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A New World Order: Essays by Caryl …
believe essays best Sometimes personal essays are actually inspired by a belief statement or quotation from someone famous that the writer respects. A New Order Caryl Phillips? Do any quotations below ring true with what you yourself believe? If so, one of to school these quotations might offer a thesis around which you can frame a personal essay about an insight that has made a real difference in your own life. 1. I have found that being honest is the best technique I can use. Right up front, tell people what you're trying to accomplish, and what you're willing to sacrifice to accomplish it. -Lee Iococca.
2. I know you've heard it a thousand times before. But it's true--hard work pays off. If you want to a new caryl phillips essay be good, you have to practice, practice, practice. If you don't love something, then don't do it. - Ray Bradbury. 3. Essay In The? If you're not making mistakes, then you're not doing anything. I'm positive that a doer makes mistakes. - John Wooden. World Order Essay? 4. It is a paradoxical but profoundly true and important principle of life that the most likely way to reach a goal is to be aiming not at topics one day in the life of ivan denisovich that goal itself but at some more ambitious goal beyond it. - Arnold Toynbee.
5. I don't wait for order caryl phillips, moods. You accomplish nothing if you do that. Your mind must know it has got to get down to e-commerce earth. - Pearl Buck. 6. I don't look to jump over world caryl, 7-foot bars. I look around for 1-foot bars that I can step over. Topics In The Of Ivan Denisovich? - Warren Buffett. Order Caryl Phillips? 7. If you deliberately plan on it governance being less than you are capable of being, then I warn you that you'll be unhappy for the rest of your life. A New World Caryl Phillips? - Abraham Maslow. 8. It Governance? If you don't quit, and world phillips essay don't cheat, and don't run home when trouble arrives, you can only win. Term Paper? - Shelley Long.
9. Success in golf depends less on strength of body than upon strength of mind and character. - Arnold Palmer. 10. People of a new order caryl mediocre ability sometimes achieve outstanding success because they don't know when to quit. Most men succeed because they are determined to. - George Allen. BELIEFS OF JOHN WOODEN. Sometimes personal essays are actually inspired by a belief statement or quotation from someone famous that the writer respects. Types Of Research? Do any quotations below from the famous UCLA basketball coach ring true with what you yourself believe?
If so, one of a new world caryl essay these quotations might offer a thesis around which you can frame a personal essay about an insight that has made a real difference in your own life. 1.A man may make mistakes, but he isn’t a failure until he starts blaming someone else. 2. Ability may get you to the top, but it takes character to thesis keep you there. 3. World Caryl Essay? The main ingredient of stardom is the rest of the team. 4. Young people need models not critics. 5. Talent is God given; be humble. Narrative To School? Fame is man given; be thankful. Conceit is self-given; be careful.
6. The journey is greater than the inn. 7. Learn as if you were to live forever. Live as if you were to die tomorrow. 8.The true athlete should have character, not be a character. 9. A New Caryl Phillips? Do not let what you CANNOT do interfere with what you CAN do. 10. Be more concerned with your character than with your reputation, because your character is essay, what you really are, while your reputation is merely what others think you are. 11.
Things turn out a new caryl phillips, best for those who make the best of the way things turn out. THINGS I’VE LEARNED……… Personal Essays are based on types methods ideas – insights we’ve learned based on world order essay your life experiences. Read the insights expressed by others, and then compose a sentence that expresses one thing you’ve learned about life. 1. I’ve learned that I like my teacher because she cries when we sing “Silent Night”… Age 6. 2. I’ve learned that when I wave to people in essay topics of ivan denisovich, the country, they stop what they are doing and wave back. Age 9. 3. I’ve learned that if you want to cheer yourself up, you should try cheering someone else up. Age 14. 4. I’ve learned that although it’s hard to admit it, I’m secretly glad my parents are strict with me. Age 15.
5. I’ve learned that if someone says something unkind about me, I must live so that no one will believe it. Age 39. 6. I’ve learned that there are people who love you dearly but just don’t know how to show it. Age 42. 7. World Caryl Phillips Essay? I’ve learned that you can make some one’s day by paper e-commerce simply sending them a little note. A New? Age 44. 8. I’ve learned that the greater a person’s sense of guilt, the greater his or her need to cast blame on others.
Age 46. 9. Essay One Day Life Denisovich? I’ve learned that no matter what happens, or how bad it seems today, life does go on, and it will be better tomorrow. Age 48. Caryl Phillips Essay? 10. I’ve learned that regardless of your relationship with your parents, you miss them terribly after they die. Age 53. 11. I’ve learned that making a living is not the same thing as making a life. Age 58.
12. I’ve learned that life sometimes gives you a second chance. Age 62. 13. I’ve learned that you shouldn’t go through life with a catchers mitt on both hands. You need to be able to throw something back. Age 64.
14. Of Research? I’ve learned that whenever I decide something with kindness, I usually make the a new order phillips essay, right decision. Age 66. 15. I’ve learned that it pays to on depression believe in miracles. And to tell the truth, I’ve seen several.
Age 75. 16. I’ve learned that even when I have pains, I don’t have to a new phillips be one. Age 82. Essay Topics In The Life Of Ivan Denisovich? 17. I’ve learned that every day you should reach out and touch someone.
People love that human touch – holding hands, a warm hug or just a friendly pat on caryl phillips essay the back. Essay On Depression? Age 85. 18. I’ve learned that I sill have a lot to learn. Age 92. THE TOP 10 LESSONS I LEARNED FROM CHARLIE BROWN.
For 50 years the daily comic strip “Peanuts” entertained millions of readers. Every day, the a new world order caryl, adventures of essay topics one day in the life Charlie Brown, Snoopy, Linus and the whole gang provided many laugh-out-loud moments while at the same time offering a daily inspiration and lessons on life. I remember the many lessons they taught me…. 1. It’s okay to be afraid…just don’t let your fears control you. Charlie Brown often sat in bed and world caryl phillips spoke of his fears, but no matter how scared he was, he. always did the things he wanted to do. Charlie Brown often lost, failed at much, but he never gave up. Even though he knew Lucy was gong to pull the football away before he could kick it….Even though he knew the tree was going to eat his kite…Even though he knew his team would lose the ball game, he kept on trying.
3. It’s what you think of yourself that matters most. Linus carried a security blanket for years and his friends laughed at him. Types Of Research For Master Thesis? They also laughed at a new order him because he believed in the ‘Great Pumpkin.’ Pigpen was a walking cloud of dust and dirt and was often regarded unkindly. Both characters, however, were always proud of themselves and believed they were as good as anybody else—and they were right. Types For Master? 4. Sometimes you need to order phillips essay talk. One thing the paper e-commerce, ‘Peanuts’ gang understood was the importance of talking things out. A New World Phillips? Whether leaning up against Schroeder’s piano or atop the on returning to school, brick wall, they always had someplace to discuss what was of a new order concern to them.
5. Sometimes you need to listen. Even crabby, self-indulged Lucy knew the importance of listening. Types Of Research? She started the famous ‘Psychiatry Booth’ where any and all could come and be heard. Through all their adventures, Schroeder remained constant in his appreciation of a new essay Beethoven and his love of playing the piano. He loved to play piano and 2013 that’s what he did, regardless of the circumstances. Charlie Brown flew his kite, played baseball and football, not just to win (he knew he wouldn’t), but because he loved to world do those things.
7. It’s important to have friends that care. The ‘Peanuts’ gang was made up of individual characters, each with their own foibles and talents, but through it all they were always there for each other. Personal Contest 2013? 8. Big dreams lead to big things! Snoopy was the biggest dreamer of a new order them all, but his wild imagination often led to even wilder, more fantastic adventures in thesis, real life. Snoopy knew that you must have a big dream if you are going to lead a big life.
As Charlie Brown was reminded time and again after prodding from Linus: it takes action to bring about change. Though he often failed, Chuck took action quite regularly….and every now and again things would go his way. Essay? While the contest, kids themselves may not have seen the humor in the things they did, Schulz made sure that *we* did. Life is only as serious or as humorous as YOU make it….Lighten up. Go play softball.
Fly a kite. Dance with your dog. Smile….it makes people wonder what you’re up to.
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A New World Order - Caryl Phillips, …
photo essay toilet This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 671,068 filed on 11/14/84 which is a continuation-in-part of Ser. No. 409,512 filed on 8/19/82, both now abandoned. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. (i) Field of the Invention. This invention relates to a sanitary toilet seat cover. (ii) Description of the Prior Art.
It is now known that many venereal disease germs may remain on a toilet seat for many hours. In order to prevent the world order phillips, spread of such diseases, it is therefore very critical that a very sanitary toilet seat cover be available. Such sheet should be of a contour and size adapted to overlie and fit the ordinary toilet seat, the sheet being formed, preferably, of paper, and designed for individual use and immediate destruction. Such sheet should also have a centrl portion adapted to provide an opening with the usual toilet seat opening. Many such toilet seat covers have been proposed in the past. In U.S. Narrative Essay On Returning. Pat. No. World Order Phillips Essay. 787,357 issued Apr. Life Denisovich. 18, 1905 to G. H. A New World Order Phillips. Davis, such a seat cover is it governance, provided which is in a new order caryl phillips, the form a single sheet having a impositively secured central portion to provide a central opening and it governance, which is formed and folded to provide a single entity independent of all other sheets. Such articles may then be vended in suitable machines furnished for that purpose or in packets of convenient numbers for travelling kits and the like.
U.S. Pat. No. 1,138,440 patented May 4, 1915 by a new order, E. L. Bainbridge-Bell provides a sanitary shield in term, the form of world order caryl phillips, a sheet of essay, suitable material weakened adjacent one end on two quadarant lines jointly forming a broken semi-circle curved toward the a new caryl phillips essay, center of the sheet. The sheet is similarly weakened adjacent the other end on quadrant lines jointly forming a broken semi-circle curved toward the center of the sheet.
The sheet is finally weakened on a median line from a point adjacent one semi-circular line to a point adjacent the center of the sheet, and is similarly weakened on a median line from a point adjacent the other semi-circular line to a point adjacent the center of the sheet. This provides an opening bounded for four downwardly projecting shields. U.S. Pat. Narrative Back. No. 1,155,260 patented Sept. 28, 1915 by H. F. W. Meyer provides a sanitary seat cover comprising a thin sheet of order caryl phillips essay, paper of oval contour having an oblong central opening. The material is essay, accordion folded around two sides and one end on predetermined score lines. The opposite end of the material is folded on predetermined score lines and forms a housing receiving the sides and first end in folded position.
The device is adapted to assume a flat condition upon removal of the sides and end from within the housing. U.S. Pat. No. 1,268,024 patented May 28, 1918 by I. A New Order Caryl Essay. Levin provides a toilet seat protector comprising an annulus of creped paper having a waxed margin and formed with perforations adjacent to its outer edge. The annulus has longitudinal, transverse and diagonal fold lines. U.S.
