Malcolm M. Feeley, Deborah L. Little. The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in the Criminal Process, 1687-1912. Law Society Review , Vol. Research Papers On The Of Domestic Violence On Children? 25, No. 4 (1991), pp.
719-758 Quinn, Beth A. Essays? Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and middle writing essays Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. Essays? 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002 Rachel Bridges Whaley, The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender Inequality and Rape: Toward a Refined Theory. Gender Society , vol. 15, no.
4, pp. 531-555, Aug 2001 [doi: 10.1177/089124301015004003] Murray A. Straus. 2008. Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by essay male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review 30(3):252-275.
Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. List Of Hooks Essays? (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for apa thesis the origins of sex differences. List? Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [note: also recommended for previous section] Sarah K. Murnen, Carrie Wright, and Gretchen Kaluzny. If 'Boys Will Be Boys,' Then Girls Will Be Victims? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Research That Relates Masculine Ideology to Sexual Aggression. Research Of Domestic Violence On Children? Sex Roles Volume 46, Numbers 11-12 / June, 2002 Peggy Reeves Sanday. Rape-Prone Versus Rape-Free Campus Cultures.
Violence Against Women, Vol. 2, No. 2, 191-208 (1996) [doi: 10.1177/1077801296002002006] Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. List For Persuasive Essays? 16, no. 3, pp. Research Papers Corporation? 386-402, June 2002.
Linda Gordon. Family Violence, Feminism, and Social Control. Feminist Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Autumn, 1986), pp. List Of Hooks Essays? 453-478 Christopher Uggen Amy Blackstone. Sexual Harrasment as a Gendered Expression of Power.
American Sociological Review , Volume 69, Number 1, (February 2004): 64-92 Sandy Welsh. Gender And Sexual Harassment. Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 169-190 Lee Ellis and Charles Beattie. The Feminist Explanation for Rape: An Empirical Test. T he Journal of williams, Sex Research , Vol.
19, No. 1 (Feb., 1983), pp. List? 74-93 Kimberly Martin, Lynne M. Vieraitis and Sarah Britto. Gender Equality and Women's Absolute Status: A Test of the Feminist Models of Rape. Violence Against Women . 12 (4) 2006: 321-339 Gwen Hunnicutt. Varieties of Patriarchy and Violence Against Women Resurrecting Patriarchy as a Theoretical Tool. Blockbuster Corporation? Violence Against Women . 15 (5) 2009: 553 - 573 [doi: 10.1177/1077801208331246] Tom W. Smith. The Polls: Gender and Attitudes Toward Violence. The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. List Of Hooks? 48, No. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp.
384-396 [jstor: 2748632] Richard C. Eichenberg. Gender Differences In Public Attitudes Toward The Use Of Force By The United States, 1990-2003. International Security 28.1 (2003) 110-141 Jon Hurwitz and Shannon Smithey, Gender Differences on Crime and Punishment. Research Papers Effects On Children? Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 89-115 Joan B. List? Kelly Michael P. Johnson. Differentiation Among Types Of Intimate Partner Violence: Research Update And Implications For Interventions. Family Court Review, Volume 46, Issue 3, 2008 (p 476-499) [doi: 10.1111/j.1744-1617.2008.00215.x] Richard B. Felson, Alison C. Cares.
Gender and the Seriousness of advice essay, Assaults on Intimate Partners and Other Victims. List? Journal of apa thesis, Marriage and Family, Volume 67, Issue 5 (2005):1182-1195 Murray A. Straus and Ignacio Luis Ramirez. 2007. Gender Symmetry In Prevalence, Severity, And Chronicity Of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners By University Students In Mexico And USA. Aggressive Behavior 33:281-290. [doi: 10.1002/ab.20199] Russell P. Dobash and R. Emerson Dobash. Of Hooks For Persuasive? Women's Violence to Men in Intimate Relationships. The British Journal of apa thesis, Criminology 44 (2004): 324-349 [doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh026] IX. How has the economy influenced men's and women's positions in society? Analyses of of hooks for persuasive essays, gender inequality attribute great importance to research papers, the economy.
Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in essays the sense that a critical aspect of gender inequality involves unequal access to economic resources and positions. This relationship becomes clearer in more advanced societies where economic organization has become institutionally differentiated from kinship and political organization. Sometimes this unequal economic access is understood as an expression of gender inequality, sometimes a cause of gender inequality, sometimes a result. Many analyses consider it all three. Analytical Task 1: Develop a causal analysis of economic inequality between women and men that accounts for two empirical observations, one being the proposal earnings inequality between the sexes by the gender composition of major occupational categories, the list of hooks essays other being the changing likelihood that wives will earn more than their husbands. The data to be explained can be found in best advice essay three tables (click to see).
Use the tabs at the bottom to switch between tables. The first table shows the 2012 earnings gap in the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of females. Of Hooks For Persuasive Essays? These have been sorted by research papers on the effects of domestic violence on children the proportion female. The numbers in dark red show the earnings gap where women also account for two-thirds or more of the of hooks those in experience the occupational category. The second table shows the same kind of data as the first, but is for list for persuasive the 20 occupational categories that have the research papers corporation largest number of males. It is otherwise the same as the first table, except the dark red numbers are for occupational categories where two-thirds or more of the workers are male. The third table shows the changing proportion of married couples where the wife earns more than the husband over list for persuasive the 25 years up to 2011.
Preliminary to developing an analysis, the first task is, of course, to best advice given, interpret what the data in the tables tell us about economic inequality between women and men. It is recommended that you focus on the dark red numbers of all the of hooks for persuasive tables. The first two tables are meant to be interpreted as one. Research Papers Effects On Children? The main task is to develop a background analysis of gender inequality in the economy, as it exists today and how it has changed over the past several decades. This may lead you to considering longer term changes to explain conditions during this period. You might think of yourself as writing a textbook or preparing a background paper on gender inequality in the economy, where these tables are the data that is being presented. Your goal is to offer an understanding of these tables. List For Persuasive? One way to think about proposal, this is in terms of of hooks essays, what we don't see in the tables.
Why aren't women and men distributed equally across these occupational categories? Why are women's earnings lower? Why do the difference between women's and men's earning vary across the occupational categories? Why has the proportion of wives earning more than their husbands gone up? What are the implications of the earnings differentials by occupational categories?
What are the implications of the data on wives' earnings? How can we reconcile the data on wives' earnings with the data on occupational earnings differences? In short, we are aiming at a brief explanation of women's vs. men's economic participation today and over time that shows why we find data looking like this. Research Blockbuster Corporation? Analytical Task 2 [ignore Fall 13] Identify three of the most important, primary, explanatory problems that need solution to understand the relationship between the economy and gender inequality . Each way that some aspect of gender inequality influences economic organization implies a causal problem. Similarly, in for persuasive essays the reverse, each way that economic organization influences some aspect of gender inequality implies a causal problem. For example, women used to have no access to apa thesis proposal, most high-status positions in the American economy and are now still under represented in them.
In either direction we might consider the intensity or degree of gender inequality, rather than some aspect of of hooks essays, gender inequality, as that which influences or is influenced by economic organization. For each observation or claim about co op, economic inequality between women and men, we can ask why? or how? For example, why are women under represented among those at the top of large economic enterprises? or how does women's relative absence from essays, positions great economic power influence the persistence of gender inequality? Which explanatory problems are primary is a theoretical (and empirical) judgment. A primary causal process is one without which the relationship between the papers entertainment corporation economy and gender inequality would look and essays work differently . Blockbuster? Note that you are identifying three that you believe are among those that are primary, not the three most important. For each of the three selected, primary, explanatory problems, do the following: State clearly what is the explanatory problem and why it is a primary or important one . Think carefully about what makes some causal processes more important than others when we are trying to understand a social phenomenon (her the relationship between gender inequality and economic organization). Select one of the three explanatory problems you have identified for deeper consideration.
For that problem: Briefly describe what stand out as the possible causal processes that could account for the relationship or condition that is the of hooks focus of the explanatory problem. Research Papers On The Effects Violence On Children? For example, what might be the causal processes that account for few women being in positions of high economic power? These are the competing or alternative explanations for the problem. List Of Hooks? These may include the causes or explanations explicitly suggested in the literature concerning the problem, or explanations derived from williams thesis, applying a more general theoretical orientation (e.g., a Marxist or a functionalist approach), or any additional possibilities you work out in another way. Of Hooks? Describe a research possibility that could seek to resolve one (or more) of these causal problems. You have identified competing, causal explanations for each of the explanatory problems. For one of these, consider how we might hope to papers effects of domestic violence on children, learn which causal explanation is list for persuasive, more valid by doing relevant research. Williams Thesis? To do this, we usually want to think about the circumstances under which the competing theories suggest that something in the world should look or work differently. List For Persuasive Essays? To summarize, the analytical task involves (1) identifying three primary, explanatory problems relating gender inequality and proposal economic organization, providing a careful description for each of those explanatory problems, stating why it is important, (2) for list for persuasive one explanatory problem, exploring competing explanations that could solve the problem, and describing a research design that could, hypothetically, discover which explanation is better. Francine D. Blau.
Trends in the Well-Being of American Women, 1970-1995. Journal of Economic Literature , Vol. 36, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 112-165 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as Far as They Can? Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (February 2007): 7-23. [Reduced version of chapter in Declining Significance of Gender] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol.
68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 Michelle J Budig. Male Advantage And The Gender Composition Of Jobs: Who Rides The Glass Escalator? Social Problems . Apa Thesis? May 2002. Vol. 49, Iss. 2; p. 258 Elizabeth H. Gorman and list Julie A. Best Advice Given Essay? Kmec.
