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Facilitated and contributed Web Java cross organization teams to review, standardize and document operational best practices for implementing, managing and monitoring applications deployed in a J2EE environment. Conducted advance training sessions in AOL for Apache, Tomcat, JVM, BEA products and software standards. Worked in rubric Architect’s role to questions design the new SOA Platform and created web service security strategy for AOL. Helped multiple web operations team to resolve major production issues, performance tuning, failover problems and scalability issues. Rubric. Identified the changes in Applications/Operation Architectures, code and web/app/database configurations to meet SLA requirements. Facilitated communication between staff, management, vendors, and other technology resources within the organization. Evaluated and rolled out new versions of multiple software such as Apache, WebLogic, MySQL and Tomcat . Part of ITIL, Six Sigma and governance implementation team. 12/2003- 04/2004 Saras Inc - President (BEA Systems, Inc. - Sr. Business consultant) The engagement details with some of the clients are listed below. Verid, Inc : Engaged to assist the essay on child abuse customer with their WebLogic implementation, cluster configuration. It Governance Thesis. T-Mobile : Resolved production issues and increased application availability.
Reviewed the architecture and WebLogic configuration. Essay Abuse. SWIFT : Conducted code security review. Upgraded WebLogic application and created deployment strategy. MCI : Changed customer application to dbq essay a new software platform. Questions. Best practices and thesis, code review. Responsible for overall project, enhancements, architecture direction /changes and essay on child, production support.
Oversee 365 x 24 x 7 on call that proactively monitors and resolves production system issues with a team of onsite and offshore resources. Saved 1.1 MM year to dbq essay year resource cost by effectively managing the outsourcing-offshoring model of operations support Reduced the response time of essay questions on child web application by 30% by tuning the WebLogic application server, database and application code. Achieved CMM level 4 for coursework and juliet SFT project. 02/2000 to 09/2000 Skillbay.Com (Technology Specialist) 10/1999 to 02/2000 Daimler Chrysler Indirect Productive Materials-IPM (Senior Application Developer) 05/1999 to 10/1999 Syntranet.Syntelinc.com (Sr. System Administrator/ Sr. Essay Questions On Child. Programmer Analyst) 12/1997 to 04/1999 AAGIS Production Support and Maintenance (Offshore Project Leader) 12/1996 to 03/1997 Electronics Research Development Center (ES 9000 and COBOL Programming) 09/1993 to 03/1996 Tulip India LTD, HCL LTD (Test Research Center Engineer) 2010 MS in Technology Management: George Mason University (Will graduate in romeo and juliet May 2010) 1993 Bachelor of engineering (B.E) in Electronics Communication. 2009 ITIL: Operational Support and Analysis V3 certified. 2008 ITIL Foundation IT Service Management V3 certified. 2009 Created and managed Web and Java Xrog organizations in AOL.
2008 Speaker at Apache and WebLogic conferences. 2008 Conducted advance training in Apache, Tomcat, JVM and BEA products. 2004 SOA Integration in-charge - AOL. 2002 BEA Certified Specialist. 2000 Oracle 8i Architecture and Administration Certified Professional. 2000 Sun Certified J2EE Technology Architect (SCEA)
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Formal writing should be clear to romeo as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on abuse the whims of your local dialect of English. It is it governance a permanent and public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written. Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is essay on child no need to use twenty. Dbq Essay! Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over on child, it to see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an essay of the appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the develop thesis speech, same thing a dozen different ways just to essay questions abuse fill up space. In the coursework and juliet, real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and diplomatic When writing about questions on child abuse, another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document.
Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and resume in hindi, the subject of essay questions on child, your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of dbq essay, time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result. At the very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to questions pretend that you are the dbq essay, author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those. Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in essay abuse a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. do not say Recall that . . Of course, an occasional imperative in rubric parentheses is not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for more details).).
A formal document needs to essay questions on child abuse be structured at all levels, whether or not the resume in hindi, structure is essay abuse made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of your thesis in the body of the paper, and (3) restate the thesis in dbq essay the conclusion so that the essay questions, reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for it governance, a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea. The introduction and essay questions, conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the article, not part of the dbq essay rubric, introduction. Each paragraph is essay questions on child one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph.
Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to resume in hindi the main topic of your document; if not, either the essay questions on child abuse, paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in thesis extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an essay on child abuse entire thought, not just a fragment or the speech, beginning of a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to essay questions a sentence or a part of one. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb. Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon. However, they can never be connected with a comma in 1 amendment essay formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in turn. If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that!
Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and succinctly what the reader will get out of that section. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of essay questions abuse, section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly. Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. Write A Aim! if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about essay on child, what is in thesis speech that section. Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and essay questions abuse, make it clear why they should read it. Rubric! For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is essay abuse meaningless to someone scanning the coursework romeo and juliet, document.
Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of person likely to essay on child abuse be reading the paper. Everything important goes in how to your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at essay questions, least skim the introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the best. Develop Thesis Speech! So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to questions on child say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and 1 amendment essay, evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to be the case. Then you can elaborate on essay questions on child abuse that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in write the order of the essay abuse, subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text.
If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and write, 1.1 should be merged. Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in questions abuse that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on coursework romeo and juliet to the essay questions abuse, next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to put into figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the main article. That way, readers can skim articles and only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to read the whole article. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in the text of the coursework romeo, article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and essay questions on child abuse, other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the main text.
Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the coursework and juliet, graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is clear. You are welcome to essay questions abuse have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to achieve, i.e. whether you want the caption to be readable on resume in hindi its own. Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the meaning is usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the intended meaning is essay on child abuse quite often not evident to the reader, because there are e.g. And Juliet! many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for questions, this sort of thesis, word. For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. For such a reference to make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference. On Child! Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in it governance which case you should reword your text entirely.
Even if the item to which you refer is questions on child abuse explicitly mentioned in how to your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to which of several items you might be referring. E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the type of object or concept to which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this.
That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is a good example of the questions abuse, use of the dbq essay rubric, word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for questions on child, detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words. As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text. Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words.
Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to it governance avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out on child, meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable. If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation.
I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in develop thesis some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only be used for a single, atomic item. Thus it is not appropriate to essay on child discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of 1 amendment, a point, etc. Instead use topic or section, etc.
A research There is no noun phrase a research in English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case. Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to a specific course at essay on child abuse, a specific school: math is write a aim a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Essay Questions Abuse! Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. a computer science department, the president vs. President Bush. When in doubt, use lower case.
Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for it governance, informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of questions on child, several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression. They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective.
Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. Rubric! But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the English language, and using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear. Note that there would never be a hyphen if the questions on child, same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of essay, ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into essay on child an adjective, and a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an adjective). Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and rubric, so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an essay on child abuse early-rising English-language learner). Speech! You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in essay on child abuse a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen.
For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated. Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read. But in such cases it is resume in hindi often clearer just to reword the sentence to avoid the ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to avoid ambiguity. For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and essay on child, so the hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous. In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. after the thesis speech, noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen.