Pat. No. Types Of Research Methods For Master. 1,377,791 patented May 10, 1921 by K. Putchner provides a commode seat cover consisting of a sheet of world caryl essay, thin paper having two longitudinally extending cuts, approximately parallel to in the of ivan, each other, and a transverse cut disposed between but not intersecting the parallel cuts. The transverse cut is so located that when longitudinal strain is placed upon the sheet of paper across the transverse cut, the paper will tear transversely from the transverse cut, in opposite directions to the longitudinal cuts. This provides an opening having forward and rear flap. The sheet is interfolded to be disposed in five layers. U.S. Pat.
No. 1,509,868 patented Sept. 30, 1924 by T. P. Harris provides a sanitary covering for seats which has broad flaps positioned to hang one at the front and one at the back of the cover, and thus to a new order phillips essay, depend into essay topics in the life of ivan, the closet bowl, provides means for preventing the cover from slipping off the toilet seat and also means for preventing the cover from twisting around the seat due to the fact that the flaps are positioned at the ends of the longest dimension of the opening in the cover. The flap has a particular shape i.e. it broadens out immediately from its point of support to provide a very broad protecting surface both front and rear, thus effectively guarding the user against a new world essay contact with the seat or with the parts of the bowl therebeneath. Because of the width of the depending flap the splashing of types methods for master, water when the bowl may be flushed is reduced to a minimum. This particular broadened flap is struck from the material of the sheet and extends substantially the full width of the opening when the flap and sheet lie in the same plane.
U.S. Pat. No. 1,835,787 patented Dec. 8, 1931 by M. A New World Essay. H. Kniseley provides a sanitary closed seat cover comprising a rectangular cover piece with fold thereacross to form treble thickness. A flap is cut through the center thereof and across the treble thickness fold. The increased length is adapted to extend into the water of the essay back to school, toilet bowl, the folds at each side of the a new world caryl essay, flap being cemented. U.S. Pat. No.
1,961,195 issued June 5, 1934 to G. Carruthers provides a protective toilet seat cover of the type having a semi-detached pattern cut therein to narrative essay back to school, provide a displaceable opening forming portion. The sheet is folded continuously from one end to the other in a common direction, as distinguished from the back and forth or zig-zag type of fold. The outer folds are coiled around and enclose the inner folds and fold edges. In this way, the order caryl phillips essay, folds retain the patterned portion and cut edges from exposure. U.S. Pat. No. 2,266,990 issued Dec. 23, 1941 to P. Back. F. A New World Order Phillips Essay. Rea provides toilet seat covers which are in the form of prefolding a sheet of paper, having discontinuous incisions across the term paper, fold. The edges and ends of the folded sheet are trimmed. U.S.
Pat. No. 2,742,650 issued Apr. 24, 1956 to M. Mohun provides a foldable auxiliary toilet seat comprised of forward and rearward pairs of oppositely disposed flat, relatively stiff members. A New World Caryl. The ends of the pairs of members are disposed substantially along the longitudinal fold line of the seat.
Hinge means interconnect the members of narrative essay on returning, each pair. Special means are provided which are adapted to resist a collapsing folding action of the seat about the longitudinal fold line when the seat is positioned for use. Such means are in the form of spaced notches formed in the ends of the a new caryl phillips essay, members of each pair, such notches defining finger-like elements therebetween. On Depression Introduction. The finger-like elements of each member extend through the notches of the other member into overlapping relation with the a new world, other member. U.S. Pat. Narrative On Returning To School. No.
4,050,105 issued Sept. 17, 1977 to L. S. Marceaux provides a disposible toilet seat cover for a toilet seat surface area for accommodating a user. A New Order Caryl Phillips Essay. The toilet seat cover has a front crotch, a back part, an inner side and an outer side providing a smooth contour and shape, and a bottom surface area opposite to the surface area of the toilet seat. The disposable toilet seat cover has the contour and shape of the top contour of a toilet seat but is of larger dimensions so that it ranges over the outer side of the toilet seat. The cover is made of paper flushable in a toilet. The cover has an inner center flap and an outer circumference consisting solely of paper and extends beyond and inwardly and outwardly of the toilet seat opening and fastened at the front central part of the toilet seat. The fastening is by means of a pair of spaced flaps consisting solely of paper positioned at the back part of the toilet seat, the flaps having self-adhesive tabs for removably affixing the cover to the bottom surface of the toilet seat. Canadian Pat. No. 233,981 issued Sept.
4, 1923 to H. H. Schwartz provides a sanitary toilet seat protector comprising a sheet of paper shaped to on depression introduction, fit a toilet seat and having its central portion cut on straight lines to form an oval-shaped opening. A New Order Caryl. It also has a plurality of relatively long narrow strips of paper arranged to hang downwardly at relatively close intervals entirely around the oval-shaped opening. A section of toilet paper is paper e-commerce, detachably connected with one end of the seat protector. Canadian Patent No. World Order Phillips Essay. 239,965 issued May 13, 1924 to N. H. C. Brown provides a sanitary seat cover for toilet seats comprising a sheet having a plurality of slits.
The inner extremities of the slits terminate prior to reaching the essay topics one day life, centre portion of the cover, so that an unslit central portion is constituted, and an opening is provided defined by the depending, hanging slits. Canadian Patent No. Caryl Essay. 240,525 issued June 3, 1924 to W. Essay Contest. Teale et al. World Order. provides a sanitary cover for toilet seats, comprising a paper body having a flap portion formed entirely within the margin of such body. It is in the denisovich, normally severed therefrom except for the full width of the flap at one end and has filament connections at a new world order essay, the opposite end. Canadian Patent No. 287,122 issued Feb.
12, 1929 to types methods, T. R. Griffith provides a cover for toilet seats, comprising a flexible elastic cover portion designed to phillips, fit over the upper portion of the seat to conform with the sides thereof. The edges of the cover are turned inwardly to provide a gripping edge under the inner and outer contours of the seat. Canadian Patent No. 315,162 issued Dec. 15, 1931 provides an term improvement in seat protectors. The improvement includes a plurality of odorous sanitized packets each being extendible into a ring of flimsy paper folded in leaves from a common fold closing one side of a converging packet made for vending purposes. Canadian Patent No. 327,046 issued Apr.
25, 1932 provides a toilet seat cover sheet in the form of a package of toilet paper, consisting of a plurality of rectangular sheets. Each sheet of the package has parallel incisions and aligned perforations extending entirely across the sheet in one direction. The sheet is folded lengthwise into a new order phillips, overlying strips along the lines of incisions and perforations. Perforations extend entirely across the sheet, normal to the incisions. The strips are folded one over the other and are thereby adapted to be torn apart on the normal perforations into sections of personal essay contest, toilet paper of standard size. The incisions further divide the sheet into a U-shaped perimetric portion and an interior flap. Canadian Patent No. 335,427 issued Sept. 3, 1933 provides a folded toilet sheet in the form of a sheet of paper having a pattern cut through the surface. The toilet sheet is a new world caryl, folded in a plurality of parallel folds to place the cuts in types of research methods for master thesis, each successive fold in world order caryl phillips, divergent relation to the adjacent fold and finally to enclose the methods thesis, cut portions. Canadian Pat.
No. 525,797 issued June 5, 1956 to I. B. Woodford provides an improvement in a cover for a toilet seat. It includes a fabric blank shaped to conform to the outline of the toilet seat and has an opening disposed substantially centrally thereof. Binding tapes are provided having one edge positioned upon one face of the blank adjacent each of the bounding edge of the blank and of the bounding wall of the opening and are secured thereto. The portion of the binding tape which is contiguous to one secured edge is turned about the adjacent bounding edge of the blank, and the bounding wall of the opening has the portion adjacent its other edge disposed in confronting relation with respect to essay, the other face of the blank. The other edge of each of the tapes is secured to the blank, thereby to form a pair of oval sheaths.
A resilient element is fixedly positioned within each of the sheaths and extends therearound. This element urges the peripheral portions of the blank into engagement with the toilet seat. Canadian Patent No. 663,767 issued May 28, 1967 to R. Cluxton provides a removable cover for toilet seats in the form of an life envelope cover comprising a fabric blank. The fabric blank has a central opening approximating the shape of the world caryl phillips essay, opening in the toilet seat. A binding is essay topics life of ivan denisovich, stitched to the outer peripheral edge of the caryl phillips essay, fabric blank, the binding being formed of an elastic material stretched lengthwise about the outer peripheral edge of the fabric blank and stitched thereto while in its stretched condition. Thesis. The binding on its contracted state thereby draws the blank into an envelope fitting snugly on the toilet seat surface and about its peripheral edge. Canadian Pat. No. 705,063 issued Mar. 9, 1965 to a new phillips, A. E. Warnberg provides a cover for a toilet seat comprising a panel of pliable material confirming generally in configuration to the shape of the toilet seat.
An endless, annular stiffening member is secured around the inner periphery of the panel for holding the inner edge of the types of research methods for master, panel against the bottom of the seat adjacent the inner edge thereof, the length of the world caryl essay, endless stiffening member being larger than the inner periphery of the toilet seat. Essay On Returning Back To School. Adjustable means are provided for securing the outer edge portion of the a new world order caryl essay, panel around the term paper, outer edge of the toilet seat. Canadian Patent No. 1,121,107 issued Apr. 6, 1982 to caryl phillips essay, C. L. Robertom provides a cover for a water closet seat. The seat includes an annular panel of flexible fabric having an inner peripheral edge and an outer peripheral edge. Means are mounted around the outer peripheral edge of the panel for types, drawing the outer peripheral edge up underneath the outer edge of a water closet seat. A hem channel is provided around the world order caryl essay, inner peripheral edge of the panel and this channel has an contest 2013 opening thereinto. A channel closure extends transversely across and blocks the hem channel at one point around its peripheral extend which is spaced from the a new order caryl, opening into the channel.
Finally, a resilient, flexible stiffening member is on returning, provided in a new world order caryl essay, the hem channel. This stiffening member has a first end positioned immediately adjacent the channel closure, and a second end immediately adjacent the channel closure and on the opposite side thereof from the first end. The stiffening member has a portion between the first and the second ends which bridges across the channel opening. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. (i) Aims of the Invention.
In spite of all these patents, there still is a need for, and it is amongst the objects of the present invention to provide, a toilet seat cover which has the following characteristics and advantages: 1. It is formed of disposible paper which may be used in either the right side up or the wrong side up. 2. Personal Essay 2013. It is water-retardant and water-repellent. 3. It folds to a convenient pocket or purse size. 4. It may be formed of non-porous waxy paper. 5. It is portable. 6. It protects the base of the spine and order phillips, the genitals. 7. It is suitable for all ages and both sexes. 8. It is comfortable to types of research for master thesis, utilize. 9. It fits all styles of toilet seats.
10. It will not tear easily and yet adjusts easily. 11. World Order Caryl Phillips. It can be dispensed in the same manner as absorbent tissues. and. 12. It tucks under the toilet seat on each side of the toilet to be held in place thereby.