Hierarchical Rank and Women's Organizational Mobility: Glass Ceilings in Corporate Law Firms. American Journal of Sociology Volume 114 Number 5 (March 2009): 1428-74 [doi: pdf/10.1086/595950] Christine E. Bose, Philip L. Bereano and Mary Malloy. Household Technology and the Social Construction of Housework. Technology and Culture , Vol. 25, No. List? 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 53-82 Maria Charles. Deciphering Sex Segregation: Vertical and Horizontal Inequalities in Ten National Labor Markets. Acta Sociologica , Vol. 46, No. 4 (Dec., 2003), pp.
267-287 Shelley J. Correll, Stephen Benard, In Paik. Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty? American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 112, No. 5 (Mar., 2007), pp. School Writing? 1297-1338 Louise Marie Roth. Women on Wall Street: Despite Diversity Measures, Wall Street Remains Vulnerable to Sex Discrimination Charges. Academy of Management Perspectives , Feb 2007, Vol. 21 [doi: 10.5465/AMP.2007.24286162] Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A. Is The Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis Of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, And Earnings. Journal of list for persuasive essays, Applied Psychology . Vol 93(5), Sep 2008, 994-1012.
Claudia Goldin. The Changing Economic Role of Women: A Quantitative Approach. Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol. 13, No. 4, The Measure of American History (Spring, 1983), pp. 707-733 [jstor: 203887] Claudia Goldin. The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family. The American Economic Review , Vol. 96, No.
2 (May, 2006), pp. 1-21 Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. Demographic Influence on Female Employment and the Status of Women. Research Papers Blockbuster Corporation? American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 78, No. 4, Changing Women in a Changing Society (Jan., 1973), pp. 946-961; see also Valerie K. Oppenheimer. The Interaction of Demand and Supply and its Effect on list of hooks, the Female Labour Force in research blockbuster corporation the United States. Population Studies , Vol. 21, No.
3 (Nov., 1967), pp. 239-259 England, Paula, Paul Allison, and Yuxiao Wu. Does Feminization Lower Wages, Do Declines in Wages Cause Feminization, and How Can We Tell From Longitudinal Data? Social Science Research 36(3) (2007): 1237-56. [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.08.003] Trond Petersen, Vemund Snartland, Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom. Are female workers less productive than male workers? Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 25(1) (2007): 13-37. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz, Ilyana Kuziemko. The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap. The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol.
20, No. 4 (Fall, 2006), pp. 133-156 Jerry A. Jacobs. Gender Inequality and of hooks Higher Education. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22 (1996): 153-185 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153] Claudia Buchmann, Thomas A. DiPrete, Anne McDaniel. Gender Inequalities in Education. Co Op Experience Essay? Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 34 (2008): 319-337 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134719] England, Paula and Su Li. Desegregation Stalled: The Changing Gender Composition of College Majors, 1971-2002. Gender Society 20(5) (2006):657-677.
M. Evertsson, P. England, I. Mooi-Reci, J. For Persuasive? Hermsen, J. de Bruijn, D. Cotter. Is Gender Inequality Greater at Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Papers Violence On Children? Social Politics: International Studies in list for persuasive essays Gender, State Society 16(2):210-241 (2009) [doi: 10.1093/sp/jxp008] Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., van Engen, M. L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and effects men. List Of Hooks For Persuasive? Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591. Eckel, Catherine; de Oliveira, Angela C. M.; Grossman, Philip J. Gender and Negotiation in the Small: Are Women (Perceived to Be) More Cooperative than Men?
Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 429 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00196.x] ; Kolb, Deborah M. Too Bad for co op experience essay the Women or Does It Have to Be? Gender and Negotiation Research over the Past Twenty-Five Years. Negotiation Journal , Volume 25, Issue 4, 2009: 515 ; Bowles, Hannah Riley; McGinn, Kathleen L. Of Hooks? Gender in Job Negotiations: A Two-Level Game. Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 393 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00194.x] Sue Bowden, Avner Offer. Household Appliances and the Use of dr eric williams thesis, Time: The United States and for persuasive Britain Since the 1920s. The Economic History Review , New Series, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Nov., 1994), pp. 725-748 Graciela Chichilnisky.
The Gender Gap. Review of Development Economics , Volume 12, Issue 4 (p 828-844) [gender gap as a Nash equilibrium – not for the economically faint of heart] Justin Wolfers. Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and Ceo Gender Journal of the European Economic Association , Vol. 4, No. 2/3, Papers and Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Congress of the European Economic Association (Apr. - May, 2006), pp. 531-541 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn.
The Gender Pay Gap, The Economists' Voice (June 2007). [doi: 10.2202/1553-3832.1190] Claudia Goldin. The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family. The Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science . 2004 596 (2004): 20-35. [doi: 10.1177/0002716204267959] Claudia D. Goldin. The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment. The American Economic Review , Vol.
81, No. 4 (Sep., 1991), pp. 741-756 Michael Bittman, Paula England, Liana Sayer, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson. When Does Gender Trump Money?: Bargaining and papers on the effects on children Time in Household Work. List For Persuasive? American Journal of Sociology 109 (2003):186-214. X. What role does ideology play in determining the relations between men and best advice given essay women? Ideology is near the center of almost all efforts to explain gender inequalities. People's conceptions of masculinity and list of hooks for persuasive essays femininity, ideas concerning the best advice fairness of differential treatment or expectations of women and men, internalized schema that evoke different judgments of for persuasive essays, women's and co op men's actions, rules about list essays, proper male and female behavior applied to children – all these and more concern the influence of ideology on gender identities, differential treatment of women and research papers of domestic men, and the organization and persistence of gender inequality. Conversely, each ideological belief that symbolizes, legitimates, invokes, guides, induces, or helps sustain gender inequality is itself a product of gender inequality. To untangle these complex causal interdependencies, we must always attend carefully to two kinds of distinctions. First, we must consistently recognize differences in levels of social organization, including, among others, societal structures and culture, organizations, social networks, social processes, and individual actors.
While it is tempting to treat ideological beliefs as diffuse entities unconnected to list of hooks for persuasive, identifiable people, organizations, or structures, the analytical results are poor. Second, we must consistently distinguish between contemporaneous causes (e.g., the ways that internalized schema can influence interactions) and asynchronous or historical causes (e.g., the co op experience ways that changes in domestic production induce different ideas about essays, women's place). Causal arguments about ideology consider it as both an effect of gender inequality and a cause of gender inequality, although it is ideology's potential role as a contributing cause that stands out apa thesis proposal, as more theoretically important. The general analytical problem . The aim of this week's task is to explore the relationship between beliefs – ideology – and some example of inequality. We want to consider how causality can work in both directions, as inequality influences what people believe and ideology influences how people act. To begin, choose one aspect or component of gender inequality. Of Hooks For Persuasive? This could be some aspect of the co op essay direct relationships between women and men, or it might be some difference in the opportunities available to women.
Examples include the list of hooks essays way that women overall select less prestigious fields of study than men in college, that higher education used to be restricted for women, that women are objects of sex trafficking, that male professional sports have much higher status, or the middle school writing different kinds of restaurants that use male vs. female waiters. List Of Hooks For Persuasive? You might try to be a bit creative. It can be helpful to focus your discussion using a concrete instance of that type of inequality with which you are familiar. Contents of the analysis . The goal is to corporation, work through the various ways that ideas and expectations are involved in the causal processes surrounding gender inequality using the chosen example to do this at a more concrete level. The purpose of the task specification that follows is to help you to essays, be systematic about this. Use this schematic outline as a starting point. 1 Clearly describe the aspect or component of gender inequality you are using. ( click to open ) As always, remember to give the essay basic characteristics and principal patterns of the inequality as you understand it. Among other possibilities, this will normally include: (1) describe what is unequal; (2) describe what this inequality looks like, how it is experienced, or how it has its impact in social life; (3) assess how the list of hooks for persuasive essays distribution appears or is manifest in the world, how we would recognize the differences between more or less of middle school essays, it, and how it is currently distributed). Of Hooks For Persuasive Essays? The goal is to ensure the reader (and you) clearly understand what makes up or defines the inequality you are focused on, and what specific examples of that inequality you will use in your analysis. While identifying the relevant beliefs is best given, obviously crucial, it can also be difficult.
The range of list of hooks for persuasive, potentially relevant beliefs may be very large, so we have to exercise judgment about which are most important It may help to distinguish beliefs that motivate the practice of this aspect of gender inequality from those that legitimate it. Usually both are present, and they may be difficult to distinguish, but thinking through the difference can be very helpful as the implications of the two kinds are quite different. It is crucial to consider the research papers on the of domestic actions and ideas of both men and women . They commonly will share some relevant beliefs and diverge about others. Particularly in conflicts over list for persuasive inequality, we expect some critical beliefs also to be in opposition. Consider also whether different beliefs motivate or legitimate this type of inequality in different times, places, or circumstances. That is, you want to decide what characteristics of the beliefs connected to this inequality are fairly consistent across various concrete instances of this type of inequality and what sort of best advice given essay, beliefs differ across instances. For example, the beliefs that motivated male resistance to essays, women entering male occupations may have varied by apa thesis the status of the occupation and by the time period women began to enter.
Consider how much people agree about the important beliefs. When is the consensus high or low, what causes it to be high or low, and of hooks for persuasive essays what difference does the dr eric decline degree of agreement make? In particular, do people dispute some aspects of the beliefs relevant to for persuasive essays, this type of inequality, such that the dispute affects the inequality or informs us about it? Remember, that a belief exists does not mean that all people hold it, even less does it ensure they will act in conformity to it. The greater the disagreement about a belief within a group or category of actors, the less that it can produce consistent patterns of actions (although this may not diminish its appeal as a justification). Beliefs have a variety of other variable characteristics that can be important to analyzing their significance.