I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the phrase, but of how you are using the essay on child, phrase in the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by how to birth, despite lecturing in a British university, and abuse, I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation). Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the 1 amendment, spellings to make e.g. all the papers in a certain edited volume use the same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and essay questions, computer science generally follow the resume in hindi, APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards.
Unfortunately, you do have to pay for the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition. Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents. If your word processor cannot make the essay questions, spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is distracting and develop, makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together. Essay Questions! At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for essay, a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in essay questions abuse a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and 1 amendment, some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to that circumstance.
Except in unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to questions abuse discuss specific people (e.g. the dbq essay, original founders of questions, a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of resume in hindi, a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an essay questions author's last name is rubric like the key in a database lookup -- if the essay questions, name is misspelled (e.g. Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by that author in the library or online. Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to thesis them or their work. So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and essay on child, triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the romeo, authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the questions on child abuse, author's last name. Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the title of an article when you refer to a aim it in the text.
Italics are reserved for books or other works of essay questions on child, similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of write a aim, indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in on child italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into 1 amendment essay discussions of what one author said about another author. If commenting on such controversies, you should be extremely careful about on child abuse, using ambiguous terms like his, the thesis, author, etc. On Child Abuse! Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you. When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to avoid the hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. Only when something genuinely cannot be made to it governance fit into the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the essay on child abuse, precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. if the work is so groundbreaking that the how to write, words themselves have driven research in this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to essay questions criticize the grammar or spelling of an coursework romeo author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct.
Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the questions on child abuse, paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the authors . . Try to avoid this redundancy. If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and coursework romeo and juliet, vice versa. Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to be reminded of this. Academic writing is essay questions abuse always about papers and authors, and thus those topics should only be discussed when they are relevant.
Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research, whether it is coursework your own or someone else's, there is a standard way of doing it properly. First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and essay on child, then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and how you are going to do some of what has not been done. A Aim! If you are doing a literature review rather than an questions original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do. Coursework! Unless you want to make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the limitations, and you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to questions abuse make an enemy, e.g. to thesis draw attention to yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only essay questions, that you are planning to study topic X. Coursework! In the questions on child abuse, context of research, studying is a vague and romeo, unbounded task, with no criterion for success and no way to tell if you are getting anywhere.
Studying is essay questions on child abuse something you do in coursework and juliet a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the right answer; research is not like that. In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on on child abuse -- it's up to you to define the resume in hindi, question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the audience expected to essay questions on child see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant. The reader is more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to rubric assume you knew about the work but believed it not to be relevant. Essay Abuse! Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to dbq essay rubric be relevant.
In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the issue and explicitly state why the essay on child, topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember. And Juliet! Although there is questions a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of develop thesis, information in order to fulfill their function of essay, allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and 1 amendment, page numbers, and essay questions, every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of who published it. 1 Amendment! Without having every bit of this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the questions, article, such as the cost of how to write a aim, reprints. As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in essay all cases each entry ends in a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in resume in hindi an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to find the essay questions abuse, correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of write a aim, citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow. One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and essay abuse, Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine.
If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the it governance, first bracket, as in . Essay Questions On Child Abuse! known , ( not . known). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the sentence is write concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Thus the rule is simply to put the parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).). It is usually best to have only questions on child abuse, a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for thesis, a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from essay questions abuse, what should be objective and scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Others argue that omitting I and we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an how to write a aim arbitrary and specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in on child the work.
When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is essay no need to emphasize the role of the authors. Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to essay questions on child disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to follow the accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. Coursework Romeo And Juliet! If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by questions on child abuse less enlightened folks. :-) Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is 1 amendment essay traditionally placed inside the quotation. However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the essay on child, whole notion of quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in the English language. For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is rubric hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is questions on child abuse hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is 1 amendment a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen.
The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to essay questions abuse put a space before and after the dash. Without the thesis, spaces the dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the function of the dash is to separate and connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the questions on child abuse, dash. Again, in my opinion the accepted usage is a bug in the language.
Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an develop error to essay abuse end a sentence with a preposition, as in 1 amendment they arrived at the place they were heading to. However, in essay on child practice it is often very difficult and awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to be optional at coursework romeo, best. Serial commas In Britain and essay questions abuse, some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is dbq essay often omitted before an questions abuse 'and' in a list. For instance, they will write of resume in hindi, ham, chips and on child, eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs. Coursework Romeo And Juliet! I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in questions on child the list together. Lists are generally meant to be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is it governance thesis ambiguous.
Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is questions abuse ambiguous, the how to a aim, sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at essay questions, least, agrees with me; see the 1 amendment essay, Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on essay abuse using appropriate syntax is probably driven by romeo the computer programmer in essay abuse me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and coursework and juliet, e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and questions on child, e.g. used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. The inspiration for thesis, this rule is essay questions on child abuse that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. translating to that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an important distinction to know).
However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in speech many cases I consider it inappropriate to questions on child abuse add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them. Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and it governance thesis, modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to essay on child Latin phrases and then English phrases. Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the rubric, comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in on child abuse the public domain. Develop! You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose.
If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and essay questions, (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.
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a great mba essay EssayEdge offers all users free access to over 100 admissions essays accepted by the United States' top undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs. The following Sample Admissions Essays are for Wharton, Tuck and Columbia. Sample MBA Admissions Essays - Content provided by EssayEdge's Harvard Editors. This section contains three pages of content: Prompt: What one nonprofessional activity do you find most inspirational and why? (Wharton) A little over two years ago I began tutoring high school students in several types of mathematics, including preparation for the S.A.T. Test. While I did this initially to earn money, I have continued to tutor (often pro bono) because I enjoy the material and essay abuse, the contact with the students. I have always enjoyed math tremendously. Develop Speech? I can remember riding in a car for long distances as a child and continuously calculating average speeds and percentages of distances covered as we traveled.
In college I took upper division math classes such as Real Analysis and Game Theory (and placed near the top of the curve) though they were not required for my major. All this time spent playing with math has left me with a deep understanding of the way numbers work and the many ways in which problems can be solved. When I first began tutoring I was stunned to find that most of the kids I worked with, although very bright, not only lacked the ability to solve complex problems, they were very uncomfortable with some of the basic principles of essay questions on child math. This discomfort led to fear and avoidance, and the avoidance led to more discomfort. A vicious cycle began. Instead of seeing math as a beautiful system in which arithmetic, algebra and geometry all worked together to allow one to solve problems, they saw it as a bunch of jumbled rules which made little sense that they were forced to memorize. As a tutor, I found that it was important when starting with a new student to find out where his/her discomfort with math began. Often, this meant going back several years in rubric their education to explain important basic concepts. For some students, fractions and decimals were the point at which math stopped making sense. For many others, it was the introduction of letters to represent numbers in algebra.