(ii) Statements of Invention. By the present invention, a toilet seat cover is essay contest 2013, provided comprising a water-impermeable, very light weight, easily disposible paper, the paper being in the form of a porous paper coated only on the reverse side thereof which is adapted to face the toilet bowl with a water-repellent material, thereby retaining a porous paper surface for contact with the user, while rendering the paper as a whole water-impermeable and non-porous, the paper being provided with a single central straight line longitudinal opening, in a new order, the form of a slit or a perforation or a line of weakness, the toilet seat cover being folded longitudinally along the essay on returning, opening and then folded transversely in a zig-zag or back-and-forth accordion-type fold, at a new world caryl, least within the region of the central longitudinal opening, the toilet seat cover, having peripheral edges foldable under toilet seat on which the essay topics one day of ivan denisovich, toilet seat cover is adapted to be placed and, being automatically fittable to essay, fit a toilet seat opening by the sole application of body pressure thereto. (iii) Other Features of the Invention. By another feature of this invention, the essay on depression introduction, central opening is in a new world caryl phillips essay, the form of a slit, or a perforation or a line of essay contest 2013, weakness, the toilet seat cover being folded longitudinally along the opening and then folded transversely in a zig-zag or back-and-forth accordion-type fold for a new caryl phillips, its entire length, the personal contest 2013, toilet seat cover, when in use, being adapted to a new, be placed over a toilet seat and to have its peripheral edges folded under the toilet seat to be retained thereby, and further, by the sole application of body pressure by the user, being adapted to be made to fit a toilet seat opening automatically. By another feature of this invention, the central opening is in the form of a slit, or a perforation or a line of weakness being folded longitudinally along the term, opening and folded transversely in a zig-zag or back-and-forth accordion-type fold solely in a new world caryl, the region of the central longitudinal opening. By another feature of this invention, the shape of the toilet seat cover may be rectangular, round, heart-shaped or oval. By yet another feature of this invention, the water-repellent material is back to school, wax. By still another feature of this invention, the paper may be provided with a printed advertising or instruction message and may be provided in many attractive colors.
By a still further feature of this invention, the toilet seat cover is provided in order phillips, rolled-up form in which each individual seat cover is connected to each preceding and subsequent seat cover by a separable connection. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. In the accompanying drawings, FIG. 1 is a top plan view of the toilet seat cover of one embodiment of this invention; FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the toilet seat cover of FIG. 1 after it has been folded longitudinally in half in the initial stage of its folding to a convenient pocket or purse size; FIG. 3 is a side elevational view of the initial stages of the accordian-type folding-up of the toilet seat cover;
FIG. 4 is a side elevational view of the accordian-folded toilet seat cover of an embodiment of the invention. FIG. 5 is essay on depression introduction, a top plan view of the toilet seat cover of a second embodiment of this invention; FIG. 6 is a top plan view of the toilet seat cover of FIG. 5 after it has been folded longitudinally in half in the initial stage of its folding to a convenient pocket or purse size; FIG.
7 is a top plan view of the toilet seat cover of a third embodiment of this invention; FIG. 8 is a top plan view of the toilet seat cover of FIG. Phillips. 7 after it has been folded longitudinally in half in the initial stage of its folding to a convenient pocket or purse size; FIG. 9 is a side elevational view of the accordian-folded toilet seat cover of the embodiment of FIG. 7 of the invention; FIG. 10 is a top plan view of the toilet seat cover of a fourth embodiment of this invention;
FIG. 11 is a top plan view of the toilet seat cover of FIG. 10 after it has been folded longitudinally in half in the initial stage of its folding to a convenient pocket or purse size. FIG. 12 is a top plan view of the toilet seat cover of a fifth embodiment of this invention; FIG. 13 is a top plan view of the thesis, toilet seat cover of FIG. 12 after it has been folded longitudinally in world order caryl phillips essay, half in the initial stage of its assembly into roll forms; FIG. 14 is a top plan view of the toilet seat cover of a sixth embodiment of this invention;
FIG. 15 is a top plan view of the types of research methods thesis, toilet seat cover of FIG. 14 after it has been folded longitudinally in half in the initial stage of its assembly into roll forms; and. FIG. A New Order Caryl Essay. 16 is a perspective view of the roll form of the invention of FIGS. 12 or 14. DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. (i) Description of FIGS. Essay Introduction. 1-6. As seen in FIGS.
1 and 5, the toilet seat cover 10 is in the form of an oval sheet 11 of world caryl, water-impermeable, non-porous, light weight, easily disposible paper, preferably waxy. As used herein, the term paper is intended to contest 2013, mean a substance composed of fibres interlaced into a compact web, made from linen and cotton rags, straw, wood, certain grasses, synthetic plastics materials, e.g., polyethylene, etc., which are macerated into a new world caryl essay, a pulp, dried, and pressed, or are interlaced and pressed in the non-aqueous state without the intermediate step of being macerated into an aqueous pulp and dried. The paper may be an open sheet or may be a porous paper coated with a synthetic plastics material, i.e., polyethylene, or with a wax, i.e., that described as one of a group of unctous, fusible, variable viscous to solid substances, having a characteristic waxy luster, which are insoluble in water but which are soluble in most organic solvents. Waxes are extremely susceptible to it governance thesis, changes in temperature and their origin, composition and color are variable. They are usually composed of high molecular weight substances, and may be grouped according to order essay, their origin as follows: (a) Animal: spermaceti, beeswax, stearic acid, Chinese wax, etc. (b) Vegetable: carnuba, Japan, bayberry, candelilla, etc. The animal and vegetable waxes are mostly fatty acid esters of higher monohydroxy alcohols, as for example, ceryl cerotate. One Day In The. (c) Mineral: ozocerite montan, ceresin, paraffin, etc. These mineral waxes are usually high molecular weight esters of hydrocarbons. (d) Synthetic (varied chemically), as the medium weight polyethylenes, polyethylene glycols and polyoxyethylene esters, chloronaphthalenes, sorbitols, chlorotrifluoroethylene resins. If the world order essay, paper is in the form of an open sheet, this allows rapid penetration of the wax, which has a dense structure.
When waxed, the paper provides a smooth layer of surface wax as a protective barrier. Polyethylene, if used, is generally applied to the paper whether it is an open sheet porous paper or a dense sheet, by film extrusion. The toilet seat cover 10 is essay topics in the of ivan denisovich, provided with a central longitudinal opening, either in the form of a slit precursor, e.g., a perforation or a weakened area (i.e., 12 in FIG. A New World Caryl. 1) or as a slit (i.e., 112 in FIG. It Governance. 5) extending approximately 40% of the longitudinal length of the sheet 11. Also shown are a plurality of evenly spaced-apart parallel transverse weakened or fold lines 13.
While the sheet 11 is a new world essay, shown to be oval shaped, it may be rectangular, rounded-cornered, rectangular, round, heart-shaped, or any desired shape as long as it is large enough in both diections to fit over a toilet seat. A series of essay to school, sequential views of the folding up in accordion-fold fashion is shown in FIGS. 2 and 6 and 3-4. First, the sheet 11 is folded in half longitudinally along perforation or weakened area 12 (in FIG. 2) or along slit 112 (FIG. 6). Then it is accordion-folded along weakened lines 13 until it passes through the configuration shown in FIG. 3 to phillips, the final form shown in FIG. Essay Introduction. 4. (ii) Description of FIGS. Essay. 7-11. Two other embodiments of the topics in the of ivan, invention are shown in FIGS.
7-9 (based on the embodiment of FIGS. 1-4) and FIGS. A New World Order. 10 and 11 (based on the embodiment of FIGS. 5 and 6). Where similar parts are shown by types of research for master thesis, the same reference numerals, they will not be described further. It will be seen that the essential difference in these embodiments is that the upper portion 14 and the lower portion 15 are not provided with weakened or fold lines 13. Instead they remain as unfolded sheets of paper. This results in the folded-up form being as shown in FIG. 9. This form may be provided if it is desired to dispense the world caryl phillips, toilet seat cover as a single prefolded item, since it provides convenient gripping areas 14 and essay, 15. (iii) Description of FIGS. 14-16.
FIGS. 14, 15 and world order caryl phillips essay, 16 show two additional embodiments based on the embodiments of FIGS. 7-8 and 10-11, respectively. Where similar parts are shown by the same reference numerals, they will not be described further. It will be seen that the paper, essential difference in these embodiments is the provision of the separable connection, in a new caryl phillips, the form of narrative essay to school, a uniting tab 16 separably connected to the previous toilet seat cover 10 at perforations 17 and to the subsequent toilet seat cover 110 at perforations 18. These two embodiments are rolled up into a roll 19 as shown in FIG. 16. (iv) Description of a Preferred Example. For the sake of an example, the a new world caryl, dimensions of the personal, toilet seat cover are 53 cm?38 cm with the slit being 22 cm long and order essay, the accordion folds being 21/2 cm wide. In its final folded-up form, it may be 10-13 cm long and 21/2 cm wide. OPERATION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT.
In use it is essay on depression introduction, more utilitarian and caryl essay, suitable than the prior art toilet seat covers which may have had tongue shaped rectangular, triangular, square, oval or round openings. It Governance Thesis. In the prior art, the opening would have to approximate the toilet seat opening, and thus would provide only a minimal ara to a new world order essay, retain the cover on the toilet seat. In The Of Ivan Denisovich. To avoid such problem the prior art resorted to elastic or rigid members which made the cover complicated, awkward and expensive. On the contrary with the present invention, the entire sheet is placed on the toilet seat, and the peripheral edges then folded under the toilet seat so that the cover may be retained thereby. Then by the user sitting on the cover, the slit automatically extends and expands to provide the a new world order, optimum opening.
From the foregoing description, one skilled in the art can easily ascertain the essential characteristics of this invention, and without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, can make various changes and modifications of the invention to adapt it to it governance, various usages and a new world caryl phillips essay, conditions. Consequently, such changes and modifications are properly, equitably, and intended to be, within the full range of equivalence of the following claims.
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A New World Order Caryl Phillips Essay
11 Best Free Online Resume Builder Sites to Create Creative Resume CV [Curriculum Vitae] Resume or CV (curriculum vitae) is a vital part of each one’s professional life. To simply describe, CV or resume is a mere hard or soft document containing specific information like education, hobbies, achievements etc. about an individual. A New World Order Essay? But the importance of a good CV can’t be neglected especially if you are appearing for a crucial job interview. However when it comes to an attractive and efficient resume or CV, most of us fail at creating one. Personal Contest? One of the major reason is the lack of world caryl essay, probable resources. Fortunately, there are some of the best free online resume builder sites having packed with resources and tools to essay one day in the life of ivan help you create creative resume online. But finding such resume builder sites which are really free, is tough. A New Caryl? So keeping #8216;the importance of an effective resume#8217; in mind, we have compiled a list of best free online resume or CV builders to create creative resumes or CVs. 11 Best Free Online Resume Builder Sites to Create Creative Resume CV [Curriculum Vitae] CeeVee is one of the best free online creative resume builder which is on depression, actually preferred by professionals. It has a very simple and friendly user interface. Creating a resume online with CeeVee is so easy.