For example, a belief can be narrow and focused or broad and best essay general, varying from the context or issue specific belief to the general principal. A belief can be so salient and closely held that people refer to of hooks for persuasive, it all the time or so insignificant and loosely held that it plays a role only when forced to the forefront. Consider the social significance or function of the gender inequality related beliefs. We can try to apa thesis proposal, judge the effects of beliefs by essays comparing how people would behave if beliefs were different, using either real or hypothetical alternatives. Although beliefs exist only by proposal being held by individuals, we generally want to think of beliefs as cultural phenomena. The beliefs that concern us are those preserved and imposed by for persuasive essays cultures or acquired as the common effect of shared or parallel experiences. People are prone to school writing essays, all kinds of idiosyncratic beliefs, but only list for persuasive essays shared beliefs have social effect. At the individual level, we ask how or when people holding a belief act differently than those who believe otherwise. At the social level, we ask how the papers effects violence presence of those beliefs in a group or circumstance has social consequences -- such as influencing the structure of list for persuasive essays, organizations, the prevailing legal system, or direction of historical changes.
What kind of effect and how much effect we attribute to a belief will depend in part on proposal, what we choose as the alternate beliefs for comparison. Reasonable alternatives might include: beliefs observed to exist in more egalitarian (or more unequal) circumstances, reversal of beliefs about list of hooks for persuasive essays, women and best advice men (such as believing women are better at math - often implausible in reality, but potentially clarifying as an list for persuasive imaginary experiment), the given absence of any such beliefs (that is, people have no expectations about something, such as whether men or women will be more nurturing), or the presence of for persuasive, some reasonable hypothetical alternative beliefs. As usual, we want to give some thought to both women and given men - considering how each sex is affected, considering beliefs about list for persuasive essays, both sexes, and considering what each sex believes. Typically, we expect to best, find women and men share many beliefs, but are sharply divided on others. We also want to consider how the effects of the for persuasive beliefs might vary depending on apa thesis proposal, the context or other mediating influences. We also want to remember that beliefs can affect people in a wide range of ways. Beliefs can affect judgments, motives, aspirations, quality of list essays, experience, and so forth. Again, the point is not to include everything. Research Papers? Instead, we want to recognize that deciding what is list of hooks for persuasive, important is an analytical judgment; it should not simply be to school essays, talk about whatever we happened to think about list for persuasive, first. Dr Eric Williams Thesis? We are trying to figure out what beliefs really make a difference to the strength, durability, or form of gender inequality.
Thus, for the example of essays, inequality being examined, we are in part trying to explain how beliefs or ideas might arise as a result of the presence of the inequality that they legitimate and motivate. Corporation? This is list for persuasive, our central goal, and it is difficult. We can also ask if those beliefs could have arisen for experience essay some reason independent of gender inequality (we expect this to be rare, but important where found). It can help to essays, do a hypothetical experiment. Consider an imaginary circumstance (which might have a real historical counterpart) where the advice essay relevant aspect of gender inequality did not exist, nor did the related beliefs – then at some point in time this type of gender inequality came into existence.
Then try to think through how ideas would change as a result of the list for persuasive emergence of this facet of gender inequality. Dr Eric Decline? Consider what issues might arise if this type of inequality came to exist, but the beliefs still did not, and how might the response to such issues lead to new beliefs. Think about both women and of hooks men trying to research papers entertainment corporation, make sense of the unequal circumstances, and trying to list of hooks for persuasive, mold the perception of reality and justice to fit their circumstances. To make the blockbuster entertainment analysis more concrete, see if you can provide evidence or observations about real circumstances where this type of inequality is minimal (different cultures, different historical periods, different parts of society). Assess how the beliefs under minimal inequality compare to list of hooks for persuasive essays, those where it is high. It is a good idea to consider under what conditions, if any, would the beliefs associated with a facet of gender inequality exist without the presence of this facet of gender inequality. That is, could similar or analogous beliefs appear with different kinds of inequality or under conditions of apa thesis proposal, little inequality.
The first possibility is critical, because it suggests beliefs due to the presence of inequality per se, not dependent on the type of of hooks for persuasive, inequality. The second possibility suggests the prospect of beliefs hijacked from conditions distinct from on the on children, inequality, then converted to some service to reinforce or challenge inequality. It may also be worthwhile to list essays, imagine what would happen if the beliefs existed in the absence of inequality in the relevant aspect of gender. Would they be enough to nudge toward inequality or would they tend to dissipate? It is also a good idea to consider how people acquire the relevant beliefs. Are they part of general cultural expectations, are the transferred in specific contexts, or do people generate them from experience rather than learning them from others? How people acquire beliefs can give us valuable insights into their significance. Dr Eric? Finally, ask what happens if some people question or reject the list essays beliefs? This question applies to both women and men. The mechanisms to ensure acceptance and williams decline conformity are crucial to list of hooks for persuasive essays, the preservation and effectiveness of beliefs.
XII. How have women's and middle school writing men's actions obstructed or furthered change, taking into account the changing institutional context? Both women and men have acted in of hooks for persuasive every possible way towards gender inequality. What we want to understand are the circumstances in which they predictably act in ways that either reinforce or erode inequality. Apa Thesis? People's actions are complex results of their interests, ideologies, circumstances, opportunities, and constraints. While theories of list, gender inequality invoke all kinds of abstract causal processes, in real life inequality is sustained and changed by entertainment corporation the actions of women and men.
The actions of ordinary people become effective mainly when they act similarly (because they face similar circumstances with similar outlooks); sometimes their actions also become coordinated through organization. The actions of powerful people are more consequential than those of ordinary people when they command or influence organizational actions or provoke emulation by followers. Even unique political actions may have great effect by altering laws, policies, or the for persuasive balance of power, although even in on the violence on children these cases the institutionalization of changes generally depends on dispersed acceptance; in the economic realm, even organizational actions typically become effective only when multiple organizations pursue parallel policies (governmental controls over list essays an economy would be an exception). The goal of this task is to best, examine why some of men's actions worked against gender inequality while others sustained it, and similarly why women's actions also included ones that challenged gender inequality and list of hooks essays others that reinforced it. We want to thesis, compare the causes, motives, and effects of these typical actions. Action here means a pattern of behavior associated with some category of people, e.g. the tendency to take or not take advantage of of hooks essays, educational opportunities by women of some type in some period.
The relevant actions are those that were one typical result either of being either in certain enduring categories of women or men (for example, single women with higher education) or in certain recurring circumstances (for example, married women whose husbands lost their jobs for long periods). The category could include all women or all men. On The Violence? To say that actions reinforce gender inequality means that they either bolster the list of hooks for persuasive essays stability of gender inequality or help to make it more severe; alternatively, if those actions became rare and were not replaced by alternative actions with similar effects, then either the degree of gender inequality experienced by some people would decline or the persistence of gender inequality would become more problematic. (by the identified group in the identified conditions) Analogously, to say that actions challenge gender inequality means that those actions, if taken by enough people, result in reducing the amount of gender inequality or they erode the stability of gender inequality making it more vulnerable to future challenges. To consider the range of possibilities, in this task we select six patterns of behavior or kinds of actions. Choose one type of action by middle essays women that challenged gender inequality and one that reinforced it. Similarly, for ordinary men , select one kind of action that worked against gender inequality and one that helped sustain it. Finally, do the same for men with power . For Persuasive Essays? For each of the six selected types of actions, do the following: Identify what kind of women or men were likely to perform this action and under what circumstances. Describe the action, including an on children assessment of its effects on gender inequality. This may include consideration of reasons why its effects might vary (e.g., the number acting might have to surpass a threshold before there are widespread effects, the effects might be contingent on list of hooks essays, other conditions, the effects might happen after a delay, and so on).
Try to specify the reasons why this type of action occurred. These reasons include the motives of the people, their understandings of why they were pursuing this behavior or strategy. The reasons also include the social and apa thesis cultural conditions that induce the actions and make them seem necessary, sensible, and just. The reasons may also include triggering events. Of Hooks For Persuasive? To summarize: Pick six kinds of behavior that have made a difference to the persistence of gender inequality, one reinforcing and one challenging for research entertainment each of the three categories: women, ordinary men, powerful men. Then explore each of these six types of behavior, considering their causes, the motives as the people involved experienced them (which is not the same as their causes), and their effects. Lynne Haney.
Homeboys, Babies, Men in Suits: The State and list essays the Reproduction of Male Dominance. American Sociological Review , Vol. Given? 61, No. 5 (Oct., 1996), pp. 759-778 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol.
2, No. List Essays? 3 (Sep., 1988), pp. 274-290 Noah P. Mark, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Why Do Nominal Characteristics Acquire Status Value? A Minimal Explanation for Status Construction. AJS Volume 115 Number 3 (November 2009): 832-62 . [doi: pdf/10.1086/606142] Kirsten Dellinger.
Masculinities in decline thesis Safe and Embattled Organizations: Accounting for Pornographic and Feminist Magazines. Gender Society , vol. 18, no. Of Hooks? 5, pp. 545-566, Oct 2004. Ann-Dorte Christensen and JA?A?rgen Elm Larsen. Gender, Class, and Family: Men and Gender Equality in a Danish Context.
Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 2008 15(1):53-78 . . Co Op? Linda Thompson, Alexis J. Walker. Gender in Families: Women and Men in list for persuasive essays Marriage, Work, and Parenthood. Journal of Marriage and middle school writing the Family , Vol. 51, No. List Of Hooks Essays? 4 (Nov., 1989), pp. 845-871 [jstor: 353201] XII.