Some students found that identifying their weaknesses was an embarrassing process. I explained to essay on child, them that it was not their fault. Everyone comes to understand new concepts in math in a slightly different way, and dbq essay, the problem was that no teacher had taken the time to explain their problem area in a way which would make sense to essay questions on child abuse, them. Since math was a system, once they missed out on that one building block, it was not surprising that the it governance rest of it did not make sense. Our mission together would be to find the way in which the system worked for essay on child, them. Once we had identified the initial problem area, I would spend a lot of time getting the student to play with questions in thesis that area from a lot of different perspectives. For example, if fractions were the problem, then I would create games to get the student to think of fractions in on child terms of division, ratios, decimals or other equivalent systems.
This would often be a fairly unstructured process, as I wanted to it governance, see how the student's mind worked and keep them from feeling any anxiety. Essay Questions? Usually it did not take long for dbq essay rubric, the concepts to start becoming clear to the student, as he/she played with the numbers in the absence of the pressure of school. My goal was to not just white wash over a students weaknesses with a few rules which would be quickly forgotten, but to help them develop an understanding and an appreciation for the underlying principles. I found this process to be very satisfying for both myself and the young men and women that I taught. It was a wonderful feeling to have a student laugh out loud with relief as a principle which had been unclear and causing anxiety for years suddenly made sense.
Once these old problem areas were cleared up it was usually quite simple to make clear the subjects that they were working on essay questions on child, at the time, especially since I already had an understanding of how they were best able to understand new concepts. Again, I found it important to get the student to play with the how to write a aim new material and look at it in several ways so as to develop a true understanding of the material. I was quite successful as a tutor. One young man increased his Math S.A.T. by 150 points. Another student improved so dramatically in geometry, her test scores jumped from about 55 percent to over 90 percent, that her teacher kept her after class and asked if she was cheating. Although most of my students did not improve this dramatically, I walked away from every lesson that I gave feeling that I had helped someone understand and enjoy math. On Child Abuse? I hope to 1 amendment, be able to continue teaching, if only for a few hours a week, for the rest of my life. ** ADMISSIONS COMMITTEE COMMENTS: ** This essay shows that this applicant is dedicated not just to helping people, but to academics, learning, and math.
His tutoring does not make us believe his sincerity; the thoughtfulness and detail with which he describes it do. He has put obvious time into developing an effective method of teaching. The writer shows that he is result-oriented by measuring his success in terms of questions real numbers and romeo, percentage increases. Someone who applies such standards of accountability to his extracurricular life is sure to bring the same standards to school and business. Prompt: Describe the characteristics of an exceptional manager by examining someone whom you have observed or with whom you have worked. Essay On Child Abuse? Illustrate how his or her management style has influenced you. (Tuck) In management consulting, strong analytical skills are valued as much as, if not more than, effective managerial and leadership skills. Unfortunately, for some consultants, these characteristics, at times, are mutually exclusive.
I was fortunate, however, to work with [name] on my first major project at [consulting firm]. Resume In Hindi? As my projectmanager, he demonstrated a superior combination of essay on child leadership, managerial, and communication skills. As a result of thesis our interaction, I learned several important lessons and tools that I used on subsequent projects to essay abuse, improve my effectiveness as a team leader. Resume In Hindi? To begin, [name] is a true leader who exhibits courage and dedication. Essay On Child? A powerful trait rarely found in the realm of business, courage is essay unique in abuse its ability to unify and motivate people. Moreover, his courage is 1 amendment balanced appropriately with professionalism, strong values, and humility.
He is questions abuse sensitive to others#8217; feelings and recognizes that different people require different types of direction and treatment. Although he often works with diverse and develop thesis, difficult groups, he always seems able to reach consensus and create a shared vision and purpose. Furthermore, he excels at establishing priorities and questions on child abuse, proactively setting direction. As an effective manager, [name] also is resume in hindi able to translate his broad direction into essay questions on child discrete, tangible tasks. Since consultants often use difficult or creative analytical approaches, clearly articulating tasks and 1 amendment, defining outputs is very important. In addition, he exercises the essay appropriate level of supervision. Rather than micro-managing his team members, [name] establishes clear accountabilities and expectations and pushes work down to the correct level.
As a result, he creates a strong sense of ownership and leverages the skills of thesis his team members. Furthermore, he excels at creating a supportive environment and, when necessary, coaching team members to help them develop new skills. Finally, [name] is a masterful communicator. He is the only project manager I have had who gave me consistent and constructive feedback, importantly, both positive and negative. Such feedback not only questions on child provides clear developmental objectives, but also signals to others that he values their contributions.
This type of balanced and open communication quickly forms the foundation of mutual trust and respect. Furthermore, [name] excels in the art of negotiation and romeo and juliet, debate. He states his points with remarkable precision and is expert at remaining objective and recognizing all sides of an argument. Questions? And, regardless of the volatility of a situation or the strength of his feelings, he always listens to all positions patiently and effectively controls his demonstration of emotion, thereby gaining the respect of others and lending additional credibility to his positions. Given my limited experience managing teams, my exposure to [name] was central to my early success at [consulting firm]. For example, although I had considered myself a leader in athletics, I had not learned to translate those skills into romeo and juliet the business arena. [Name] taught me several effective methods to lead teams.
Admittedly, as a highly motivated young analyst with very high work standards, I also lacked many of the skills required for effective team leadership. However, I quickly learned the importance of essay abuse flexibility and became more comfortable providing feedback and directing the work of others. Furthermore, through his example, [name] taught me the importance of objectivity and the utility of it governance thesis several effective communication techniques. For example, I learned to use my sense of humor as an effective tool to persuade, disarm, or motivate others. Early in my career at [consulting firm], I had several rare opportunities to lead client teams. In part due to the lessons I learned from [name], these projects were a great success.
As a result, I went on essay questions abuse, to manage a half dozen diverseand difficult client teams that ranged in membership. How To? With each project, I further refined the lessons I learned from [name] and on child abuse, developed new techniques for leading and managing teams. Due to develop thesis, my rapid development, I was promoted to [position], a managerial, post-M.B.A. position at [consulting firm], signifying that I can progress to the partner level. Although I realize my tool kit is far from complete, these skills will be invaluable both in business school and beyond. Essay? ** ADMISSIONS COMMITTEE COMMENTS: ** This is essay another essay that stands out because of its solid writing and superior organization. Essay Questions On Child? It starts with a bold assertion to catch the reader#8217; s attention and then uses the assertion to introduce the 1 amendment essay mentor#8217; s most outstanding quality. Each of the next three paragraphs clearly asserts and describes an additional supporting quality.
The essay concludes with examples of how the essay questions abuse mentor#8217; s influence has tangibly affected the writer#8217; s actions and work performance, resulting in rapid promotion. 1 Amendment? Prompt: Describe the two accomplishments that occurred in the last five years of which you are most proud. (Columbia) Strategic Advisory for American Savings Bank. In January 1994,my group was engaged by on child, Robert Bass' Keystone Partners to evaluate their investment in California company, the culminating point of a five-year banking relationship. Keystone Partner however, engaged Goldman Sachs as co-advisor, thereby infuriating the dbq essay Lehman team. We swore to abuse, keep control of the valuation process by solely handling the modeling work including complex simulations and resume in hindi, projections, which I was solely responsible for. I quickly drafted a couple of pages that I distributed to both teams. Essay Questions On Child Abuse? Overnight, the Goldman team reproduced them line by line and sent them directly to the client as their work. It was a great strike against dbq essay, our team. I decided to design a completely different model, and to draw upon the information that I could gather from a long and fruitful client relationship with Lehman Brothers.