It provides a professional look to your online built resume or CV. With CeeVee, to build a resume is world order caryl essay, as simple as creating a Google+ or Facebook profile; and thesis, since all of a new world caryl, us have social networking profiles, it is not a difficult task to create free resume (online) with CeeVee. Online CV is a free resume builder that can create effective resumes or CVs without taking much time, however maintaining with it#8217;s commitment i.e. professionalism . Moreover, it is quite easy to types of research methods create a resume CV with OnlineCV. So even if you are a newbie, OnlineCV will help you make your resume attractive and complete for absolutely free. With OnlineCV Generator, drafting a resume is quite simple.
To build the best resume for free, the user is order caryl phillips, required to enter specific details correctly and upload a simple yet professional looking photograph of him/her. After completion, the desired as well as free CV or the resume can be downloaded in PDF format by the user. As the name suggests, Free Resume Creator is yet another free online resume or CV builder site. If you want to create distinct CVs for specific or distinct occasions and personal essay contest 2013, purposes, then this free online resume creator can help you. Unlike most of the online resume builder sites that requires the user to a new world phillips register, it does not require registration. But the essay contest only downside of a new world essay, this resume builder available online is that it does not let you have your photograph on the CV.
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Once you are a registered user on SpongResume, your free online resume or CV can be created in almost no time. Customize your CV from the various available options and use it for world order essay the desired purpose. E-commerce? The Pro Review from order phillips essay, TechReviewPro. Essay? So here concludes the collection of best free online resume builder sites that help you make your CV or resume shine out of the crowd. Since all the tools mentioned above are equally magnificent, we do not lay emphasis on any particular one. Hopefully, these creative resume builder tools will help you creative attractive resume CV to stand out of crowd during the process of getting hired, thus helping you win the highest paying jobs. Let us know about your favorite free online resume builder sites using the comment box below. TRP Guides: How to Fix ERR_CONNECTION_TIMED_OUT Error? How to Fix ERR_INTERNET_DISCONNECTED in Chrome? 20 Cool Skype Commands and Tricks You Should Know.
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A New World Order Caryl Phillips Essay
Essay on Social Change: Meaning, Characteristics and other details. Here is your essay on Social Change! Change is the internal law. A New World Order Phillips Essay! History and science bear ample testimony to the fact that change is the law of life. Essay Introduction! Stagnation is death. World Phillips Essay! They tell us stories of man’s rise and growth from the Paleolithic age to the Neolithic age, then to the Stone Age and next to the copper age etc. On the stage of the world, scenes follow scenes, acts follow acts, and drama follows drama. Nothing stands still. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/_1-xvEOICRwA/SHQeR5CcI3I/AAAAAAAAAVs/OUtRL2GLZXg/s1600-h/PontmorlaisWest_CircusParade_1948-49_CliveArthur.jpg. The wheel of time moves on and on. The old dies and the young steps into the world.
We ring out the old and essay topics life of ivan, ring in the new. A child changes into a boy, a boy into a new caryl phillips essay, a youth and then into a man. The bud changes into a flower. The dawn turns into morning, morning into noon, noon into afternoon and afternoon into night. It is said, “Today is not yesterday, we ourselves change. No change is permanent, it is subject to change. This is observed in essay all spares of activity. Change indeed is painful, yet needful”. Order Essay! Flowing water is wholesome, and types of research thesis, stagnant water is poisonous. Only when it flows through and alters with changes, it is able to refresh and recreate. Change is an ever-present phenomenon.
It is the law of nature. A New World Phillips! Society is not at all a static phenomenon, but it is a dynamic entity. It is an ongoing process. The social structure is subject to incessant changes. Individuals may strive for stability, yet the narrative to school, fact remains that society is an every changing phenomenon; growing, decaying, renewing and accommodating itself to changing conditions. The human composition of societies changes over time, technologies expand, ideologies and a new world order caryl, values take on new components; institutional functions and structures undergo reshaping. Hence, no society remains complete static. Incessant changeability is very inherent nature of human society. A social structure is essay introduction, a nexus of present relationships. It exists because social beings seek to maintain it.
It continues to exist because men demand its continuance. A New Order Phillips! But the existing social structure is thesis, influenced by many factors and forces that inevitably cause it to change. Society is thus subject to continuous change. The change of man and society has been the central and quite dominant concern of sociology right from the time when it emerged as branch of learning. The concern for social change is of great importance not only in caryl phillips studying past changes but also in investigating ‘future’ developments. Meaning of Social Change : Change implies all variations in human societies. When changes occur in the modes of living of individuals and social relation gets influenced, such changes are called social changes.
Social change refers to the modifications which take place in life pattern of people. It occurs because all societies are in a constant state of disequilibrium. The word ‘change’ denotes a difference in anything observed over some period of time. Hence, social change would mean observable differences in any social phenomena over essay back, any period of time. Social change is the change in society and society is a web of social relationships. Order Caryl Phillips Essay! Hence, social change is a change in social relationships. Social relationships are social processes, social patterns and social interactions. These include the mutual activities and relations of the various parts of the society. Thus, the term ‘social change’ is essay one day life of ivan denisovich, used to describe variations of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization. Social change may be defined as changes in the social organization, that is, the structure and functions of the society.
Whenever one finds that a large number of persons are engaged in activities that differ from those which their immediate forefathers were engaged in some time before, one finds a social change. Whenever human behaviour is in the process of modification, one finds that social change is occurring. Human society is constituted of human beings. Social change means human change, since men are human beings. To change society, as says Davis, is to change man.
Theorists of social change agree that in most concrete sense of the word ‘change’, every social system is changing all the time. A New Order Caryl Essay! The composition of the population changes through the life cycle and thus the term paper, occupation or roles changes; the members of society undergo physiological changes; the continuing interactions among member modify attitudes and expectations; new knowledge is constantly being gained and transmitted. The question to what social change actually means is perhaps the world order caryl, most difficult one within the scientific study of change. It involves the often neglected query of what ‘kind’ and degree of change in what is to be considered social change. Most analysts of social change deal with this question implicitly somewhere in their theoretical system or in essay one day the context of the latter’s application to some empirical case. For the present purpose it should suffice to examine definitions that are frequently used to conceptualise change. According to Jones “Social change is a term used to describe variations in, or modifications of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization”. As Kingsley Davis says, “By Social change is meant only such alternations as occur in social organization – that is, the structure and functions of world caryl phillips essay, society”. According to Maclver and Page, “Social change refers to a process responsive to many types of thesis, changes; to changes the man in made condition of life; to world phillips, changes in the attitudes and beliefs of narrative back, men, and to the changes that go beyond the world phillips essay, human control to the biological and the physical nature of things”. Morris Ginsberg defines, “By social change, I understand a change in social structure, e.g., the size of the society, the composition or the balance of essay 2013, its parts or the type of its organization”.
P. Fairchild defines social change as “variations or modifications in any aspects of social process, pattern or form. B. A New Phillips! Kuppuswamy says, “Social change may be defined as the process in which is discernible significant alternation in the structure and functioning of a particular social system”. H.M. Johnson says, “Social change is either change in the structure or quasi- structural aspects of a system of change in the relative importance of coexisting structural pattern”. According to Merrill and Eldredge, “Change means that large number of term paper, persons are engaging in activities that differ from those which they or their immediate forefathers engaged in some time before”. Anderson and a new, Parker define, “Social change involves alternations in the structure or functioning of societal forms or processes themselves”. According to M.D. Jenson, “Social change may be defined as modification in ways of doing and thinking of people. As H.T. Essay On Returning Back To School! Mazumdar says, “Social change may be defined as a new fashion or mode, either modifying or replacing the old, in the life of people or in the operation of a society”. According Gillin and Gillin, “Social changes are variations from the accepted modes of life; whether due to alternation in geographical conditions, in world phillips cultural equipment, composition of the population or ideologies and brought about by diffusion, or inventions within the group.
By analyzing all the definitions mentioned above, we reach at the conclusion that the two type of changes should be treated as two facts of the narrative on returning back, same social phenomenon. A New World Order! Two type of changes are e.g. (i) changes in essay the structure of society, (ii) changes in the values and social norms which bind the people together and a new world order caryl essay, help to maintain social order. These two type of changes should not, however, be treated separately because a change in one automatically induces changes in the other. For example, a change in the attitude of the people may bring about changes in the social structure. Towards the close of the 19 century, there was a tendency in the countries of Western Europe for families to grow smaller in essay on returning back to school size. There is a general agreement that this has been brought about order phillips essay mainly by personal 2013 voluntary restriction of births”. In this case, a change in the attitude of the people is mainly responsible for a new order change in the social structure. On the other hand, a change in the social structure may bring about attitudinal change among the for master thesis, members of the society. Transformation of rural society into industrial society is not simply a change in the structure of caryl essay, society. For example, industrialisation has destroyed domestic system of production.
The destruction of domestic system of production has brought women from home to factory and office. The employment of women gave them a new independent outlook. The attitude of independence instead of dependence upon men has become the trait of women’s personally. Hence, these two type of changes should not be treated separately but both of them should be studied together. The problem of essay one day, social change is one of the central foci of sociological inquiry. It is so complex and so significant in the life of individual and of society that we have to explore the ‘why’ and ‘how’ of social change in all its ramifications. Characteristics of a new world order caryl phillips, Social Change : The fact of social change has fascinated the keenest minds and still poses some of the great unsolved problems in social sciences. The phenomenon of social change is not simple but complex.
It is difficult to understand this in its entirety. The unsolved problems are always pressurising us to find an appropriate answer. To understand social change well, we have to analyse the essay topics in the life denisovich, nature of a new world order caryl phillips, social change which are as follows: 1. Social Change is Social: Society is a “web of social relationships” and hence social change obviously means a change in types methods for master the system of a new caryl essay, social relationships. Social relationships are understood in terms of social processes and social interactions and e-commerce, social organizations. Thus, the term social change is used to describe variation in social interactions, processes and social organizations. Only that change can be called social change whose influence can be felt in a community form.
The changes that have significance for all or considerable segment of a new world phillips, population can be considered as social change. 2. Narrative Essay Back To School! Social Change is Universal: Change is the universal law of nature. The social structure, social organization and social institutions are all dynamic. Social change occurs in a new order caryl phillips essay all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static.
Each society, no matter how traditional and personal essay contest 2013, conservative, is constantly undergoing change. Just as man’s life cannot remain static, so does society of all places and a new order phillips essay, times. Here adjustment take place and here conflict breaks down adjustment. Here there is revolution and here consent. Here men desire for achieving new goals, and here they return to old ones. 3. Social Change occurs as an Essential law: Change is the law of nature. Types Methods For Master! Social change is also natural.
Change is an unavoidable and unchangeable law of nature. By nature we desire change. A New World Phillips! Our needs keep on it governance changing to order, satisfy our desire for change and to satisfy these needs, social change becomes a necessity. The truth is that we are anxiously waiting for a change. According to Green, “The enthusiastic response of change has become almost way of life. 4. Social Change is essay back, Continuous: Society is an ever-changing phenomenon. It is undergoing endless changes. It is an “ongoing process”. These changes cannot be stopped. Society is subject to continuous change.
Here it grows and decays, there it finds renewal, accommodates itself to various changing conditions. Society is a system of social relationship. But these social relationships are never permanent. They are subject to change. Society cannot be preserved in a new order phillips a museum to save it from the ravages of time.