How have political processes and structures sustained men's and research blockbuster women's relative status? [original version with alternate task readings] As structure and as actor, the state has been unavoidably central to ongoing practice of gender inequality, to its persistence, and to changes in the form and amount of gender inequality. States or governments have power. List Of Hooks For Persuasive? Through the military and police, a state can enforce conformity to its rules, repel and middle writing punish challenges from the list of hooks for persuasive scale of individual acts to proposal, collective rebellions, and by of hooks essays threat, implicit or explicit, deter rebellions from appearing. Through the research entertainment corporation law, regulations, and bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of social organization. Through economic policies of taxation, expenditures, and redistributions (such as welfare policies or agricultural supports), a state influences the relative economic status of of hooks for persuasive essays, different groups. By acting differently toward groups with regard to on the of domestic, any of these aspects of government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. Analogously, a state can, in theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by using its power in ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities.
States determine, influence, legitimize, and sanction rights and opportunities; they may do so in more or less egalitarian ways. When significant, enduring, social inequality exists, those privileged by of hooks essays that form of inequality will normally have more influence over the state than do those disadvantaged by the inequality, and the overall effect of state policies will reinforce the exercise and persistence of the inequality. A fundamental problem for all state theories is who or what decides state policies and actions. To some degree, those in research on the effects of domestic violence on children the state (elected, appointed, hired, or appropriated) make decisions based on for persuasive essays, their interests and outlooks as members of the proposal state apparatus. To some degree, state actors respond to the influence of power brokers outside the state, such as the economically powerful.
In either case, when making policy or strategic planning decisions, those influencing state actions are in part responding to what they perceive will be the responses of all actors in the nation affected by those decisions.
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The Odyssey Summary and Analysis of Books 1-4. The narrator calls upon list of hooks for persuasive essays the Muse to help him tell the story of Odysseus. We pick up ten years after the fall of Troy in the Trojan War (the subject of The Iliad). In trying to return home, Odysseus and his shipmates had numerous adventures, but now Odysseus has been left alone on the island of Ogygia for the last eight years, captive of the beautiful goddess Calypso. We are told that Poseidon, god of the sea, will make Odysseus' journey home to Ithaca even more difficult (he is angry that Odysseus has blinded his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus), and trouble awaits the apa thesis, conquering hero back in Ithaca, too. In the hall of Zeus on list of hooks for persuasive essays, Mount Olympos, all the gods but Poseidon gather and listen as Zeus reflects upon the moral failings of research papers blockbuster corporation mortal men. List. He brings up the example of given essay Aigisthos, who killed Agamemnon and stole his wife, though the gods warned him that Agamemnon's son, Orestes, would someday retaliate - which he justly did. Athena speaks on behalf of Odysseus, pleading with Zeus to free him from Calypso's grasp. List For Persuasive Essays. He agrees, and the god Hermes will be sent to Calypso to ask her to free Odysseus. In disguise as an old friend of Odysseus', Athena travels to his manor in Ithaca, now overrun with noisy, lustful suitors intent on marrying Odysseus' wife, Penelope.
Odysseus' son, Telemachus, unhappy among the suitors, greets Athena warmly as a stranger and invites her to their feast. As the suitors devour Odysseus' oxen, Telemachus says he believes his father - whom he does not know at all - is dr eric thesis, dead. Of Hooks Essays. Athena introduces herself as Odysseus' old friend Mentes and predicts that he will be home soon. He does not hold out any hope, however, and he and his mother remain helpless against the arrogant suitors. Athena instructs him to call an assembly of the islanders and order the suitors away; then he must sail away to find news of his father at Pylos and Sparta. After this, he must kill the co op experience, suitors, as Orestes did. Inspired, Telemachus thanks her for her advice, and she leaves. The beautiful Penelope joins the suitors and asks the list of hooks for persuasive, minstrel to stop singing the given, song of the homecoming of the Achaeans (Greeks) after the Trojan War, as it reminds her of her husband's absence. But Telemachus reminds her that many others did not return from the war. She returns to her room and weeps for Odysseus.
Telemachus tells the suitors that at daybreak he will call an assembly and list banish them from his estate. Two of the suitors ask about the identity of the man Telemachus was speaking to; though he knows the visitor was immortal, Telemachus tells them it was a family friend. The story of given essay The Odyssey starts in medias res (in the middle of things), relating in brief exposition the background before jumping into the present narrative. Homer's contemporary audience would have already been familiar with the story of The Iliad , whose events precede The Odyssey , so there is no need to list of hooks, waste time reminding them of it. Remember that the poem was delivered orally, so an audience member could not skip through the opening pages at his leisure. More importantly, Homer kick-starts the narrative engine, and already in Book I we see various plot machinations at work and an emphasis placed on internal stories, which often have a thematic impact on essays, the major story. For instance, the for persuasive essays, story of Agamemnon parallels that of Odysseus.
Odysseus, too, has a wife besieged by suitors and a son who, logically, dislikes them. But Agamemnon's story turned negative: the suitor killed him and advice essay married his wife, though his son, Orestes, avenged his death. The story, then, raises questions for The Odyssey : will Penelope remain faithful or marry the of hooks, suitors? Will the suitors kill Odysseus, or will he murder them? And will Telemachus challenge and kill the suitors, as Athena has instructed, or meekly let them run riot in dr eric williams decline thesis his father's house? This last question is especially pertinent to list of hooks essays, the opening books, as we see Telemachus mature from a callow, helpless youth into a stronger, more confident man. Just as Odysseus' story is about returning home to his old identity, Telemachus' is about forging a new one; as Athena tells him, you are a child no longer (344). Themes prevalent in papers on the violence on children the rest of the poem show up here. Athena enters the essays, manor in disguise, and the cunning Odysseus, especially, uses disguises or false identities throughout The Odyssey to achieve his goals. Best Advice Given Essay. And though Penelope is list essays, presented as a faithful wife, women in thesis The Odyssey , such as Calypso, are often fearsome and list predatory, their wiles typically enhanced by their stunning beauty. At daybreak, Telemachus calls an assembly of the suitors and other islanders.
He tells them of the suitors' disgraceful behavior and angrily tries to shame them into leaving. Middle School Writing Essays. But Antinous puts the blame on Penelope, who has been teasing and deceiving the list of hooks essays, suitors for years, as when she promised to marry after she wove a shroud for dr eric williams her dead husband's father, Laertes. The cunning Penelope unwove each day's progress at night for three years (her trick was eventually discovered, and she had to finish the shroud). Of Hooks For Persuasive Essays. Antinous, one of the suitors, gives Telemachus a choice: evict his mother, or make her marry one of them. Telemachus rejects his offer, telling the suitors to leave and begging aid from Zeus. Zeus quickly sends down two eagles to attack the suitors - an omen of middle essays death - but the suitors deny the sign and insist things will remain as they are; they have been waiting too long for the prize of Penelope.
Telemachus changes his tack, requesting a ship and for persuasive essays crew for him to find news of his father at Pylos and Sparta; if he finds out middle school writing he is dead, he will allow his mother to remarry. Before the assembly breaks, it is list of hooks, decreed that Odysseus' old friends, Mentor and research corporation Halitherses, will help him obtain the ship and crew. Telemachus calls upon the god who helped him yesterday. For Persuasive. Athena returns to decline thesis, him in the form of essays Mentor, praises his abilities derived from his father, and assures him that his voyage will be successful. Research Effects Of Domestic Violence On Children. She promises to list for persuasive, find him a ship and crew and help him sail, and tells him to get provisions ready at home. There, Antinous tries to co op, make amends and offers to help him get a ship and crew, but Telemachus coldly rejects him.
The suitors mock him while he readies himself for the trip, careful not to let his mother know about his plans. Meanwhile, Athena walks around town disguised as Telemachus, inviting men to meet up at nightfall at a ship she has borrowed. At night, Athena makes the list for persuasive, suitors fall asleep and, in the form of Mentor, informs Telemachus of the arrival of his crew. She leads him to on the effects on children, his ship, his crew packs up their provisions, and they disembark with Athena on board. They drink to the gods, especially Athena. This brief book continues Telemachus' development from youth to man. Inspired by Athena, especially her favorable comparisons between him and his father, he stands up against the suitors in his assembly. Though they do not heed his - or Zeus' - warnings, he has at least given them something to think about, and there will clearly be a reckoning once he returns. To drum home the list of hooks for persuasive essays, point of his maturation, Homer frequently refers to Telemachus as his father's son, as in research on the effects violence Odysseus' true son (2) or the son of Odysseus (36). For Persuasive. He has assumed the forceful identity and leadership of best advice given essay his father, as Athena maintains, and is no longer a mere child. In fact, this tag of son of Odysseus nearly becomes what is known as the Homeric epithet for Telemachus.
Homer frequently precedes someone's name with the same short phrase, such as grey-eyed daughter of Zeus for Athena. Note that the Homeric epithet is list of hooks for persuasive essays, different from Homer's unparalleled use of simile, the most famous and recurring example being a variation on (in the opening of Book II, for experience example) When primal Dawn spread on the eastern sky / her fingers of pink light (1-2). Aside from the beautiful language and rhythm, evident even in translation, Homer personifies Dawn (her fingers) and list adds breathing vitality even to middle school writing, forces of nature - unsurprising for a story that often pivots around natural (or supernatural) disaster. We see more use of disguise in Athena's multiple visits, and Penelope is also identified as being cunning. List Of Hooks For Persuasive. Though this should be a compliment, the suitors try to cast Penelope's cunning as deception, reinforcing the theme of women as predatory.
Telemachus and school writing his crew arrive at Pylos, where a sacrifice to Poseidon of dozens of bulls is essays, taking place. Athena encourages the proposal, shy Telemachus to essays, seek out old Nestor. Research On The On Children. He and his men are invited to feast and pay tribute to essays, Poseidon. Athena prays to Poseidon for the success of their mission. After they eat, Telemachus tells Nestor, who fought alongside and was a great friend to Odysseus during the Trojan War, that he is seeking information about his father. Nestor does not know what befell Odysseus; after Ilion (Troy) fell, Athena provoked a fight between the brothers Menelaos and Agamemnon and divided the Achaeans into two camps; those under command of the former left, while the latter stayed. Odysseus left, but he and his crew soon returned to please Agamemnon.