I convinced the abuse senior vice president, vice president and associate who had covered the company for years to pass on their knowledge, persuaded them to it governance thesis, be available for 36 hours straight to answer all my questions, and for four more hours to be trained by me on essay questions, the model. I designed a 23 page model, stuffed with information, that we presented to the 42 person working team, gathered at our request. The presentation, led by myself for technical explanations and the senior vice president for strategic conclusions, was a great success. The Goldman Senior Partner, recognizing the excellency of our model, proposed that I remain in charge of all the number. I value this experience because I gained respect from the senior executives at all three firms. Coursework Romeo? But most of questions on child all, although one of the most junior banker, I was able to resume in hindi, inspire a cohesive spirit to our team in essay pursuing our goal to essay, produce a high quality presentation.
Learning to Surf. My move to Los Angeles in August 1992 represented not only a great professional challenge-to work with only two senior bankers and on child abuse, cover all California financial institutions-but also a personal opportunity, a chance to essay, broaden my horizons. I grew up in Paris and lived in questions on child the capital for 21 years before moving to New York; I definitely was a city girl! Los Angeles demanded however that I adapted to a whole different world, where sport rather than opera rhythms the season. I knew that my first year in the Los Angeles office would be extremely busy due to the small size of resume in hindi my group. In fact I averaged 90 hours of abuse work per week that year. 1 Amendment? To keep my sanity and on child, maintain a good spirit, I resolved to try and learn a sport that had always fascinated me: surfing.
Thus I bought a brand new wetsuit and develop thesis, longboard and essay on child abuse, started the coursework and juliet experience bright and early on a sunny Saturday afternoon under the questions on child merciless scrutiny of the how to local surfers, all males, who did not hide their contempt for essay questions on child abuse, my pale skin and 1 amendment, weak arms so typical of investment banking Corporate Analysts. Surfing seemed at first an impossible mission: my board always mysteriously rebounded on essay, my head, while the waves would break exactly where I was paddling. At work, there was an explosion of rubric laughter when I proudly exposed my (only) personal project: why, a twenty-six year old Parisian, surfing? This had to questions on child, be French humor! I resolved however to practice every week-end before coming into the office. Last summer, I finally stood up on my board and rode the wave to the beach. It was one of the most exhilarating moments of my life and coursework romeo and juliet, although I still surf regularly, nothing matches my first wave nor the abuse pride that I felt. Because I received little help and write, encouragement but prevailed, I cherish this experience which was actually a tremendous confidence builder. ** ADMISSIONS COMMITTEE COMMENTS: ** The writer demonstrates a nice balance between her professional and her personal achievements. Her first accomplishment shows the essay questions abuse essayist to essay, be a savvy business professional and highlights her good political sense, dedication, and abuse, technical skill. The second accomplishment rounds out the image by painting a picture of a young, healthy, active woman willing to take risks and learn new skills at 1 amendment, the expense of laughter and essay abuse, embarrassment.
The latter may have been a personal achievement, but these translate into 1 amendment essay very lucrative professional skills as well. Click here for the free EssayEdge admissions essay help course. Use coupon code 10010101 for 10% off EssayEdge editing. Sample Application and Admissions Essays: Used by admissions officers to decide between two (or even two hundred) candidates with almost identical profiles, the application essay is often the only guide admissions officers have of your ambition, personality, and interests. As a result, your essay must be unique, captivating, and informative. Try the free online entrance essay course offered by Essay Edge and Cyber Edit.
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CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM AND HUMAN RIGHTS. Criminal justice System of any country is the essay on child, basis of establishing, Peace and tranquility, includes not only the judicial system but investigating machinery also. To tame the over thesis, flooding of crimes a strong criminal justice system is required. Administration of justice through the instrumentality of law is an essay questions essential component of governance. Rule of a aim law is the bedrock of democracy, which is essay on child, acknowledged as the best system of governance to ensure respect for human rights. The dignity and worth of the individual being at the core of how to a democracy, constitutional governance in abuse, a democratic set up is the safest guarantee for the protection of human rights and assurance of human resource development. Equal respect for the rights of all sections of the society is necessary to obtain full human resource development respecting the coursework, basic human right of abuse non-discrimination.
The concept of inclusive democracy recognizes this aspect. Key Words: Criminal Justice System, Democracy, Judiciary, Non-Discrimination Human Rights. The Criminal Justice System has the power to a aim control crime, prevent crime and punish the criminals. Pre-trial procedure involves arrest and Investigation under the Criminal Procedure Code 1973. Criminal Justice System is composed mainly three vital organs, namely (i) Police, (ii) Judiciary and (iii) Prison. Arrest means physical restraint put on a person as a result of allegation of accusation that he has committed a crime or an offence of essay questions on child abuse quasi-criminal nature1.
Sec.41 (1) of the criminal procedure code confined only to the power to arrest and dbq essay rubric extends to both cognizable and non-cognisable offences; without the order of a competent magistrate under S.155 (2) of Cr.P.C2. The Code of Criminal Procedure contemplates two types of arrests. (i) Arrest made in pursuance of a warrant issued by a magistrate; and (ii) arrest made without such warrant but made in accordance with some legal provision permitting such arrest. Sec. 46 of Cr.P.C. explains how arrest could be made. Any resistance or obstruction to lawful arrest has been made punishable U/s. 224,225,225-B of IPC. Art.22 (1) of the on child abuse, Indian Constitution- No person arrested shall be denied right to consult and to be defended by romeo, a legal practioner of his choice. Sec. 303 of Cr.P.C., Any person accused of an offence before a criminal court or against whom proceedings are instituted, may of right to be defended by essay on child, a pleader of his choice. As the police manage most of the pre-trial events, it is necessary to take a look at the Indian police system. The Despatch of the thesis, Court of Directors, dated September 24, 1856, gave a candid account of the working of the system: That the police in India have lamentably failed in accomplishing the ends for which it was established is a notorious fact, that it is all but useless for the prevention, and sadly inefficient for the detection of crime, is generally admitted.
Unable to check crime, it is, with rare exceptions, unscrupulous as to its mode of wielding the authority with which it is armed for the functions which it fails to questions fulfil and has a very general character for corruption and oppression3. The British, who had given Britain a new police system between 1829 and 1856, gave India the Police Act, 1861, and the Criminal Procedure Code, 1861.The Indian Evidence Act came a little later. These three acts gave India the present police system. Efforts were made later at the provincial level to review and reform the system. A major effort was, however, made at the central level to reform the system when Curzon appointed the Police Commission, 1920. 1 Amendment? The Commission studied the questions abuse, work of police stations and said: There can be no doubt that the police force throughout the country is in a most unsatisfactory condition, that abuses are common everywhere, that this involves great injury to the people and discredit to the government and that radical reforms are necessary4. Investigation is the exclusive dominion of police officer and he cannot be questioned by any authority. In India as has been shown, there is a statutory right on the part of the how to, police to essay on child abuse investigate the circumstances of an alleged cognizable crime without requiring any authority from the judicial authorities. 5. ‘In the criminal justice system the investigation of an offence is the domain of the police.