From the dawn of history, down to this day, society has been in flux. Social change manifests itself in different stages of human history. In ancient times when life was confined to on depression, caves (Stone Age), the social system was different from a new caryl essay that of the computer age today. There is no fixity in human relationships. Circumstances bring about many a change in the behaviour patterns. 5. Social Change Involves No-Value Judgement:
Social change does not attach any value judgement. It is neither moral nor immoral, it is amoral. The question of essay, “what ought to be” is beyond the nature of social change. The study of social change involves no-value judgement. A New Caryl Phillips Essay! It is ethically neutral. A correct decision on what is empirically true is not the same as correct decision on narrative essay to school what ought to be. 6. Social Change is Bound by Time Factors: Social change is world order essay, temporal. Methods! It happens through time, because society exists only as a time-sequences. We know its meaning fully only by understanding it through time factors.
For example, the caste system which was a pillar of stability in world order caryl traditional Indian society, is now undergoing considerable changes in the modern India. There was less industrialisation in India during 50s. But in essay on depression 90s, India has become more industrialized. Thus, the speed of social change differs from age to age. The reason is a new, that the essay, factors which cause social change do not remain uniform with the changes in time. 7. Rate and Tempo of Social Change is Uneven: Though social change is order phillips, a must for each and every society, the rate, tempo, speed and extent of types of research methods for master thesis, change is not uniform.
It differs from society to society. In some societies, its speed is rapid; in another it may be slow. And in some other societies it occurs so slowly that it may not be noticed by those who live in them. For example, in the modern, industrial urban society the phillips essay, speed and on returning back, extent of change is faster than traditional, agricultural and rural society. 8. Definite Prediction of Social Change is Impossible: It is very much difficult to make out any prediction on world phillips essay the exact forms of social change. A thousand years ago in Asia, Europe and Latin America the face of society was vastly different from that what exists today.
But what the society will be in thousand years from now, no one can tell. But a change there will be. To School! For example, industrialisation and urbanisation has brought about a series of interrelated changes in our family and a new order phillips essay, marriage system. But we cannot predict the exact forms which social relationships will assume in future. Similarly, what shall be our ideas, attitudes and value in future, it is unpredictable.
9. Social Change Shows Chain-Reaction Sequences: Society is term, a dynamic system of interrelated parts. Changes in one aspect of life may induce a series of a new caryl essay, changes in other aspects. Types Thesis! For example, with the world phillips essay, emancipation of women, educated young women find the traditional type of family and marriage not quite fit to their liking. They find it difficult to live with their parents-in-law, obeying the mother-in-law at every point. They desire separate homes. The stability of marriages can no longer be taken for term granted.
The changing values of women force men to change their values also. Therefore, society is a system of interrelated parts. Change in its one aspect may lead to a series of changes in other aspects of the society. 10. Social Change takes place due to Multi-Number of world order essay, Factors: Social change is the consequence of a number of factors.
A special factor may trigger a change but it is always associated with other factors that make the triggering possible. Social change cannot be explained in terms of one or two factors only and that various factors actually combine and become the paper, ’cause’ of the change. M. Ginsberg observes: “A cause is an assemblage of factors which, in interaction with each other, undergo a change”. There is no single master key by which we can unlock all the doors leading to social change. As a matter of fact, social change is the consequence of a number of factors. 11.
Social Changes are Chiefly those of Modifications or of Replacement: Social changes may be considered as modifications or replacements. It may be modification of physical goods or social relationships. For example, the form of our breakfast food has changed. Order Caryl Phillips! Though we eat the same basic materials such as meats, eggs corn etc. which we ate earlier, their form has been changed. Ready-to-eat cornflakes, breads, omelets are substituted for the form in which these same materials were consumed in earlier years. Further, there may be modifications of social relationships.
For example, the old authoritarian family has become the small equalitarian family. Our attitudes towards women’s status and rights, religion, co-education etc. stand modified today. 12. Social Change may be Small-scale or Large-scale: A line of distinction is drawn between small-scale and large scale social change. Small-scale change refers to changes within groups and organizations rather than societies, culture or civilization. According W.E. Moore, by small-scale changes we shall mean changes in the characteristics of social structures that though comprised within the general system identifiable as a society, do not have any immediate and major consequences for of research methods for master thesis the generalised structure (society) as such. 13. Short-term and Long-term Change:
The conceptualization of the magnitude of world caryl phillips, change involves the next attribute of change, the time span. That is to say, a change that may be classified as ‘small-scale from a short-term perspective may turn out to life denisovich, have large-scale consequences when viewed over a long period of world phillips, time, as the decreasing death rate since the 1960 in thesis India exemplifies. 14. Social Change may be Peaceful or Violent: At times, the attribute ‘peaceful’ has been considered as practically synonymous with ‘gradual’ and ‘violent’ with ‘rapid’. The term ‘violence’ frequently refers to the threat or use of physical force involved in attaining a given change. In certain sense, rapid change may ‘violently’ affect the emotions, values and expectations of those involved. According to W.E. A New Order Phillips Essay! Moore, “A ‘true’ revolution, a rapid and fundamental alternation in the institutions or normative codes of society and of its power distribution, is on returning back to school, rapid and continuous by definition and is likely to be violent, but may well be orderly as opposed to erratic”. ‘Peaceful’ has to do with the changes that take place by consent, acceptance or acquisition and that are enforced by the normative restraints of society.
15. Social Change may be Planned or Unplanned: Social change may occur in the natural course or it is done by man deliberately. Unplanned change refers to change resulting from natural calamities, such as famines and floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruption etc. So social change is called as the unchangeable law of nature. The nature is never at rest.
Planned social change occurs when social changes are conditioned by human engineering. Plans, programmes and projects are made by man in order to a new world order caryl phillips, determine and control the direction of social change. Besides that by nature human beings desire change. The curiosity of a man never rests; nothing checks his desire to know. There is always a curiosity about unknown. The needs of human beings are changing day by day. So to satisfy these needs they desire change. 16. Social Change may be Endogenous or Exogenous: Endogenous social change refers to the change caused by the factors that are generated by society or a given subsystem of society.
Conflict, communication, regionalism etc. are some of the examples of endogenous social change. On the other hand, exogenous sources of social change generally view society as a basically stable, well-integrated system that is disrupted or altered only by essay topics in the life of ivan the impact of forces external to the system (e.g., world situation, wars, famine) or by new factors introduced into a new world order caryl phillips, the system from other societies. For example, technological transfer and brain drain, political and essay introduction, cultural imperialism may lead to caryl essay, the diffusion of cultural traits beyond the limits of single societies. 17. Change Within and Change of the on depression, System: The distinction between kinds of a new world caryl, change has been developed by Talcott Parsons in his analysis of change ‘within’ and contest 2013, change ‘of the system, i.e., the orderly process of ongoing change within the boundaries of a system, as opposed to a new, the process resulting in changes of the structure of the system under consideration. Conflict theorists draw our attention to the fact that the cumulative effect of change ‘within’ the system may result in a change ‘of’ the system. To conclude, some of the attributes most frequently used in describing change are: magnitude of change (small-scale, large-scale changes), time pan, direction, rate of essay topics one day life, change, amount of violence involved. These dimensions should not be taken as either/or attributes but rather as varying along a continuum from one extreme to another (e.g., revolutionary vs evolutionary).
Other categorization that have been devised involve division of changes on the basis of such characteristics as continuous vs spasmodic, orderly vs erratic and the number of people (or roles) affected by or involved in change. Although no hard and fast categories have yet been developed into which we can fit different types of change, the world caryl, use of the foregoing distinctions, may be helpful in clarifying one’s conceptualization of any type of it governance thesis, change or at least, they can help one to a new, understand the essay contest, complexities involved in developing a definition of the a new order caryl phillips, subject of social change. In explaining the concept of social change, sociologists from time to time used words and expressions like evolution, growth, progress, development, revolution, adaptation etc. discarding one in it governance preference to the other. Though the concept of evolution was known to order, the generation preceding the publication of Darwin’s “Origin of Species”, the notion of types for master, social evolution was taken directly from the a new world essay, theories of biological evolution. Evolution in types of research for master thesis biological science means the developing of an organism.
It is a process by which a thing continuously adopts itself to its environment and manifests its own nature. Consequently it is a change which permeates the whole character of the object. Many social theorists from Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of ‘organic evolution’ in various ways to the explanation of social change. The term ‘evolution’ is borrowed from biological sciences to Sociology. The term ‘organic evolution’ is world phillips, replaced by ‘social evolution’ in sociology. Whereas the narrative, term ‘organic evolution’ is used to denote the world caryl essay, evolution of organism, the it governance thesis, expression of ‘social evolution is used to explain the evolution of human society. It was hoped that the theory of social evolution would explain the origin and development of man. Anthropologists and Sociologists wanted to find a satisfactory and significant explanation of essay, how our society evolved. They were very much impressed by the idea of organic evolution which explain how one species evolves into on returning, another, and wanted to caryl phillips essay, apply the same to the social world. Hence, the concept of social evolution is quite popular in sociological discussion. Sociologists adopted the word ‘evolution’ to convey the sense of growth and change in social institutions.
Social institutions are the result of evolution. They began to work to trace the origin of the ideas, institutions and of the developments. The term ‘evolution’ is derived from the personal essay contest 2013, Latin word ‘evolvere’ which means to ‘develop’ or ‘to unfold’. Order! It is equivalent to the Sanskrit word ‘Vikas’. Evolution literally means gradually ‘unfolding’ or ‘unrolling’. It indicates changes from ‘within’ and not from ‘without’. The concept of evolution applies more precisely to the internal growth of an term paper organism.
Evolution means more than growth. The word ‘growth’ connotes a direction of change but only of quantitative character e.g., we say population grows, town grows etc. But evolution involves something more intrinsic; change not merely in size but also in structure. According to Maclver and Page, “Evolution involves something more intrinsic, a change not merely in size but at least in structure also”. Ogburn and a new world caryl, Nimkoff write, “Evolution is merely a change in a given direction”.
Ginsberg says, “Evolution is defined as a process of change which results in the production of something new but revealing “an orderly continuity in transition”. That is to topics one day, say, we have evolution when” the series of changes that occur during a period of time appear to be, not a mere succession of a new phillips, changes, but a ‘continuous process’, through which a clear ‘thread of identity runs’. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. It is a principle of internal growth. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it. “What is latent becomes manifest in term paper e-commerce it and what is potential is made actual.” Evolution is an order to change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from without. The change must occur within the changing unity. Characteristics of Social Evolution : According to a new world essay, Spencer, “Evolution is the integration of matter and concomitant dissipation of it governance thesis, motion during which matter passes from an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity to a definite, coherent heterogeneity.” Society, according to his view, is also subject to a similar process of evolution; that is, changing from a state of ‘incoherent homogeneity’ to a state of ‘coherent heterogeneity.’
Evolution is, thus, a gradual growth or development from simple to complex existence. The laws of a new world, evolution which were initially fashioned after the findings of charters. Darwin, came to be known as social Darwinism during the nineteenth century. Spencer’s point of view can best be illustrated by an example. In the beginning, the most primitive stage, every individual lived an individualistic life, trying to know and do things about himself alone. Every man was more or less similar, in so far as his ignorance about organized social life was concerned.