Nestor and his crew made it back home, as did a few other groups, but many did not. Telemachus laments his situation with the suitors, and Nestor suggests Odysseus may return, or perhaps Athena will help him, as she used to do with his father. Telemachus does not believe the gods will aid him, and even if they did it would be to no avail; Athena disagrees. Telemachus asks Nestor how Aigisthos managed to kill Agamemnon. Nestor says that while Agamemnon and Menelaos were away fighting, Aigisthos eventually won over Agamemnon's queen, Klytaimnestra. He ruled over Agamemnon's kingdom as a tyrant for seven years before Orestes killed him and Klytaimnestra. Nestor warns Telemachus not to make the same mistake and research blockbuster stay away from home too long. He urges him to find Menelaos for more news, and offers to provide him with horses, a chariot, and his sons for company.
Athena praises this idea, and then disappears as a sea hawk. The men are stunned, and the proof that the gods are on list of hooks for persuasive, Telemachus' side inspires Nestor, who pledges a sacrifice to Athena. In the morning, he and his sons make the sacrifice of apa thesis proposal a golden-horned heifer, and list his son, Peisistratos, accompanies Telemachus in a chariot. They arrive at blockbuster entertainment corporation, Pherai at night, then Lakedaimon the next day, and continue to their final destination of Sparta. The ancient Greeks' reverence for the gods is of hooks essays, abundantly evident here - not one, but two sacrifices are made to Poseidon and middle essays Athena, respectively. List Essays. Fortunately for historians, Homer details the actions and reactions of the ritual sacrifice of the heifer. The Fitzgerald translation cleverly suggests, through internal rhyme, the cause-and-effect of the papers effects on children, sacrifice after the heifer's neck is cut: The heifer's spirit failed. / Then all the women gave a wail of joy (438-9). The conjunction of for persuasive failed and wail reveals the deep emotional nature of the sacrifice; as the animal is brutally killed for the gods, the humans temporarily feel god-like ecstasy. Sacrifices also are pivotal to the plot of The Odyssey , for punishment awaits he who does not pay proper respect to the gods; we already know that Poseidon has wreaked havoc on experience essay, Odysseus for blinding his son, Polyphemus. Athena reminds Telemachus of the power of the gods, and it is impossible to underestimate the influence of the gods in list essays Greek culture and mythology: the Greeks believed everything was fated by dr eric decline thesis, the gods, so it is vital to be on their good side. But the list for persuasive, ancient Greeks - and most modern ones, too - are equally hospitable to mortal strangers.
Telemachus is kindly taken in papers corporation and provided for by Nestor's family, and such hospitality from hosts, and gratefulness from guests, is demonstrated throughout The Odyssey . Of course, the inverted image of such hospitality is taking place in Telemachus' home; he gives everything to the suitors, and they repay him with sneers and murderous plans. Indeed, the list of hooks, suitors remain on papers blockbuster entertainment, Telemachus' mind, which is clearly why he asks about list of hooks for persuasive Orestes and his mission of vengeance. Telemachus is slowly picking up the knowledge and courage necessary to tackle his enemies. Telemachus and Peisistratos arrive at blockbuster, Menelaos' opulent mansion in Lakedaimon. List For Persuasive Essays. Menelaos welcomes them to the double wedding feast taking place for both his son and daughter. After the travelers are bathed and fed, Menelaos tells them of his grief for his mates who died at Troy - especially Odysseus. Helen, wife of Menelaos, emerges from her chamber and says their visitor must be Telemachus. Research On The. Peisistratos confirms this, and says that Nestor sent them for help from list for persuasive essays, Menelaos.
Menelaos gives a moving speech about his feelings for on the violence on children Odysseus, inspiring tears in them all; Peisistratos is particularly affected, remembering his brother Antilokhos who died at Troy. Helen puts a magical libation in the wine bowl that prevents the drinker from list of hooks for persuasive essays, crying that day. She encourages everyone to cheer up, and tells a story about Odysseus' disguising himself as a beggar during the war. Menelaos recounts the famous anecdote of how Odysseus hid himself and his men inside a wooden horse to invade Troy. Everyone retires to bed. The next morning, Telemachus tells Menelaos about his problems with the suitors and asks if he has news of decline Odysseus. The king is indignant at the behavior of the suitors and hopes Odysseus can mete out their punishment. He tells of how, on his return from Troy, his men were stranded on an island without any wind. They managed to capture Proteus, the list essays, Ancient of the Sea. School Writing. Proteus told them that if they made a sacrifice to the gods, they could continue home.
He also told him about Agamemnon's murder, and that Odysseus is of hooks essays, a prisoner on Calypso's island. Telemachus and Peisistratos return to Pylos to sail for Ithaca. Meanwhile, in Ithaca, the dr eric decline, suitors find out about Telemachus' journey to Pylos and plan to ambush him on of hooks for persuasive essays, his way home. Papers Entertainment Corporation. Penelope learns of their plans and Telemachus' journey, and grieves. She calls for help from Athena, who visits her in a dream as Penelope's sister. She assures Penelope she will protect Telemachus, though she cannot tell her anything about list for persuasive essays Odysseus. A formal device used throughout The Odyssey , the story-within-a-story, grows even more complicated in this book. At one point we receive a story-within-a-story-within-a-story as Homer tells us a story about Menelaos' story about Proteus' story.
The Russian-doll authorship is, firstly, an apa thesis, innovative way to repeat expositional information the audience already knows but another character does not; we have already heard about Agamemnon's murder at the hands of Aigisthos, and we know about Odysseus' imprisonment on Calypso's island. Second, The Odyssey gains what literary criticism refers to as intertextuality; it becomes connected to other stories with which the Greek audience was quite familiar, and assumes a life of its own. But couching the information in list of hooks essays multiple layers also keeps the story fresh, and points to the overall importance of storytelling in Greek culture - Telemachus tells Menelaos he could listen to his fascinating tales forever. Even more important to Greek culture is the custom of hospitality, or xenia (Zeus was the god of xenia). As others have done before, Menelaos takes in dr eric williams decline thesis his visitors without even questioning them, and his generosity outdoes the hospitality of Nestor in Book III. Once again, we are meant to focus on the differences of hospitality between Telemachus and the suitors. While Telemachus is for persuasive essays, always grateful to his hosts, the suitors abuse his hospitality, and advice essay now plan to kill him.
The repeated mention of Orestes' murder of his father's usurper is another reminder that Telemachus is in a similar situation. While he was ill equipped to confront the suitors at the beginning of the poem, his own mini-odyssey to Pylos and of hooks beyond has transformed him. As he has learned about his unknown father's courage, it seems to have rubbed off on him. His father was more than merely courageous, we keep learning. Odysseus' cleverness is illustrated in two stories, and both revolve around the idea of costumes or disguise (the Trojan Horse can be considered a kind of costume). Moreover, the story of his disguise as a beggar foreshadows the end of the story. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/the-odyssey/study-guide/summary-books-1-4 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Odyssey The Odyssey Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Books 1-4 Books 5-8 Books 9-12 Books 13-16 Books 17-20 Books 21-24 Symbols, Allegory and Motifs Metaphors and Similes Irony Imagery The Fractal Structure of Epics Literary Elements Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan E-Text Mini-Store Homer Biography.
The Odyssey Questions and Answers. The Question and middle Answer section for The Odyssey is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. The speaker of this passage is Calypso. I'm sorry, this is a short-answer literature forum designed for text specific questions. We are unable to list of hooks for persuasive essays, assist students with essays or other writing projects.
Circe's wolves and mountain lions are actually men that have been turned into animals. The Odyssey study guide contains a biography of Homer, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. The Odyssey essays are academic essays for citation. Dr Eric Williams Thesis. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Odyssey by Homer. The Odyssey e-text contains the full text of The Odyssey by Homer.
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45 Biography Templates #038; Examples (Personal, Professional) A biography is simply an list for persuasive, account of someone’s life written by another person. Dr Eric Williams Decline Thesis. A biography can be short in the case of for persuasive essays, few sentences biography, and it can also be long enough to fill an entire book. The short biographies explain a person’s basic life facts and their importance, but the long biographies would go an extra mile and research papers on the effects include more details to make an interesting read. You may find yourself in a situation which requires you to for persuasive essays, write a biography of a famous person, a close friend or a relative. For this reason, it pays to know how to come up with a biography and best given the important details that you should include in it.
The lives of many people have interesting bits of information, but you ought to know what to capture in the biography and what to leave out. The length of a biography depends on the type of information that should be included. The length will determine the nature of information and list of hooks essays how extensively it will explain the life of a person. For instance, if you are to write a short paragraph about a person it will mostly capture the important details that identify the person compared to a pages-long biography that may even include the person’s childhood experiences and achievements shaping their life. For a short biography, maybe a paragraph or two long, the following details should be captured: A person’s date and place of birth, at times with the date and place of death as may be applicable The person’s major achievements in life Their educational background and notable awards Work facts of research on the effects violence on children, a person and their contribution to that field if any A brief account of the significance of an individual in for persuasive essays, the community.
A lengthy biography will bring out more details of a person’s life making it a bit more complex. His/her history will be brought out more clearly especially the details that shaped them to be the persons they turned out to be. The target audience will also dictate the nature of the information that is to be included. The relation of the proposal, audience to an individual will have an impact on how the information is list of hooks essays presented and the important details that they could be interested in. In a case where the audience is unknown, more details will have to best advice essay, be included. This mostly happens in the case of a several paged biography. You will have to scrutinize the person in a more detailed way and establish more people relating to the person.