The power to investigate into the cognizable offence by the police officers is ordinarily not impugned by any fetters. Resume In Hindi? However, such power has to be exercised consistent with the statutory provisions and for legitimate purpose.’ 6. In D.K.Basu vs. State of West Bengal.,7The Apex court laid down 11, guidelines to be followed by police. (i).The police personnel carrying out the essay questions, arrest and essay handling the interrogation of the arrestee should bear accurate, visible and clear identification and name togs with their designations.
The particulars of all such police personnel who handle interrogation of the arrestee must be recorded in essay on child abuse, a register. (ii).Preparation of memo of arrest with the rubric, witness of a family member or local person; (iii).Right of the essay questions abuse, arrestee to thesis have his relative or friend informed of arrest as soon as practicable; (iv).The details of arrest to be informed within 8 to 12 hours if the relative or friend of the arrestee lives outside the questions abuse, district or town of arrest; (v).The arrestee must be made aware of this right to dbq essay rubric have someone informed soon after arrest; (vi).Entry in essay questions on child abuse, the police diary about arrest and transmission of it governance information to next friend or relative; (vii).In case arrestee requests for essay questions on child, examination of dbq essay rubric his bodily injuries at the time of arrest, the request to abuse be complied with; (viii).Subjection of the arrestee to medical examination by a trained doctor every 48 hours during custodial detention; (ix).Copies of documents to be submitted to magistrate; (x).The arrestee may be permitted to meet his lawyer during interrogation, though not throughout the interrogation; (xi).Police control room in District or State headquarters to notify in resume in hindi, the notice board about the fact of arrest within 12 hours from the essay questions on child, moment of arrest. 1. Indian constitutional Framework. The preamble the people of India has resolved to secure to all citizens the essay, following four objectives:8Justice, social, economic and political; Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and essay questions worship; Equality of status and opportunity and to promote among them all and Fraternity assuring the dignity of the it governance thesis, individual and the unity and essay questions on child abuse integrity of the Nation. Indian criminal justice system has two primary responsibilities i.e, prevention and control of thesis crime and the protection of questions on child rights. The most important factor in preventing and determining crime is the certainty of punishment; the efficiency with which who commits crime is arrested, prosecuted, convicted and and juliet punished. No constitutional guarantee of fundamental rights existed before or during the regime of Britishers over India. The Indian Constituent assembly after considerable deliberations incorporated a chapter on fundamental rights in the constitution of India. The Supreme Court of India has interpreted the Indian Constitution’s fundamental rights guarantees expansively.9The Constitution protects ‘equality before the law’ and ‘equal protection of the essay abuse, laws’ under provisions which embody a broad guarantee against arbitrary or irrational state action more generally.
Indian citizens are guaranteed the and juliet, rights to speech and expression, peaceable assembly, association, free movement, and residence although Parliament may legislate ‘reasonable restrictions’ on some of these rights in the interests of the ‘sovereignty and integrity of India,’ ‘security of the state,’ or ‘public order.’ As discussed below, the Constitution also authorizes suspension of judicial enforcement of these rights during lawful, formally declared periods of emergency. The criminal justice context, the Constitution prohibits ex post facto laws, double jeopardy, and compelled self-incrimination. Individuals arrested and taken into custody must be provided the basis for arrest ‘as soon as may be’ and produced before a magistrate within 24 hours. In its landmark case of D.K. Questions On Child? Basu v. State of West Bengal, the Supreme Court extended the Constitution’s procedural guarantees further by thesis, requiring the essay questions on child abuse, police to follow detailed guidelines for 1 amendment, arrest and on child abuse interrogation10. The Constitution also guarantees the right to counsel of the defendant’s choice, and the Supreme Court has held that legal assistance must be provided to indigent defendants at government expense, a right that attaches at the first appearance before a magistrate. These guarantees do not apply to laws authorizing preventive detention, which, as discussed below, the Constitution subjects to a more limited set of thesis protections. While the Constitution does not explicitly protect ‘due process of questions abuse law,’ it does prohibit deprivation of life or personal liberty from any person except according to ‘procedure established by speech, law,’ and the Supreme Court has broadly interpreted this guarantee to encompass a range of abuse procedural and substantive rights that approximate the concept of ‘due process.’11 Procedures must be ‘right, just and fair,’ and not arbitrary, fanciful or oppressive.12 The Court has held, based on its broad understanding of the right to coursework romeo and juliet life and liberty, that the Constitution guarantees the right to privacy13 and essay questions on child freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment14.The Court also has recognized a constitutional right to a fair criminal trial, including among other elements the resume in hindi, presumption of innocence; independence, impartiality, and on child abuse competence of the judge; adjudication at a convenient and non-prejudicial venue; knowledge by the accused of the accusations; trial of the accused and taking of evidence in his or her presence; cross-examination of prosecution witnesses; and presentation of evidence in develop speech, defense15.
The Constitution also requires a speedy trial, extending from the outset of an investigation through all stages of the criminal process16. Human Rights under Indian Constitution 17. The Indian Constitution shows that human rights have been classified under Indian Constitution into the following categories: a) Fundamental Rights and Rights to freedom (Fundamental freedoms) b) Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, c) Human Rights for all and Human Rights for citizens only, d) Justifiable Human Rights and Non-justifiable Human Rights. e) Enumerated Human Rights and Un-enumerated Human Rights. 2. Police and Criminal Justice System frame work. The legal and institutional framework that independent India inherited from the British to essay govern criminal law, criminal procedure, and policing largely remains in place today. Police matters are governed primarily by the Police Act of 1861, one of several framework statutes enacted in the wake of the Indian uprising of 1857 to more firmly establish British control.
The 1861 statute self-consciously followed the paramilitary model of 1 amendment policing that the British had established in Ireland, structuring the police not to promote the rule of law, serve the community, or ensure accountability, but rather to ‘perpetuate British rule.’ In doing so, the British incorporated the feudal values already present in essay questions, Indian society, hiring into the police rank and file Indians perceived to be loyal and willing to acquiesce to the place of British leadership within the social hierarchy. Upon independence, the British ‘bequeathed’ to India and Pakistan the laws, institutions, philosophy, and norms of the colonial police. The new government implemented no significant changes in policing, and the police remained principally an instrument of coercive state power and political intelligence. Dbq Essay Rubric? The strength of the armed police continued to grow, reaching approximately 60 percent of all forces by the late 1960s18. Despite reform proposals in the intervening years, the Police Act of 1861 continues to govern policing throughout India today19. In the police institutions of contemporary India, notes a former senior police officer, ‘the Raj lives on.’20. These colonial-era laws and institutions are now situated within a post-independence constitutional framework that distributes power between the essay questions abuse, central and state governments. While the Indian Constitution establishes a strong central government, its role is write a aim, particularly constrained in policing and criminal justice matters, over essay abuse, which the how to write a aim, states enjoy broad authority and play the predominant day-to-day role. The Constitution grants the central and state governments’ concurrent jurisdiction to enact substantive and procedural criminal laws, and authorizes the central government to legislate exclusively on matters involving national security and the use of the military or central police forces to questions on child abuse help state civilian authorities maintain public order.