In this sense, the people were homogenous. At that stage, neither they were able to organize their social life, nor could they work together. There was no system; nothing definite, expect their incoherent or loose-group-formations. Thus, they formed “an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity,” But gradually, their experiences, realizations and knowledge increased. They learnt to live and to term e-commerce, work together. A New World Order! The task of social organisation was taken on, division of labour was elaborated; and each found a particular type of work which he could do best. All worked in thesis an organized and definite way towards a definite goal. Thus, a state of a new essay, “definite, coherent heterogeneity” was reached. Herbert Spencer has prescribed four important principles of evolution. These principles are:
1. In The Life! Social evolution is on cultural or human aspect of the law of change of a new order phillips essay, cosmic evolution. 2. Hence, social evolution take place in the same way at all places and progress through some definite and inevitable stages. 3. Social evolution is gradual. 4. Social evolution is progressive. In addition to thesis, this characteristics, other features of social evolution are clearly evident which are discussed below. Evolution is a Process of Differentiation and Integration: The concept of evolution as a process of differentiation cum-integration was first developed by the German Sociologists Von Baer and subsequently by Spencer and many others.
(i) In order to understand this statement, i.e. evolution takes place through differentiation and Integration; we have to study the history of a society over a long, period of time. Then we shall find that its associations, institutions, etc” are constantly evolving or developing. In social evolution, new and ever newer circumstances and problems are constantly appearing. In order to cope with them, new associations and institutions are evolved. For example, a community in a town previously. A New World Order Caryl! When the town had been a small community, its management was the responsibility of a Panchayat or a town area committee. Now that the town has become a big commercial centre, its management is in the hands of a dozer different committees. One of them looks after the educational facilities, another looks after the sanitation, a third is deputed to look after the octroi, while a fourth manages the markets and so on. In this way, this differentiation increases with the evolution of the town. (ii) But without Integration, this differentiation cannot take one anywhere.
Hence, synthesis along with differentiation is necessary. In urban areas one can find various sectarian associations such as Khandayat Kshatriya Mahasabha, Kayastha society, Brahman Samiti, Napita associations etc. At the same time, one also can find institutions: ‘Arya Samaj’,” etc. which synthesize and compromise associations based on various caste and class distinctions. Today, while new nations are coming into being in the human society, equally strong efforts are being made to create a world society by compromising these nations. (iii) By virtue of this double processes of differentiation and integration, the topics one day in the denisovich, efficiency of the society is being constantly increased. Division of a new world phillips essay, labour is the magic word of modern economic evolution. By an e-commerce increase in the number of associations and institutions in society, work in various spheres is performed more successfully. And because of the process of order, synthesis, various spheres take advantage of each other’s efficiency also. Maclver points it out in a very systematic manner. According to him, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of society by labour, so that thereby a more elaborate system of cooperation, because the in the denisovich, energy of more individuals is concentrated on more specific tasks, a more intricate nexus of functional relationships, is sustained within the group; (b) an increase in the number and the variety of functional associations and institutions, so that each is more defined or more limited in the range or character of its service; and world order caryl, (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the instruments of social communication, perhaps above all in the medium of language.
Various sociologists have laid stress on one or another of these aspect of evolution. Thus, Emile Durkheim has insisted on life denisovich the preeminent importance of the social division of labour as a criterion of world caryl, social development. Other writers have taken the various aspects together and sought to show that society passes through a definite series of evolutionary stages. Social Evolution does not always proceed by Differentiation: Morris Ginsberg writes, “The notion that evolution is a movement from the for master, simple to the complex can be and has been seriously disputed.” In every field where we find the forces of differentiation at work, there the opposite trends are also manifested. For example in the development of languages, where the process of differentiation has been stressed, we have many disconnecting facts. The modern languages derived from Sanskrit Like Bengali, Gujarati, Telugu and Tamil cannot be compared in their structure with the richness and diversity of their origin. Here the process is not towards differentiation but towards simplification. In the development of religion too, the transition from fusion to differentiation is difficult to see. On the whole we find that social evolution does not always proceed by differentiation.
However in spite of the various difficulties, the concept of evolution still retains its usefulness. Maclver has strongly supported the principle of social evolution. He has criticised the practice of believing social evolution to be imaginary. Social evolution is a reality. Maclver has given some arguments in favour of the reality of social evolution. He emphasizes, if we open the pages of History, we find that in essay the beginning there was no differentiation of institutions within human society or the performance of diverse functions. But latter on, as culture and civilization progressed, differentiation increased and it is even now increasing. This historical fact is an evidence of the extent and element of reality in the principle of e-commerce, social evolution. Social Evolution and order essay, Organic Evolution : Though ‘social evolution’ is e-commerce, borrowed from the biological concept of ‘organic evolution’, still then these two terms are not one and order caryl essay, the same. There are some basic differences between the two which are as follows: Firstly, organic evolution implies the differentiation in the bodily structure, which is generally in personal essay the form of new organs to use for different purpose.
But social evolution does not imply this. Caryl Essay! Man is the types methods for master, centre of social evolution. He need not have to develop new organ to adjust himself with changed conditions of life. Because man has the capacity of inventing tools, making instruments and devising techniques to control the forces of nature and to world order caryl, adjust himself with the natural conditions. He can look before and after. Secondly, in thesis organic evolution, the world caryl, transmission of qualities takes place through biological heredity, i.e. through ‘genes’. Personal Essay! But social evolution takes place through ideas, discoveries, inventions and experiences.
Here the changes are transmitted mostly through the mental ability and genius of man. Thirdly, in world caryl phillips essay case of organic evolution only the narrative essay, descending generation is affected by the structural modification, alterations. But in social evolution even the old as well as the new generations are affected by it. For example, invention of essay, new techniques and devices is influencing the present as well as the future generations. Lastly, the organic evolution is continuous. There can be no break in it. It is continuous because of the irresistible pressure within the organisation and of environment or natural forces. But such a continuity may not be observed in the case of social evolution.
It is subject to disruption. It is an intermittent. It lacks continuity. Social Change and essay 2013, Social Evolution : Social change is an ever-present phenomenon everywhere. When we speak of phillips, social change, we suggest so far no law, no theory, no direction, even no continuity. Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static.
The term ‘social change’ itself is wholly neutral, implying nothing but differences that take place in human interactions and interrelations. In explaining this concept of social change, modern sociologists from time to time used different words and expressions. Evolution is one of them. Many social theorists form Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of evolution in various ways to the interpretation of social change. E-commerce! But many modern theorists, particularly American, have abandoned the idea that social change takes place by evolutionary stages. Evolution describes a series of world phillips essay, interrelated changes in essay one day in the denisovich a system of some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. A New Order Phillips! It shows not merely what happens to essay on returning back, a thing but also what happens within it.
Evolution is an order of change which unfolds the world caryl phillips, variety of aspects belonging to the nature of it governance, changing object. World Caryl! We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from without. The change must occur within the paper e-commerce, changing unity. Evolution is a process involving a changing adaptation of the object to its environment and a new world caryl essay, a further manifestation of its own nature. Consequently, it is a change permeating the narrative on returning back, whole character of the object, a sequence in which the equilibrium of its entire structure undergoes modification. According to Maclver, evolution is not mere change. It is an immanent process resulting in increased complexity and differentiation. He writes, “the Kernel of organic evolution is differentiation, a process in which latent or rudimentary characters take a distinct and order caryl phillips, variable form within the unity of the organism.” Maclver further says, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of labour resulting in term paper e-commerce great specialization (b) an a new order essay increase in the number and variety of narrative essay back, functional associations, (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the means of social communication. “When these changes are proceeding, society is caryl, evolving”, concludes Maclver. The concept of progress found notable expression in the writings of the French Philosophers such as Turgot, Condorcent and Fancis Bacon of the 18th century and has been a dynamic agent in the social activity of modern man. Sociologists such as Saint Simon, Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer were the earlier exponents of the idea of progress.
According Comte, it was the intellectual elite who could bring about an era of progress. Etymologically, the word progress means “moving forward.” But moving forward or backward, progress or regress are relative terms. If it be remarked that such and types of research methods for master, such country has progressed, no meaningful information can be extracted from such a statement unless the direction towards which progress has been made be known. In this way, progress is not mere change. It is a change in particular direction. The word progress cannot be appended to a new order caryl, change in every direction. For example, if the condition of agriculture in a particular country worsens and a famine results, it is undeniably a change, but it will not be called progress. It Governance! Progress means moving forward in a new caryl essay the direction of achievement of some aim. Different thinkers have defined progress in different ways.
The important definitions are as follows: Maclver writes, “By progress we imply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal, some destination determined ideally not simply by essay topics of ivan denisovich the objective consideration at work. Lumely defines, “Progress is a change, but it is a change in world caryl a desired or approved direction, not in any direction.” Ginsberg defines progress as “A development or evolution in a direction which satisfies rational criterion of value”. According to Ogburn, “Progress is a movement towards an objective thought to be desirable by the general group for the visible future. Burgess writes, “Any change or adoption to an existent environment that makes it easier for a person or group of persons or other organized from of life to live may be said to represent progress”. Progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end.
Since progress means change for the better it definitely implies a value judgement of highly subjective character. For value, like taste, has no measuring rod. A particular social change may seem to be progressive to one person to another it may seem retrogression, because they have different values. The concept of social progress is, therefore, subjective but it has reference to an objective condition. It is difficult to explain the criteria of narrative on returning to school, progress which are relative to their temporal context. Social values determine progress. Whether any change will be considered as progress or not depends upon the social values. Social values change with time and place.
The criteria of progress change with the world order caryl, change of thesis, social values. Hence, it is difficult to formulate a universally acceptable criterion of progress. However, the following can be tentatively suggested. Health and Longevity of Life: Average length of world phillips essay, life is one index of progress whether the world is growing better. But it does not necessarily follow from this that a longer life must be more pleasurable and better. In the opinion of some persons, wealth or economic progress is a criterion of progress. Some people are of the view that an increase in population is a sign of progress. But over-population cannot be a sign of progress. According to some thinkers, moral conduct is the criterion of progress. Since life has many facets, it is not possible to formulate any one criterion of progress.
But is stated that the integrated development of society is the topics one day in the of ivan denisovich, criterion of order phillips essay, progress. Integrated development comprehends all mental, physical and spiritual aspects including above criteria. By analysing above definitions, we find that progress is essay one day life of ivan denisovich, a change, a change for the better. When we speak of progress, we simply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal. The nature of the progress depends upon two factors, the nature of the end and world order, the distance of which we are from it. The modern writers today speak of types of research methods thesis, social progress though they do not have a single satisfactory explanation of the concept. In order to have a better understanding of the meaning of progress, we have to analyse the a new order caryl phillips, following attributes. 1. Progress is Dependent upon Social Values:
Progress dependent upon and is determined by social values. It means that progress does not have precisely the same meaning at all times and places, because values change from time to time. There is essay on returning back to school, no object which can uniformly or eternally be considered valuable irrespective of time and place. Due to this reason, Maclver and Page have written, “The concept of progress is a chameleon that take on the colour of the environment when we feel adjusted to that environment, and some contrasting colour when we feel maladjusted. 2. There is a Change in Progress:
Change is one of its essential attributes. The concept of progress presupposes the presence of change. Without change, there can be no progress. 3. In Progress the Desired End is Achieved: The progress is not mere change. It is a change in world caryl a particular direction.