Focusing on the uniqueness of an individual can do wonders in for persuasive essays, this case and this might turn out to proposal, be inspirational to many people. For Persuasive. The field that the person has majored in or had majored in ought to influence the direction that the biography will take as this will help to bring out the middle writing essays, contribution of the individual to list, their field of study. A biography is best advice meant to analyze a person’s life and interpret it as well. A good biographer will try to join the dots and explain certain actions and essays events that a certain figure was involved in. This will help in clearly bringing out the significance of a person’s life through their accomplishments or remarkable deeds.
Biographies are usually written in a chronological order. Some biographers could also draft them in a themed order that is early life, educational background, a person’s achievements or accomplishments. But some especially the short ones will focus on one area in a person’s life. There are several sources of dr eric williams decline, information that could aid one in writing an list for persuasive, astounding biography. These sources of information can be grouped into either primary sources or secondary sources.
The primary sources of information include materials like letters, newspaper accounts or diaries. A biographer can also make an arrangement to interview an individual they want to proposal, write about. This is also considered as a primary source of information. The secondary sources are reference books, other biographies or historical records that are related to the subject being written about. Select the individual you want to write about list for persuasive Search for the basic facts that relate to writing, a person’s life. The encyclopedia or almanac could be handy at this.
Think about the for persuasive, details to add in the biography which can bring out clearly about the person’s life. Choose the area in a person’s life that you want the biography to revolve around. Some guiding questions that could aid you in research on children, this include; What’s the of hooks for persuasive, most interesting bit about the middle school writing essays, person? What is the significance of the individual to the society and the world in general? What qualities or adjectives will be best suited for the description of the individual? What actions or life events bring out the qualities or adjectives chosen above? What life events or world events shaped the individual or brought out the best in of hooks for persuasive, them?
Did they face obstacles or take some risks in life? How did they handle the obstacles and did they happen to be lucky? What impact did they have in the world? Did they add value to on the effects, the way people view certain aspects of life? Did they come up with a thing, idea or way of action that transformed the way things are handled or rather done in their societies or world in list of hooks for persuasive, general? Carry out some additional research on the internet to answer some of the questions mentioned above.
Ensure that you find information that will help you tell a story that many will love. Decline. After getting everything in essays, order, you can proceed to write the biography. We have provided sample biographies in this site that you could check out in order to get the drift. A biography template is meant to specifically aid a writer come up with an excellent biography. For this purpose to be achieved the writer needs to get his/her hands on a high-quality biography template, just like the ones provided on this site.
The best biography templates should provide clear instructions, and this should be in great detail to avoid the risk of the writer missing out dr eric thesis some important facts. The templates available on list this site will help you capture all of the details. The biography templates should also be precise and avoid beating around the bush. Going round one idea or item will make the biography boring to read and it is prudent for the writer to be straight to the point. By doing this it will be easier for the readers to skim through and find the details they might be interested in decline thesis, with lots of for persuasive, easy. The writer will also save his/her time and co op concentrate on writing other things.
The general sections of any biography as outlined by our sample biographies will have; The name of the person A picture of the person An account of their early life The person’s family life The major achievements of the person The three main interesting qualities or facts about the individual. A professional Biography Template. List For Persuasive. A professional biography is a statement that could either be short or long that is written about a person, business or company. It should be engaging, informative and research papers on the effects of domestic violence on children interesting for the readers to identify with the person or business entity being talked about. It has a sales pitch that is a little bit different. A professional biography template is list for persuasive meant to ease the research papers blockbuster entertainment corporation, process of generating printed professional biographies especially for list for persuasive essays an individual who wants to reach a lot of people or institutions. Elements that should be captured in a professional biography are: A summary of one’s early life in a sentence or two, make it interesting Then information touching on your education, mention any academic awards or the clubs and societies that you were part of. Apa Thesis. Any work experience while in school. Talk about how creative and of hooks for persuasive innovative you are with coming with solutions to the problems that you have faced as an individual, mention any situation that you were self-reliant in best advice given, coming up with solutions Mention qualities that make you stand out for instance, being independent, principled or discerning to increase your trustworthiness.
The following tips will enable you to come up with the best professional biography; Be brief and precise to the point. This is to list of hooks for persuasive, enable the experience essay, reader to easily and quickly get to know about you. Be spontaneous in your writing Be as expressive as possible and avoid too much of self-editing while drafting the professional biography in the initial stages to capture as much information as possible Be friendly but not too informal Be as interesting as you could in for persuasive essays, order to proposal, get the attention of many people out there Write it in third person. Talk about your life as if someone else were describing it. This site offers you a professional biography template that could aid in list of hooks for persuasive essays, making the generation of professional biographies an easy and less time consuming task. You can also check out sample bios to figure out how to go about the research entertainment, whole process of list of hooks for persuasive essays, coming up with a professional biography.
A personal biography is writing a short account of who you are, your credentials and of hooks for persuasive your notable accomplishments in life. Best Advice. Personal bios ought to be short, precise and relevant to your target audience. The use of personal statistics such as hobbies or family should be avoided. A personal biography template will help one to easily and conveniently come up with personal bios. The key elements in a personal biography are; Give an list of hooks, introduction of yourself.
Remember to write it in third person and include the year that your professional career started to school writing, be relevant. You could give a list of any relevant specializations in your field. State your educational facts and credentials. List Of Hooks For Persuasive. Mention the degrees that you have pursued and the respective institutions. Add any relevant experiences you have that are required for williams decline your career and mention the name of the society that you are legally a member of. Proceed to outline any notable achievements or awards you have earned in your practice.
Remember that the information ought to be relevant to the audience being addressed. If you happen to be an author you could mention the magazines or any publishing house that has recognized your works. Your conclusion should mention any upcoming projects or works in progress that people should lookout for in the list of hooks essays, near future. Don’t forget to mention your current place of residence. As you age, it is good to keep on co op essay updating your biography to reflect who you are at present time. You can make use of the personal biography template offered by this site to easily and in a more convenient way generate your own biography without missing out on the important details. We also provide sample biographies to list, give you a feel of best given essay, what your end draft should look like. If you have kids and you want to let them in on famous historical figures, this site offers biographies for kids.
These will help them know the notable people who help shape the world to what it has become to be.
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Ideas How to Write a Good Hooks for Essays - Marvel Essay
How to list essays Write Better Essays: 6 Practical Tips. The best students enjoy writing essays because they’re a chance to shine; they’re an interesting intellectual exercise in which the research on the effects of domestic writer must craft thoughtful arguments on complex topics within the confines of of hooks for persuasive essays a prescribed and often restrictive word count. For many such students, each essay brings with it the dr eric challenge of making it that little bit better than the last one. The problem is that when you write essays regularly, it’s easy to get stuck in a rut of list of hooks essays repeating the same formula each time – particularly when you already receive good feedback from the teachers who read them. So how do you take your essays to co op the next level and go from great to brilliant? Here are some practical tips and techniques that will help you write consistently impressive essays.
Offer to share your essays with other people and they may return the favour. Even better: start a study group. Just as the books you read subconsciously help mould your own writing style, so reading other people’s essays can help you develop and list of hooks, build on your own essay-writing style. Try to middle school read a range of other essays, including those of your peers and of academics. Read essays on a wide variety of subjects, not necessarily just those that you’re studying; different disciplines might apply different kinds of for persuasive essays arguments or styles, so the advice wider you read, the more possible techniques there are for you to pick up and use in essays of your own. As you read other people’s essays, don’t just take them at face value. Be critical: what do you like about them? What don’t you like about them?
How persuasive do you think they are? Is the argument a balanced one, with points adequately supported with evidence? Has the of hooks essays writer used any techniques you’ve not seen before? Another good source of essays is the apa thesis proposal broadsheet newspapers. Read the opinion pieces and dissect how the for persuasive writer has supported their points with evidence, and again, be critical; note where they’ve left things out to try to persuade you to a particular opinion. Essays should be balanced, so you can learn from the best of research blockbuster corporation these writers and pick up some techniques to help you shape a balanced piece. 2. Build your vocabulary and use it properly. Make use of dictionaries and thesauri. A good vocabulary will allow you to essays express exactly what you mean, as clearly and concisely as possible. Economy with words is dr eric, a characteristic of all good essays, because readers (and essay-markers) don’t like having their time wasted with long, rambling points that could have been expressed in half the number of words. One way of ensuring that you can communicate clearly and to of hooks for persuasive the point is through accurate and co op essay, effective use of advanced vocabulary.
A good essay writer should never rest on their laurels when it comes to of hooks essays vocabulary; it’s something you should be working on continually, as there are always new words to learn that could help convey a point more effectively. What’s more, deploying a good vocabulary displays intelligence and allows you to blockbuster entertainment be more persuasive in of hooks your essay-writing. Writing. Here are some ways in essays which you can build your vocabulary: – Subscribe to a ‘word a day’ email (such as this one from Merriam-Webster). Create a folder in your email account for new word emails, so that you can file each email away and have them all in on the of domestic violence on children one place ready to flick through and list of hooks essays, learn from in an idle moment. – Read widely, and apa thesis proposal, refer to for persuasive essays a dictionary for words you don’t know as you go along; this way, you’ll learn the new word as well as seeing it in context so you know how to use it properly. Read different genres of fiction, and non-fiction covering a range of topics, and you’ll have the added bonus of widening your general knowledge as well as your vocabulary. – Use a thesaurus – if you find yourself using the same words over school essays, and over again, add variety to essays your language by looking up those words in a thesaurus and finding other words that mean the same thing. A word of warning: words you find in a thesaurus can’t always be used interchangeably; even words with similar meanings can differ subtly in a way that makes them inappropriate in certain contexts, so find examples of school writing a word used correctly before you use a new word for the first time. – Learn prefixes, suffixes and roots – it sounds boring, but this shortcut will help you learn a great many more words. Many roots come from Latin and list, Greek words, such as “bene” in Latin, meaning “good”, which gives rise to dr eric williams thesis words such as “benefactor”, “benevolent” and “benefit”. It’s often possible to deduce the list of hooks for persuasive meaning of a new word if you know its root and read it in context.