At the resume in hindi, same time, the Constitution leaves public order and police matters principally to the states, which accordingly regulate, supervise, and exercise highly centralized control over the majority of essay questions on child abuse police resources in it governance thesis, their day-to-day operations21. The central government nevertheless retains an on child abuse active, if circumscribed, role in policing and public order. First, the central government maintains several police and paramilitary forces of its own, including the regular police forces of the seven so-called ‘union territories’ and the national capital territory of Delhi, which lack full autonomy from the central government. The central government also operates a number of resume in hindi police, investigative, and paramilitary services that have jurisdiction over specialized areas. The Central Bureau of Investigation handles complex criminal investigations involving matters such as internal security, espionage, narcotics, and on child organized crime, particularly when such investigations concern matters of particular national importance or extend across interstate or international borders22. Several central paramilitary forces, with total force strength of over 685,000 individuals, may be deployed to help state police maintain order under appropriate circumstances23.
Ordinarily, these central forces may be deployed only at the request or with consent of the relevant state government, given the it governance, Constitution’s division of central and state powers, but the precise scope of the essay abuse, central government’s authority to deploy these forces has been controversial24. Second, while the regular domestic police services are subject to state government control, the most senior officers in all police forces nationwide are drawn from the 1 amendment, Indian Police Service, an ‘all-India’ civil service cadre whose members are recruited, organized, trained, and essay disciplined by the Union Home Ministry25 IPS officers may be appointed at the rank of resume in hindi assistant superintendent of police or higher and may be assigned to positions with the essay on child, state or central governments26.As of January 2005, just under 3,200 IPS officers were assigned to rubric the senior ranks of the state police forces27. Third, the central government has constitutional authority to deploy the army ‘in aid of the civil [police] power.’28 This authority derives directly from powers granted under successive British colonial-era laws to deploy the army to maintain internal security29Pursuant to essay questions on child abuse this authority, the central government has enacted several laws conferring sweeping search, arrest, and preventive detention authority upon the armed forces, even authorizing them to shoot to kill suspected terrorists or insurgents, and has deployed the army to maintain order in particular moments of crisis. Finally, the central government has limited authority to investigate and enforce directly some criminal matters that otherwise fall within the ambit of resume in hindi state authority, but may do so only under exceptional and highly constrained circumstances. The CBI may take over particular state criminal investigations, but ordinarily only at the request or with consent of a state government. As discussed below, in more extreme situations, if the central government exercises its emergency power to impose ‘President’s Rule’ in questions, a particular state, then the entire state government becomes subject to central control30. The Constitution guarantees the independence of the judiciary, which is a unitary, integrated system with jurisdiction over both central and state law issues. The independence and responsibility of the judiciary to interpret and enforce fundamental rights are considered ‘basic features’ of the Constitution that cannot be withdrawn even by romeo and juliet, constitutional amendment. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of India, twenty-one High Courts, and an extensive system of subordinate courts and tribunals which are subject to essay abuse the broad supervisory jurisdiction of the High Courts. The states are divided into districts which consist of civil district courts and criminal sessions courts.
Judicial magistrates are authorized to adjudicate lesser criminal offenses, subject to oversight by the session’s courts, and have supervisory responsibility over police investigations and it governance thesis other pretrial matters. While the abuse, organization and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Courts are, within constitutional constraints, largely subject to and juliet central government control, state governments share concurrent authority to regulate the jurisdiction of all courts other than the Supreme Court for areas in which they have legislative authority. Essay On Child? The Constitution confers both the Supreme Court and the High Courts with broad original jurisdiction to enforce fundamental rights through the filing of writ petitions. 3. Dbq Essay Rubric? Indian Judiciary ‘ Criminal justice system. The Judiciary has been assigned supervisory role, it cannot take over the investigation process31.The Constitution of India, Criminal Procedure Code, Indian Penal Code, Indian Evidence Act and the Police Act.ets Important Statues for Criminal Justice System. For maintaining law and order and protection of liberty, criminal justice system operates through police, courts, prison and correctional system.
Illegal detentions, Custodial violence, torture, lock up deaths are the Human rights violation cases are matters of concern. Judiciary has interpreted and essay questions abuse evolved new concepts of Criminal Justice System. A fair criminal trail protects accuser’s right along with social security, human dignity and personal liberty. It is necessary to publicity made through vernacular languages, print and electronic media, NGO’s political parties, Academicians, judiciary, human rights organizations etc. to increase awareness of the human rights. Human rights granted form the very essence of civilized life and to be ever attentive to protect freedoms and basic human right. Indian Constitution and other international documents, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 1948 which says: ‘Everyone is resume in hindi, entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by any independent and impartial tribunal in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.’ The right to essay on child life and personal liberty enshrined in Article 21 of the Constitution is dbq essay rubric, of widest amplitude and several un-enumerated rights fall within Article 21. These rights are: a) Right to go abroad; b) Right to privacy; c) Right against on child solitary confinement; d) Right against Bar Falters; e) Right to free legal aid in how to a aim, criminal trail; f) Right to speedy trail; g) Right against handcuffing; h) Right against delayed execution; i) Right against custodial execution; j) Right against public hanging; k) Right to health care or Doctor’s assistance; l) Right to Shelter; Other Rights which have been held to emanate from abuse Article 21 are following: a) Right to know; b) Right to compensation; c) Right to Release and Rehabilitation of Bonded Labour; d) Right against cruel and unusual punishment; e) Right of Inmates of protective Homes.
4. Prison Justice System. ‘Prisonization symbolizes a system of develop thesis speech punishment and questions on child abuse also a sort of institutional placement of under trails and suspects during the period of how to write a aim trial. One cannot think of essay questions on child abuse a society without crime and criminals, thus, the institution of prison is resume in hindi, obligatory for every country32.The Prison Statistics of India shows , a total of 1,391 prisons across the country, as on 31 st December, 2013 have 4, 11,992 prison inmates against authorized capacity of 3, 47,859, which amounts to essay questions abuse 118.4% of occupancy rate. The rate of dbq essay rubric imprisonment in abuse, India, as per number of prison inmates, is 1 amendment essay, 32 prisoners per one lakh population during 2013, which is demonstrably one of the lowest in essay questions abuse, the world. The prison inmates in India comprise of 67.6% under trials, 31.5% convicts and remaining 0.9% as civil prisoners and detainees33. Purpose of Prisons.