Broadly speaking, progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end. It always refers to the changes that leads to human happiness. Not all changes imply progress. Progress from its ethical point of view, may be personal but from the sociological point of view, is communal since sociology is that science of society. In it, the individual is narrative essay on returning, taken into consideration only as a part of society. Only that change, whose influence can be felt on entire community or society for its betterment or welfare, can be called social progress.
5. Progress is Volitional: Progress does not come about through inactivity. Desire and volition are needed for progress. Phillips! Efforts have to be made and in the life, when these efforts are successful it is called progress. It is an uphill task. World Order Phillips Essay! It must be remembered that every effort is not progressive. The concept of progress varies from society to society, place to place and from time to time.
It does not remain constant in all times and of all places. That which is today considered as the symbol or progress may tomorrow be considered and treated as a sign of regress. For example, in India, free mixing of essay on depression introduction, young boys and girls may be interpreted as an indication of regress, whereas the same may symbolise progress in the Western Countries. 7. A New World Essay! Criteria of of research for master thesis, Progress are Variable: As stated earlier criteria of progress are relative to their temporal context.
Social values determine progress. But social values change with time and place. Therefore, criteria of progress vary from place to place. Further, different scholars have prescribed different criteria of progress. For example, health and longevity have been considered as criteria of progress by some, while other have taken economic security, moral conduct as the criteria of a new order phillips, progress. 8. Progress does not have a Measuring Rod:
The term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded. It is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty. We cannot show it to others unless they first accept our evaluations. We may or may not agree that there is progress, but we cannot prove it. Progress is a reality which is immeasurable and undemonstrable. Anything that cannot be demonstrated and measured scientifically cannot be rejected socially. It is especially true in the case of types for master, progress.
To conclude, progress conveys the sense of something better and improved. A New World Order Caryl! The advancement in technology was opposed to contribute to progress. But, these developments did not carry the sense of progress. It was advancement only in topics life of ivan a particular direction. The comprehensiveness of order caryl phillips, progress was missing. The extremes of poverty and health, of ignorance and enlightenment had continued to coexist as ever before. Progress as conceived over the ages past, is now considered to be illusive. The end of personal contest 2013, progress, it has come to be accepted, cannot be determined. The ‘progress’ in the West did not meet all its ends. Caryl Phillips Essay! It did not bring the fulfillment, that was taken to be its true aim.
For this, the use of the essay on depression introduction, term progress was considered inappropriate. The application of the term fell into disfavour. More so, the growing belief that sociology should be value-free also discouraged the use of this expression. Social Change and Social Progress : Change is the basic content of both evolution and progress. But the term change is wholly neutral, only suggesting variation in a phenomena over, a period of time. The moment the specifications like direction, desirability, and value-judgement are added to change, another terminology ‘progress’ becomes necessary to world order phillips essay, describe the process of change. Progress is not mere change. It is a change in particular direction. It cannot be appended to change in every direction. The word progress means moving forward in the direction and achievement of some desired goal.
It is certainly a change, a change for the better not for the worse. The concept of progress always involves and implies value judgement. It is thesis, not possible to speak of progress without reference to standards. Not all changes imply progress. But social change is a generic term, an objective term describing one of the fundamental processes. There is a new caryl phillips essay, no value-judgement attached to it. It is true that some changes are beneficial to mankind and some are harmful.
But social change is neither moral nor immoral, but amoral. Of Research Methods! The study of social change involves no value-judgement, while the concept of social progress implies values judgement. Social progress means improvement, betterment, moving to a higher level from a lower level. Social Evolution and Social Progress : In the earlier theories of biological evolution, the concept of social evolution was intimately connected with social progress. For the social evolutionists of the nineteenth century from Auguste Comte to Herbert Spencer and Lester F. Ward, social evolution was, in effect, social progress. Modern sociologists, particularly Americans, do not hold this proposition. They point out that evolution does not mean progress, because when a society is more evolved it does not necessarily follow that it is more progressive.
If it would have been progressive, Maclver and Page remark that people in the more evolved society are better or better fitted to survive or more moral or more healthy than those we call primitive. Even if the opposite were true, it would not refute the fact that their society is more evolved.” Social evolution should also be distinguished from social progress. Firstly L.T. Hobhouse says, evolution means a sort of growth while .social progress means the growth of social life in respect of those qualities to which human beings attach or can rationally attach value. The relation between the two is thus a ‘genus-species’ relation. Social progress is only one among many possibilities of social evolution; any or every form of social evolution is not a form of social progress. For example, caste system in India is a product of social evolution. But it does not signify progress. World Caryl Phillips Essay! Hobhouse concludes, “that it is good, the fact that society has evolved is no proof that it progressed. Secondly, evolution is merely change in a given direction.
It describes a series of interrelated changes in topics in the life a system of some kind. It refers to an objective condition which is not evaluated as good or bad. On the contrary, progress means change in a direction determined ideally. World Caryl Phillips! In other words, it can be said, progress means change for the better not for thesis the worse. It implies a value-judgement.
The evolutionary process may move in accordance with our notion of desirable change, but there is no logical necessity that it should. The concept of a new order caryl essay, progress necessarily involves a concept of end. And the concept of end varies with the mentality and experience of the individual and the group. The affirmation of evolution “depends on our perception of objective evidences, whereas the life, affirmation or denial of progress depends on a new caryl essay our ideals.” It follows that evolution is narrative on returning to school, a scientific concept and progress is an world caryl phillips essay ethical concept. Essay Contest! Evolution is a demonstrable reality; out the term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded and is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty.
While social evolution is clearly distinguished from social progress, we must not loose sight of their relationships. Ethical valuations or ideas (Progress) are socially determined and hence determine the objective phenomena (Evolution) of a new world phillips, society. They have always been powerful in shaping and moving the world. In some manner they are active in every process of thesis, social change. “All social change has this double character.” From the above analysis we find, though the above three concepts, social change, social evolution and social progress share many common reference points, they have different intellectual framework. A New World Order Caryl! They all articulate same consequential effects. In all the three processes, one cause produces a number of effects, the effect and cause get intermixed to types of research methods, produce other new effects, again new connections between cause and world essay, effect are established and term paper e-commerce, so on goes the process. Factors of world order caryl phillips essay, Social Change : A sociological explanation of change refers not only to the structure that changes but also the factors that effect such a change. Social change has occurred in all societies and in all periods of time.
We should, therefore, know what the factors are that produce change. Of course there is little consensus among the representatives of theoretical proposition on the sources. Besides, the linear as well as the 2013, cyclical theorists paid little attention to the determinations of factors involved in social change. Morris Ginsberg has made a systematic analysis of the factors which have been invoked by different writers to explain social change. Here, our analysis is confined to a new essay, sociological implantation of the origins and causes of change. Cause will be defined here as set of related factors which, taken together, are both sufficient and necessary for the production of a certain effect. Attempt has been made to take up each factors of social change by itself and find out the way in methods for master thesis which it effects social change.
These factors are treated independently, purely for purpose of understanding and we are not of the view that they can influence social change independent of other factors. Technological factor constitute one important source of social change. Technology, an invention, is a great agent of social change. It either initiates or encourages social change. Technology alone holds the world order caryl, key to it governance, change. Order Phillips Essay! When the scientific knowledge is applied to the problems of life, it becomes technology. In order to satisfy his desires, to fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable, man builds civilisation. The dawn of this new civilization is the single most explosive fact of our lifetimes. It is the central event, the key to the understanding of the years immediately ahead. We have already crossed the first wave (agricultural revolution). We are now the children of the next transformation i.e. the third wave.
We go forward to describe the full power and reach of of research for master, this extraordinary change. Some speak of a “Looming Space Age”, “Information Age”, “Electronic Era”, or “Global ‘ Village”. Brezezinski has told us, we face a “Technetronic Age”. Sociologist Daniel Bell describes the coming of a “Post-Industrial Society”. World Caryl! Soviet futurists speak of the personal essay contest 2013, STR-‘The Scientific-Technological Revolution”. Alvin Toffler has written extensively about the arrival of a “Super Industrial Society”. Technology is fast growing. Every technological advance makes it possible for a new caryl phillips essay us to attain certain results with less effort, at less cost and at less time. It also provides new opportunities and establishes new conditions of life. The social effects of technology are far-reaching. In the words of W.F.
Ogburn, “technology changes society by essay contest changing our environment to which we in world order caryl turn adapt. This change is usually in the material environment and the adjustment that we make with these changes often modifies our customs and social institutions”. Ogburn and Nimkoff have pointed that a single invention may have innumerable social effects. According to them, radio, for example, has influenced our entertainment, education, politics, sports, literature, knowledge, business, occupation and our modes of organisation. They have given a list consisting of 150 effects of radio in U.S.A. The pace of change in the modern era is easily demonstrated by reference to rates of technological development.
The technological revolution enabled human kind to essay in the denisovich, shift from hunting and gathering to phillips essay, sedentary agriculture and later to develop civilizations. Technological revolutions enabled societies to narrative essay on returning back, industrialize urbanize, specialize, bureaucratize, and a new order caryl, take on characteristics that are considered central aspects of modern society. “Modern technology,” remarks the economic historian David Landes, “produces not only more, faster; it turns out objects that could not have been produced under any circumstances by the craft methods of yesterday. Most important, modern technology has created things that could scarcely have been conceived in paper the pre-industrial era the a new world, camera, the types of research methods for master, motor car, the aeroplane, the a new, whole array of electronic devices from the radio to the high speed computer, the nuclear power plant, and so on almost adinfinitum…. The result has been an of research methods for master thesis enormous increase in the output and variety of goods and services, and this alone has changed man’s way of world essay, life more than anything since the discovery of fire…” Every technological revolution has brought about increase in the world population. Development and thesis, advancement of agriculture resulted in the increase of world phillips, population in the agricultural communities; rise of commerce gave birth to the populous towns, international trade and international contact and the industrial revolution set the human society on the new pedestal. Technological changes have influenced attitudes, beliefs and traditions. The factory system and personal 2013, industrialization, urbanization and a new phillips essay, the rise of working class, fast transport and communication have demolished old prejudices, dispelled superstitions, weakened casteism, and has given rise to the class based society. Ogborn even goes to on depression, the extent of suggesting that the starter in motor car had something to do with the emancipation of women in essay the America and topics of ivan denisovich, Western Europe. Development in transport and world order caryl, communication has changed the outlook of the people. Railways in India have played tremendous role in bringing about social mixing of the people.
It has helped people to move out of it governance, their local environments and take up jobs in distant corners of the country. Movement of people from East to West and North to a new order caryl phillips, South has broken social and regional barriers. There have come into existence new vocations and trades. People have begun to give up their traditional occupations and are taking to work in the factories and in personal contest the offices-commercial as well as Government. This has also made possible the vertical mobility. A person can now aspire to world, take up an occupation with higher status than he could have ever thought of in the pre-technological days.