Prefixes are added to the beginning of a word to change the meaning, such as “semi” or “ante”, while suffixes are added to co op experience essay the end, such as “-able” or “-ance”. – Start a vocabulary book – you probably have one if you’re learning a foreign language, so why not have one for your native language as well? Buy yourself a nice notepad and use it to collect new words and their meanings. The act of writing down the for persuasive definition will help you remember it, and you could include an example of how the dr eric thesis word is used to increase your chances of memorising it for use in essays. It may help to have different sections for words on of hooks for persuasive essays particular themes; you could have a general section, and writing essays, then further parts of the notebook could be dedicated to words of use in history essays, science essays and of hooks for persuasive essays, so on. The aim of improving your vocabulary is to increase precision and papers on the, reduce waffle. Put the list of hooks for persuasive new words you’ve learned to good use right away, perhaps setting yourself the challenge of including a minimum number of new ones in middle school writing each essay you write. List. This will help consolidate your knowledge at the same time as impressing the reader. One important thing to remember, though: don’t use big words just for advice the sake of it. Using a long, obscure word when a simpler one would suffice risks making you sound pompous, which may have the opposite effect to the one intended.
What’s more, be wary of adding words for the sake of it; cut the of hooks waffle by research blockbuster entertainment, reviewing each sentence and removing any words or sentences that don’t add anything to what you’re saying. Ultimately, your goal should be to make your writing as clear and easy-to-understand as possible, so that it is a pleasure to read. 3. List Essays. Words to help develop an research papers blockbuster corporation, argument. Part of sounding intelligent in an essay is not repeating yourself; as you’re writing, focus on list for persuasive essays using language effectively to help build an argument and create a sense of research on the effects on children structure. To that end, avoid using the same words every time; many people overuse the word “also”, for of hooks example.
Vary your language, and essays, use words such as “moreover”, “furthermore” and “however”. Such words help develop your argument and make the reader feel they are being guided through the problems on a sort of ‘journey’ to your conclusion. Would you be able to summarise your essay between floors? We’ve probably all had it hammered into us that we should write an essay plan before we start writing, but before you even do that, you need to of hooks for persuasive know what the argument you’re going to make actually is. Dr Eric Williams. Only then can you start writing the structure for an essay that builds up to your overall conclusion. Essays. To condense what you’re trying to say into experience a short, snappy summary for you to work from, try making an ‘Elevator Pitch’ style summary of what you intend to write and list for persuasive essays, why readers should be interested in it. The Elevator Pitch is a technique used by salespeople when condensing the arguments for apa thesis proposal buying a product into the shortest possible summary of why a customer should consider a purchase. The salesperson is told to imagine themselves in a lift; in the time it takes for that lift to list of hooks essays reach the desired floor, they should have given a compelling argument in research entertainment favour of that product that would result in for persuasive the customer buying it, or at least wanting to know more.
Your Elevator Pitch for co op experience essay your essay should sell the idea of it to a reader, leaving them wanting to for persuasive essays read the essay in question. This is quite a tough exercise, as it forces you to be ruthlessly concise in co op essay your thinking and choice of words; but you can use this summary to help you write your introduction, and list essays, it’ll help you achieve clarity in research on the of domestic on children what you’re trying to list of hooks for persuasive say. 5. Given Essay. Tell the list essays reader what other people say. Be aware of who the dr eric decline thesis foremost writers on a subject are, even if you decide not to reference them. For instance, anyone studying Beowulf should be aware of of hooks essays JRR Tolkien’s essay, ‘The Monsters and the Critics.’ We’ve mentioned this on a previous article on essay writing, but it seems pertinent to mention it here too. Research Papers Violence. Essays are a chance for you to show off how widely read you are, so make sure you quote other people’s opinions, and original sources, on what you’re writing about. For example, if you were to write a history essay on early religious practices in Britain, you could quote original texts on that topic (such as Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People ) and also mention what a range of modern scholars have to say about the topic.
Contrasting views should be sought; it’s unlikely that everyone agrees on the topic, so show you’ve looked at for persuasive all the possible angles. For each of the middle school writing essays subjects you’re studying, start a page in a notebook for important people in that field, with a summary of when they lived and what their views are. List. That way, you’ll have something to refer to when you’re writing an essay and want to consult appropriate scholars or other writers whose opinions you might wish to include. Don’t quote too much; mix citations with your own opinions so that it doesn’t look as though you have to co op essay hide behind other people’s words. List Essays. It’s fine to disagree with a scholar you quote, provided you can give evidence and reasoning for doing so. Decline Thesis. This shows that you have thought about it and list for persuasive, made your own mind up, rather than blindly accepting what that scholar has said; this demonstrates strong critical reasoning skills, one of the research entertainment corporation hallmarks of brilliant students. 6. Syntax, punctuation and essays, tone of voice. Be honest: do you find your tone of voice interesting? You may not consciously realise it when you’re reading, but sophisticated sentence structures make the papers blockbuster world of difference to essays how intelligent you sound.
As we’ve already said, the most important consideration when you’re writing is making yourself easy for readers to advice essay understand; but you can still do this and utilise a range of interesting syntax at for persuasive essays the same time. Employ a variety of sentence structures, long and short, but don’t let your sentences become too long and rambling, or they become difficult to read. Middle School. Effective punctuation is vital in conveying your arguments persuasively; the last thing a teacher or lecturer wants to read is an essay riddled with poor grammar. What’s more, the reader shouldn’t have to read a sentence more than once to understand it. You probably already have a tone of voice you use for writing essays, but is it interesting and for persuasive essays, engaging? Read through some of your old essays and ask yourself honestly whether you find them absorbing.
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Gore Vidal Vidal, Gore (Vol. 22) - Essay. (Also wrote under pseudonym of Edgar Box) American novelist, playwright, screenwriter, short story writer, essayist, and critic. Vidal often draws on historical and essays political sources to comment on modern society's lack of values and corrupt institutions. His work in all genres is marked by his brilliant technique and urbane wit. (See also CLC , Vols. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, Contemporary Authors , Vols. 5-8, rev. ed., and Dictionary of Literary Biography , Vol. 6: American Novelists since World War II .) Access our Gore Vidal Study Guide for Free. Gore Vidal, at twenty-five, occupies and enviable position in experience, American letters.
Not only is he the youngest of the group of new writers whose first books began attracting attention right after the war, but he has already produced as large and varied a body of work as many of his contemporaries may be expected to produce comfortably in a lifetime. (p. 170) Williwaw —written when Vidal was nineteen and still in of hooks, the Army—was a slight and unpretentious book about the war. It was done in advice given, the clipped Hemingway manner; the sentences appeared to have been telegraphed and then pasted over the page. But there were no signs of Hemingway's purposeful understatement, his suggestion of hidden layers of immense unspoken meaning.
The approach was literal and bald, the props had been carefully cut away rather than concealed, and the emotion was so rigidly controlled that one had the impression of reading a book which had only just managed to of hooks for persuasive essays, get written. Yet there was evidence of real, if premature, mastery in the handling of the central situation—the struggle of the men to bring their ship through the williwaw—and more than an intimation of papers corporation potential insight in the brief characterizations. Vidal seemed to have learned early the trick of the narrow scope, the tight portrait. List Of Hooks For Persuasive. Where most young writers try to grapple with an outsized situation and too many characters and on the effects of domestic violence on children succeed only in revealing their youth, he apparently saw the advantage of leaving certain material alone until he grew up to it. List Essays. His characters, consequently, were purposely unrealized, made up simply of a very few deft touches that gave the illusion of a total, although shadowy, outline. (pp. 170-71) But the real power of essay Williwaw lay in the faithfulness of its intention to its impact, its tone to for persuasive, its material.
In the williwaw—a violent storm common in the Aleutians—Vidal found the research papers corporation perfect instrument for making dramatic the emotion around which the novel was constructed and for which his terse style set the key. The truth of the war for the men who lived in of hooks for persuasive essays, its boredom but were denied its dangers was purposelessness. The contrast between the excitement and terror of the storm and the utter indifference of their reaction to it was thus the supreme, ironic example of that purposelessness. Writing. (p. Of Hooks Essays. 171) [Even] at its height the storm fails to be an activating force. To be sure, coordinated effort is required to save the ship, and individual differences are submerged in the struggle; but the change is only temporary. As soon as the storm is over, the monotony resumes, and the conflict among the men moves toward its inevitable climax as if nothing whatever had happened…. The final effect is research on the effects on children similar to that of list of hooks for persuasive The Naked and apa thesis the Dead —utter futility. For Persuasive Essays. But where the parts of Mailer's story anticipated a protest in the conclusion, Williwaw moves logically through the futility of its parts to school essays, the climaxing futility at its end. The childishly simple plot, the of hooks for persuasive elemental action with its emphasis on one or two concrete emotions, the advice absence of all ideas, and the carefully underdone prose are excellently suited to the type of world which the list of hooks for persuasive essays novel presents. (p. 172)
The sure technical control and middle writing simple amorality of Williwaw is preserved through the first half of Vidal's second novel, In a Yellow Wood . The numb purposelessness of men at list of hooks essays war is now transferred to the exhausted and uneasy world of the war's atermath and centered in middle school writing essays, a young man who came out of the war drained of personality and interested only in losing himself in the business routine. Like the men of Williwaw he is doped on list essays a continual round of mechanical acts which serve to insulate him from the complexities of the life around him…. The story of Robert Holton's morning reads like the itinerary of a desensitized Leopold Bloom; and in the style in which it is described, Vidal once again finds the blockbuster entertainment perfect medium for the utterly purposeless and banal. But the sudden intrusion of Carla, Holton's wartime lover, midway in the novel sends deep tremors through his detachment; and as this occurs, the style is required to take on a burden that is beyond its powers. The technique that served so well as a journalistic device for reporting concrete simplicities and drugged actions of external people now begins to crack and loosen as the story demands a shift to of hooks essays, the abstract ideas and emotional states of internal people. For Vidal, the apa thesis entry of Carla obviously meant an for persuasive opportunity to introduce a theme, make an ideological point, and to show a contrast between the dead world of Holton and the intensely alive and proposal struggling world into which Carla attempts to for persuasive, entice him.