Maintenance of law and develop speech order lies in essay questions on child abuse, the hands of the how to a aim, state and therefore if a person violates the law of the state and commits crime, he is put behind the essay questions on child abuse, bars so that he cannot commit another crime. The place where he is it governance, put is abuse, called ‘prison’ or ‘jail’. Jail is the oldest institution for incarcerating offenders. It is the portal of the criminal justice system. It can be described as ‘cesspools of crime’ the ultimate ghetto, ‘dumping grounds’ and festering sores in the criminal justice system34.
The purpose of prisons can be broadly categorized as punishment, deterrence, isolation, reformation and reintegration. If a person commits a crime, is put behind the bars. Prison acts as agents of punishment on behalf of the society. The powers of the trial court are very wide and coursework romeo the legislative intent of providing a fair trial and presumption of innocence in essay on child abuse, favour of the accused is the essence of the criminal justice system. A magistrate is competent to dbq essay direct further investigation in terms of Section 173 (8) Code of Criminal Procedure in on child abuse, the case instituted on a police report.
Similarly, the Magistrate has powers under Section 202 Code of Criminal Procedure to direct police investigation while keeping the trial pending before him instituted on the basis of resume in hindi a private complaint in questions on child, terms of that Section. The provisions of Section 210 Code of Criminal Procedure use the expression ‘shall’ requiring the Magistrate to stay the proceedings of inquiry and trail before him in the event in a similar subject matter, an investigation is found to be in progress. 5. International human rights norms. The idea of Human Rights is universal concept for all mankind and write it has evolved gradually through the world. It is based on natural rights. The Magna Carta(1215), Petition of Rights (1628), Bill of Rights(1689), Charter of New Plymouth (1620), State of Virginia declaration of rights (1776), French Declaration of the Rights of Man and on child abuse of the Citizen(1789), Bill of Rights in America (1791),Babylonain laws, Hittile laws, Dharma of the Vedic period in India and sangam literature etc. have roots for the protection of rights of develop thesis man. The first democracy use of the expression ‘ human rights’ is to be found in the charter of the United Nations, Which was adopted (after the second world war) at essay on child abuse San Francisco on June 26, 1945 and coursework ratified by a majority of its signatories in essay on child, October that year. UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), Covenant on Civil and speech Political Rights and Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) are international instruments. India has long recognized the importance of questions ensuring its own compliance with these international human rights obligations. While international treaties do not automatically become part of domestic law upon ratification35, the Constitution provides, as a Directive Principle of State Policy, that the government ‘shall endeavor to foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organized people with one another,’ and thesis speech also authorizes the central government to enact legislation implementing its international law obligations without regard to the ordinary division of central and state government powers. The Supreme Court of India has frequently emphasized that constitutional and statutory provisions should be interpreted in light of India’s international law obligations 36 and has looked for guidance when interpreting the Constitution’s fundamental rights provisions to the UDHR, which was adopted while the Constitution was being drafted.
India also is bound by customary international law norms, to the extent it has not persistently objected to those norms, and is absolutely bound by norms that have attained the status of jus cogens. In 1993, India established the essay on child, National Human Rights Commission, an resume in hindi independent government commission whose mandate is to protect and promote international human rights norms. The NHRC is empowered to receive and investigate individual complaints of human rights violations, initiate such investigations on its own, monitor and make non-binding recommendations to the government on domestic implementation of questions international human rights norms, and promote public awareness of human rights standards. To conduct these activities, the NHRC has the powers of write a aim a civil court, including the ability to compel appearance of witnesses, examine witnesses under oath, compel discovery and production of documents, and questions on child order production of it governance thesis records from courts and government agencies. If the essay abuse, NHRC concludes that violations occurred, it may recommend compensation to it governance the victim or prosecution of questions on child abuse those responsible. The government must report any actions taken within one month, and the NHRC publishes these responses along with the dbq essay, report of its own investigation and essay conclusions. The NHRC only may investigate alleged violations within the previous year and may not investigate allegations against the armed forces. India and develop International Conventions on Human Rights. Rights UDHR Indian Constitution. Right to Life, liberty and essay on child security of person Article 3 Article 21. Probation of slavery, slavery trade etc Article 4 Article 23.
Equality before law and non-discriminate Article 7 Article 14 and 15(1) Right to effective remedy Article 8 Article 32. Right against arbitrary arrest, detention etc Article 9 Article 22. Right against ex-post factor laws Article 11 (2) Article 20(1) Right to freedom of movement Article 13(1) Article 10(1) (d) Right to own property and not to be deprived of property (But it was omitted by the constitute (42 Amendment Act, 1978) Article 17 Article 19(1) (f) Right to freedom of thought, conscience and Religion Article 18 Article 25(1) Right to freedom of opinion and expression Article 19 Article 19(1) (a) Right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association Article 20 (1) Article 19 (1) (b) Right to equal access to public service Article 16 (1) Article 21 (2) Right to social security Article 22 Article 29 (1)
Right to form and to join trade unions Article 19 (1) (c) Article 23 (4) 6. Balancing Rights of the accused and the victim. The protection of human rights through the criminal justice delivery system is an indispensable feature of any system governed by the rule of law. the protection of human rights have been acknowledged to varying extents across time, but since the Second World War, the universality of human rights has been recognized by the United Nations as inherent in dbq essay, the very nature of human beings ‘ a reflection of their common humanity. The Constitution of India, in its Part III, guarantees a set of Fundamental Rights to citizens. A few of these rights are also available to the accused, a suspect as well as an under trial. Essay Questions? These rights are guaranteed under Articles 14, 19, 20, 21 and 22. Prisoners are also entitled to the benefits of Articles 32 and 226 of the Constitution. In addition to the fundamental rights, the accused, suspects and under trail prisoners enjoy certain other legal rights provided under the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (IPC); the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973(Cr.P.C); and the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (IEA). The Supreme Court of India and High Courts have not only played a vital role in attaching constitutional significance to these rights but, through humane judicial interpretation and acumen, also expanded their contents.
An attempt is made to highlight briefly a few prominent rights of the accused, a suspect, an under trial and to offer some suggestions to ensure their promotion and protection. Rights of the Accused37. 1. Right to Life. 2. Right to it governance thesis Speedy Trial. 3. Right to Counsel. 4. Questions? Right to Free Legal Aid.
5. Right to Fair Trial. 6. Develop Thesis? Right against Double Jeopardy. 7. Right against Self-incrimination. 8. Right against Third-Degree Methods. 9. Right to Fair Treatment. In India the fundamental rights guaranteed under our constitution is the essay questions on child, repository of those inalienable human rights, which inhere in a person. The words ‘life’ and ‘liberty’ appearing in Article 21 has been construed by the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India in an open all encompassing way that it has now matured to thesis an extent not seen in their mind’s eye by the fathers of the Constitution or by the Judges who gave it an initial lustre. In Maneka Gandhi’s case 38, the Hon’ble Supreme Court, held that the Article is a recognition and declaration of rights, which inhere in every individual.
It was a major departure from the narrow interpretation of Article in A.K.Gopalan’s Case39.This remarkable expansion of Article 21 paved way for the resurrection of many non-justifiable Directive Principles as enforceable fundamental rights. Essay Questions On Child Abuse? The word ‘deprived’ used in Article was supposed to impose upon the State the coursework, negative duty not to essay on child abuse interfere with the life or liberty of an individual without the sanction of law. With the magic wand of judicial activism, Judges imposed a positive obligation upon the State to initiate steps for ensuring to the individual a better enjoyment of his life and develop dignity. This positive aspect of the article essentially is essay questions, a suitable tool for the higher judiciary to protect victim’s rights. The past three decades saw many judgments by the higher judiciary invoking Article 21 to protect the right of the accused in write, criminal proceedings. Prisoners’ right of speedy disposal 40, handcuffing of prisoners 41, delay in execution of death sentence 42, right to open fair trial 43, are few of the countless number of instances when the Apex court came to the aid of the essay questions, accused to guard their rights. Develop? Victims’ rights did receive the on child, attention of our apex court especially in the recent times though instances are not many.
The rights of the victims of crime and abuse of power are still not effectively acknowledged. The fundamental rights guaranteed in the Constitution of India and other statutory rights, victims can fall back on the International Conventions to essay which our country is a party, to establish their rights. The Supreme Court in several cases accepted International Conventions as enforceable when these Conventions elucidate and bring into essay on child abuse effect the fundamental rights under the Constitution. Romeo And Juliet? They have also been read as part of domestic law, as long as there is questions, no inconsistency between the Convention and domestic law44. It is how to, now an accepted rule of judicial construction that regard must be had to international conventions and norms for construing domestic law when there is no inconsistency between them and there is a void in the domestic law. Any International Convention not inconsistent with the fundamental rights and in harmony with its spirit must be read into these provisions to enlarge the meaning and content thereof, to promote the object of the constitutional guarantees. This is implicit from Article 51(c) and the enabling power of the parliament to enact laws for implementing the International Conventions and essay questions norms by virtue of Art.253 read with Entry 14 of the rubric, Union List in questions, Seventh Schedule of the Constitution45. All Criminal Justice Systems in democratic World have three separately organized parts; The Police as law enforcement agency; The Courts; which, serve to establish the guilt or innocence of the apprehended person and, if his guilt is established, pass sentence upon him as provided by the sanctity of the rubric, code violated; and questions on child abuse The prison and correctional system. Each one of the components of the Criminal Justice System shares certain common goals.
They collectively exist to protect society, maintain law and dbq essay order and protect crime. Questions? But they also individually contribute to these goals in their own special way. The Indian Criminal Justice System has incorporated human rights friendly provisions of the international instruments, particularly the judiciary have responded to the new situation in a positive manner and sincerely hoped that in the long run we will have international standards enforced in dbq essay, the criminal justice administration in India. Malimath Committee recommendations are implemented immediately. 1.State of Punjab v.Ajaib Singh, AIR 1953,SC 10. 2.Avinash v.State of Maharastra (1983) Cr.L.J 1833 (para 9) Bombay. 3.Anand Swarup Gupta, Police Reform in Retrospect, XXIV Indian Journal of Public Administration (Silver Jubilee Issue, 1978) p.59. 5.H.N.Rishbud and Indersingh v.State of Delhi [(1955) 1 SCR 115]
6.Manohar Lal Sharma v. On Child? Principal Secretary [2013 STPL (Web) 1017 (SC)] para. Essay? 29. 7.(1997) 1 SCC 416: 1997 SCC (Cri) 92: AIR 1997 SC 610. 8.K.P.Saksena, Human Rights and the Constitution- Vision and the Reality, 2003, p.246. 9.Pathumma v. State of Kerala, A.I.R. Questions Abuse? 1978 S.C. 771. 11.Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, A.I.R. 1978 S.C. Romeo And Juliet? 597;
12.Kartar Singh v. State of Punjab, (1994) 2 S.C.R. 375, 1994 Indlaw SC 525, para. 216. 13.Kharak Singh v. State of Uttar Pradesh, A.I.R. 1963 S.C. 898. 14.Francis Coralie Mullin v. Union Territory of Delhi, A.I.R. 1981 S.C.
746. 15.State of Punjab v. Baldev Singh, A.I.R. 1999 S.C. 2378. 16.Antulay v. Essay? R.S. Naik, A.I.R. 1992 S.C. 1701.
17.Arun Ray, National Human Rights Commission of coursework romeo and juliet India: Formation, Functioning and Future properties, Vol.1, 2004, p.50-52. 18.T. Essay On Child Abuse? Anantha Chari, Democracy and Social Defence, SEMINAR, Oct. 1977, at 26, 29 (quoting Report of the Delhi Police Commission, 1966-68). 20.Verma, supra note 25. 25.
R.K. Raghavan, The Indian Police: Problems and Prospects,Sept. 2003, at 119, 129. 26. 1 Amendment? R.K.Raghavan, supranote 39, at 131 n.14; seeINDIA CONST. art. 311.
27.MHA, ANNUAL REPORT 2004-05, supranote 37, at 105. 28. Indian Constitution., 7th sched., List I (Union List), ” 2A; see also id.art. 355. 31.State of Bihar v. J.A.C. Saldhana, 1980 SCC (Cri) 272, 286. 32.Dr.Shivani Gosami , Prison reforms in essay questions abuse, India, Nyaya Deep , Vol.XIII, Issue 2 3 , April July, 2012, National Legal Service Authority, New Delhi, p. 65. 34.
Dr.Shivani Gosami , Prison reforms in India, Nyaya Deep , Vol.XIII, Issue 2 3 , April July, 2012, National Legal Service Authority, New Delhi, p. 66. 35.State of Madras v. G.G. Menon, A.I.R. 1954 S.C. 517. 37. Shivraj B.Nakade. Rights of the Accused ‘Some Reflections on the Legislative Scheme in thesis, India.In, Criminal Justice System (A Human Rights perspective of the Criminal Justice Process in India) Editd. Dr.K.I.Vibhute. Eastern Book Company, Lucknow, 2004.pp.129. 38.
AIR 1978 SC 597. 39. AIR 1950 SCR 88. 40. Raghbir Singh v. State of Bihar 1987 SC 149; Ramdas v.State of Bihar 1987 SC 1333; A.R.Antulay v. R.S.Nayak 1992 SC 1701. 41. Aeltemesh v. Union of India, 1988 SC.1765. 42. Triveniben v.State of Gujarat 1989 SC 1335.
43. Kehar Singh v. State 1988 SC.1883. 44. R.D.Upadhaya v. State of A.P. Essay On Child? AIR 2006 Supreme Court 1946=2006 AIR SCW 2274. 45. Vishaka v. state of how to write a aim Rajasthan [(1997)] 6 SCC 241. 46. 1998 CRLJ 4561. 47.
Jacob George (Dr.) v.State of Kerala, 1994 SCC (Cri.)774; (1994) 2Crims 100. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of essay questions expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. It Governance? Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Law work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Law essay was submitted to us by a student in order to essay on child help you with your studies.
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