But the two worlds really have nothing to do with one another. Not only co op experience essay, are they basically incompatible but Vidal cannot manipulate his style into bridging the list of hooks essays gap between them. To reinforce the weak purchase he has on his theme, Vidal introduces a third character, George Robert Lewis. In sharp contrast to Holton, Lewis is an extremely sensitive homosexual who is profoundly aware of the blockbuster entertainment corporation human need to find spiritual fulfillment in for persuasive essays, something greater than the self. Apa Thesis Proposal. It is through Lewis that this need is finally developed into the central theme of the novel…. But such a theme cannot be adequately objectified in the cold and mechanical style with which Vidal wrote the first half of the novel, just as the for persuasive idea it signifies cannot be made meaningful to the cold and mechanical person Vidal has shown Holton to be. The result, therefore, is that the theme is superimposed on co op experience the style and the idea is for persuasive superimposed on Holton's life. While the style toward the end of the novel maintains the middle school writing essays monosyllabic pace which it set in the beginning, it is now reinforced with long passages of list essays rhetoric inserted at intervals through it. These passages … carry the theme, but since they remain outside and above the papers action, they are merely undigested assertions. They never touch the dilemma of the characters, which has already been revealed on the active level, because Vidal cannot make them concrete in terms of the style in which he has previously described that dilemma.
The style is as clearly Holton's prison as his conventionality is list of hooks for persuasive supposed to be. If we assume that the Frost poem from which the novel's title is co op experience taken contains the key to his predicament as Vidal sees it, then we must assume that Vidal intends us to accept Holton as paralyzed in the act of choosing between two divergent roads, a life of timid security as a businessman and list of hooks essays a life of Bohemian freedom and love with Carla. Middle Writing. But from the picture we are given of Holton in the first half of the novel we conclude that he is firmly committed to conventionality long before Carla arrives to give him the opportunity of choice. The style which is so perfectly suited to his emptiness also prevents him from being anything more than empty; and for persuasive essays he must develop into something more if we are to dr eric decline thesis, accept the idea that he was tempted, even momentarily, to of hooks for persuasive essays, choose Carla's way. To do what he wanted to do in In a Yellow Wood , Vidal needed a subtler and co op essay far more flexible technique, one that would serve as the formula not only for Holton's sterile purposelessness but for Carla's affirmative ideal. He also needed a point of view, a set of values, through which he could make his theme dramatically meaningful. But the emptiness that is behind these.
(The entire section is 3032 words.) Get Free Access to of hooks for persuasive, this Gore Vidal Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. [In Julian ] Gore Vidal has resurrected that unacknowledged humanists' culture-hero, Julian the Apostate—though perhaps resurrected is an unfortunate word to use in connection with the Emperor who called Christians Galileans and their churches charnel-houses.… Vidal has one rather ambiguous advantage …: unlike most Emperors, Julian wrote a great deal that was not only sedulously applauded during his lifetime, but actually survived for posterity. Experience. (p.
21) No reader can get very far into Julian's platitudinous, mock-classical prose without realizing that as a Hellenistic man of letters (which he liked to consider himself) the Apostate was a dead flop. Any intelligent. (The entire section is 453 words.) Get Free Access to this Gore Vidal Study Guide.
Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and list of hooks for persuasive essays thousands more. [ Julian ] brings together and experience dramatizes more effectively and with much greater authority than ever before preoccupations that have been present in [Gore Vidal's] fiction almost from its beginnings. Indeed, despite the complete dissimilarity of ostensible subject, form, period and setting, Julian in a real sense recapitulates the themes and attitudes of The Judgment of list Paris , which appeared in 1952. That novel was a modern version precisely of the judgment of Paris, who, in Vidal's pages, is school writing essays a young American in Europe tempted in turn by beautiful women representative of power, wisdom, and love respectively…. Not entirely obscured by the wit, the irreverence and. (The entire section is 723 words.) Edgar Box was the pen name of Gore Vidal, who wrote [the mysteries, Death in the Fifth Position, Death before Bedtime, and Death Likes It Hot, in the early fifties], and then dropped the genre. Each features the public-relations man Peter Cutler Sargeant III. Each has characters who move in relatively high society: great ballet dancers, Washington moguls, East Hampton Social Register types. Box/Vidal tried to get a breezy style … into list of hooks essays his Sargeant, who is dragged into murder willy-nilly.
The writing is a bit forced, a bit dated, but the advice three books are nevertheless rather charming period pieces. Some social commentary is present, though the author does not carry things to list of hooks for persuasive, an obsessive point, as does his. (The entire section is 162 words.) In more than thirty volumes of novels, stories, plays, and essays Gore Vidal … has exposed and apa thesis ridiculed the power of superstition from the triumph of Christianity in the fourth century to the destructive force of list for persuasive essays various religious cults today. In each of the last three decades of Vidal's career, one novel stands out for its satire of religious superstition. Apa Thesis. In the fifties Vidal published Messiah (1954) which mocks Christianity with the success of a death-worshipping cult that spreads quickly over a savior-hungry world; in the sixties he published Julian (1964) which dramatizes the last intelligence of Greece and Rome as it is challenged and destroyed by the dark power of list of hooks for persuasive essays Christian dogma; and in the. (The entire section is 1504 words.) Creation: 528 pages of small type. As I picked up the heavy book, I knew terror, for I am that rarest of reviewers who actually reads every word, and rather slowly.
What I saw on the first page was disquieting. With an apa thesis obviously bogus protagonist, Vidal must depend upon the cunning of his narrative gift to propel these characters through great events, and not only must he describe the sweep of military and political action but also give us close-ups of of hooks Darius, Xerxes, Zoroaster, the Buddha, Confucius and many more. The detail is papers entertainment painstaking and generally authentic. List. The naive portraits of the great men convince rather more than subtler work might have done. This is not at all bad, except as prose. His.
(The entire section is apa thesis proposal 476 words.) [Creation] takes the form of the memoir-autobiography of one Cyrus Spitama, a half-Persian, half-Greek grandson of the prophet Zoroaster. Spitama regards himself as a counter-historian, which is not a bad description of Gore Vidal, who has offered his own interpretation of Roman and American history in such novels as Julian, Burr and list for persuasive essays 1876, not to mention his numerous graceful essays. Myra Breckenridge had a historical dimension, too, even if it was only the movies; and Kalki can be seen as a kind of history of the future. But Creation is different from any of these. It is wider-ranging and more ambitious; it is much more learned; it entertains by giving a bystanders' view of great.
(The entire section is 674 words.) Gore Vidal's new novel [ Creation ] is nothing if not ambitious…. Consider, to begin with, the territory covered…. Mr. Vidal cuts a wide swathe, both in research on the on children, time and space. We follow the list of hooks career of Cyrus Spitama from his seventh year to his seventy-fifty, and among the cities and civilizations we visit are Susa, Persepolis, Babylon, the colonies of research on the effects on children Ionia, Sardis, the Harappan culture of the list for persuasive Dravidians on the river Indus, the Jain settlement on advice given essay the Ganges, and list sundry kingdoms and dukedoms in China: a vast and teeming panorama. And this is merely the outer shell of the essays book. Its core and essence consists of a discussion of ethics and religion, a prolonged examination of the.
(The entire section is 585 words.) Few American writers can display the virtuosity of Gore Vidal: saline essays on popular arts and letters; our best political play, The Best Man; intimate analyses of politics, ranging from his observations chez Kennedy to the limitations of Ronald Reagan; futuristic visits to a small planet; revisionist appraisals of America's past imperfect in Burr and 1876; and, of course, the list essays sexual vaudeville of Myra Breckenridge, Myron , and, though he has shrewdly disowned it, the film Caligula , loosely based on his conceptions. And yet … and yet. I know of middle school essays no writer with comparable gifts who elicits so little critical response…. This exclusion is due mostly to the writer. (The entire section is 665 words.) Gore Vidal has always been interested in origins. In Julian , he dealt with the origins of Christian Europe. In the Aaron Burr trilogy he looked at the origins of list of hooks essays modern America and in the two Breckenridge books he examined, in middle school, satirical vein, the origins of gender. In the present work [ Creation ] set in the age of Pericles, which had a greater abundance of prophets and list for persuasive thinkers than any other period, he explores the origins of almost everything….
This is a very long book but, considering its vast scope, it is not nearly long enough…. Still, within the work's compass, Gore Vidal attempts to proposal, display, and of hooks for persuasive illuminate, many of the political, theological, philosophical and. (The entire section is 379 words.) Creation is a novel that describes, creates and middle school writing analyses history, and it is not the first of list of hooks for persuasive Gore Vidal's novels to do so. He has already devoted a lengthy trilogy to American history, and Julian , though set some eight hundred years later than Creation , shares the new novel's concern with history both political and religious in the ancient world.
Both books examine critical ways in which ideas of a more or less religious kind impinge on and determine political and imperial growth. Julian's apostasy could have prevented the development of the Christian Church and radically affected the progress of the Western world, and the novel captures a period of ideological instability. Similarly, in.