Technology has brought about Green Revolution with abundance and variety for the rich. The rapid changes of every modern society are inextricably interwoven or connected with and on returning, somehow dependent upon the development of new techniques, new inventions, new modes of production and new standards of living. Technology thus is a great bliss. It has made living worthwhile for the conveniences and a new order essay, comfort it provides, and has created numerous vocations, trades and professions. While, giving individual his rightful place, it has made the collectivity supreme. Technologies are changing and their social consequences are profound. Fundamental changes brought by types of research methods for master technology in social structure are discussed as under: 1. Birth of Factory System: The introduction of machines in the industry has replaced the system of individual production by the factory or mill system. It has led to phillips, the creation of huge factories which employ thousands of people and where most of the work is performed automatically.
The birth of gigantic factories led to urbanisation and big cities came into essay on depression, existence. Many labourers, who were out of order, employment in rural areas migrated to the sites to work and settled around it. As the cities grew, so did the community of ‘labourers and with it was felt the of research methods for master, need for all civic amenities which are essential for society. World Essay! Their needs were fulfilled by paper e-commerce establishing market centers, schools, colleges, hospitals, and world order caryl phillips essay, recreation clubs. The area further developed when new business came to it with the formation of paper e-commerce, large business houses. 3. Development of New Agricultural Techniques: The introduction of a new world phillips essay, machinery into the industry led to the development of new techniques in agriculture. Agricultural production was increased due to the use of new chemical manure. The quality was also improved by the use of narrative, superior seeds.
All these factors resulted in increase of production. In India, the effect of technology is a new order caryl phillips essay, most apparent in this direction because India is preeminently an agricultural country. 4. Development of Means of Transportation and Communication: With the development of technology, means of transportation and communication progressed at a surprising rate. These means led to the mutual exchanges between the various cultures. Narrative Essay Back To School! Newspapers, radios, televisions etc. helped to bring news from every corner of the world right into the household. The development of the order essay, car, rail, ship and aeroplane made transportation of commodities much easier.
As a result national and international trade made unprecedented progress. 5. Evolution of New Classes: Industrialisation and urbanisation gave birth to of research, the emergence of new classes in modern society. Class struggle arises due to a new order caryl phillips essay, division of society into term paper, classes having opposite-interests. 6. New Conceptions and Movements: The invention of mechanism has also culminated in the generation of new currents in the prevalent thinking. ‘Trade Union’ movements, ‘Lockouts’, ‘Strikes”, “Hartals’, ‘Processions’, ‘Pen down’ became the stocks-in-trade of those who want to promote class interest. These concepts and movements become regular features of world order caryl phillips, economic activity. The effects of term e-commerce, technology on major social institution may be summed up in the following manner: Technology has radically changed the world order caryl phillips, family organisation and relation in several ways.
Firstly, small equalitarian nuclear family system based on essay on returning back love, equality, liberty and freedom is replacing the old, authoritarian joint family system. Due to invention of birth, control method, the size of family reduced. Secondly, Industrialisation destroying the domestic system of production has brought women from home to the factories and office. The employment of women meant their independence from the bondage of world order caryl phillips essay, man. If brought a change in their attitudes and ideas. It meant a new social life for essay women. It consequently affected every part of the family life. Thirdly due to technology, marriage has lost its sanctity.
It is now regarded as civil contract rather than a religious sacrament. Romantic marriage, inter-caste marriage and late marriages are the effects of technology. Order Phillips Essay! Instances of it governance, divorce, desertion, separation and broken families are increasing. Lastly, though technology has elevated the status of women, it has also contributed to the stresses and strains in the relations between men and women at home. It has lessened the importance of a new world caryl, family in the process of socialisation of its members. Technology has effected wide range of changes in our religious life. Many religious practices and ceremonies which once marked the individual and social life, have now been abandoned by them. With the growth of scientific knowledge and modern education, the faith of the people in several old religious beliefs and activities have shaken.
The most striking change due to technological advance, is the change in economic organisation. Industry has been taken away from the essay topics one day denisovich, household and a new world caryl essay, new types of economic organisation like factories, stores, banks, joint stock companies, stock-exchanges, and corporation have been setup. It has given birth to capitalism with all its attendant evils. Division of essay on returning back to school, labour, specialization of function, differentiation and integration all the products of world order phillips essay, technology. Though it has brought in higher standard of living, still then by types methods for master thesis creating much more middle classes, it has caused economic depression, unemployment, poverty, industrial disputes and infectious diseases. Effects on State: Technology has affected the State in several ways. The functions of the world phillips essay, State has been widened.
A large number of functions of family, such as educative, recreation, health functions have been transferred to the State. The idea of social welfare State is an offshoot of technology. Transportation and communication are leading to a shift of functions from term e-commerce local Government to the Central Government. The modern Government which rule through the a new order caryl essay, bureaucracy have further impersonalised the human relations. Technological innovations have changed the whole gamut of social and cultural life. The technological conditions of the one day life, modern factory system tend to weaken the rigidity of the caryl phillips essay, caste system and strengthen industrializations. It has changed the basis of social stratification from birth to wealth. Urbanization, a consequence of technological advance, produces greater emotional tension and mental strain, instability and economic insecurity. There is masking of it governance, one’s true feelings. Socially, the urbanites are poor in the midst of world order phillips essay, plenty. “They feel lonely in the crowd”. On all sides, one is confronted with “human machines which possess motion but not sincerity, life but not emotion, heart but not feelings”.
Technology has grown the sense of individualism. It has substituted the ‘handi work’ with ‘head work’. It is clear from the above explanation that technology has profoundly altered our modes of life and also thought. It is capable of bringing about vast changes in society. But is should not be considered as a sole factor of social change. Man is the master as well as a servant of the machine. He has the ability to of research for master thesis, alter the circumstances which have been the creation of his own inventions or technology. Cultural Factor of Social Change : Among all the factors, cultural factor is the most important which works as a major cause of social change. Culture is not something static. It is always in flux.
Culture is not merely responsive to changing techniques, but also it itself is a force directing social change. Culture is the internal life forces of society. It creates itself and develops by itself. It is a new order caryl phillips essay, men who plan, strive and act. The social heritage is never a script that is followed slavishly by people. A culture gives cues and direction to social behaviour. Technology and material inventions may influence social change but direction and degree of this depends upon the cultural situation as a whole. “Culture is the realm of final valuation”. Men interpret the whole world. He is the master as well as the servant of his own inventions or technology. To employ Maclver’s simile, technological means may be represented by a ship which can set sail to essay, various ports. The port we sail to remains a cultural choice.
Without the ship we could not sail at order essay, all. According to the character of the ship we sail fast of ‘slow, take longer or shorter voyages. Our lives are also accommodated to the conditions on ship board and of research methods for master, our experiences vary accordingly. But the direction in which we travel is a new caryl phillips essay, not predestinated by the design of the ship. The port to which we sail, the direction in which we travel, remains totally of a cultural choice. It should be noted that technology alone cannot bring vast changes in on depression introduction society.
In order to be effective “The technology must have favourable cultural support”. When the cultural factor responds to technological change, it also reacts on it so as to influence the direction and character of social change. It may be noted that culture not only influences our relationship and values but also influences the caryl, direction and character of technological change. For example, different countries like Great Britain, Soviet Union, U.S.A. and India may adopt the same technology, but in so far as their prevalent outlook on life differs, they will apply it in different directions and to different ends. The atomic energy can be used for munition of war and for production purposes. The industrial plant can turn out armaments or necessaries of life. Steel and iron can be used for building purposes and for warships. Fire can be used for thesis constructive and world caryl, destructive purposes. For a better understanding of the relationship between culture and technology, let us analyse here the concept of “cultural lag”. The concept of ‘cultural lag’, has become a favourite one with sociologists, it is an expression that has a particular appeal in types of research thesis an age in which inventions discoveries and innovations of caryl phillips, many kinds are constantly disturbing and threatening older ways of living. In this context, it will serve also to introduce the it governance, principle that cultural conditions are themselves important agencies in the process of social change.
The concept of order caryl, ‘cultural lag’ was first explicitly formulated by W.F. Ogburn in his treaties entitled ‘Social Change’. Lag means crippled movement. On Returning Back! Hence, ‘cultural lag’ means the phases of world caryl, culture which fall behind other phases that keep on moving ahead. Ogburn’s idea of ‘cultural lag’ is perhaps one of the most important concept influencing the fact of discussion regarding technology and social change. Ogburn distinguishes between “material” and ‘non-material’ culture. By ‘material culture’ he means things which are ‘tangible’, visible, seen or touched like goods, tools, utensils, furniture, machine. But the ‘non-material’ culture includes things which cannot be touched or tangible such as family, religion, skill, talent.
Government and education etc. According to Ogburn, when changes occur in ‘material culture’, those in turn stimulate changes in ‘non-material’ culture, particularly in what he terms the ‘adaptive’ culture. According to Ogburn, material culture changes by a process which is different in pace from essay introduction changes in non-material culture. The larger the technological knowledge of a society, the greater the possibility of a new combinations and innovations. Thus, material culture tends to grow exponentially. Because society cannot develop methods of controlling and utilizing new technology before the technology is a new world caryl phillips essay, accepted and used.
There exists a “cultural lag” in creating controls and essay topics one day in the life, altering social relationship related to new conditions brought about by new technology. Cultural lag is due to man’s psychological dogmatism. He is wedded to certain ideologies regarding sex, education and religion. A New World Caryl Phillips! On account of his dogmatic beliefs and ideologies, he is not prepared to change his social institutions. Essay Contest! The failure to adopt social institutions to the changes in the material culture leads to cultural lag. But Maclver points out a new order, that “unfortunately it is personal contest, often adopted without adequate analysis and world order phillips essay, consequently it has not been developed in a clear and on depression, effective manner. According to him, the distinction is not a workable one. Nor again should be assumed that, it is world order, always the ‘material’ or that the main problem is one of adapting the ‘non-material’ to the ‘material’ culture. Maclver also observes that the term ‘lag’ is not properly applicable to relations between technological factors and the cultural patterns or between the various components of the cultural pattern itself. He has used different words like, ‘technological lag’, ‘technological restraint’, for the resulting imbalance in the different parts of introduction, culture. Kingsley Davis, in his ‘Human Society’ holds that the aspect of culture cannot be divided into material and a new world caryl essay, non-material and that this distinction in no way helps us to understand the nature of technology.
Other sociologists, Sutherland, Wood Ward and Maxwell, in introduction their book ‘Introductory Sociology’ point out that Ogburn is guilty of over simplifying the processes of a new order caryl phillips essay, social change. Social change is a complex phenomenon. The rate, speed and direction of social change is not the on depression introduction, same everywhere. So it cannot be explained by simply saying that change first takes place in material culture and thereafter in non-material culture. Ogburn has taken an over simple materialistic view of world caryl, society. In spite of various shortcomings, Ogburn’s theory of types of research for master, cultural lag has been proved to world order, be beneficial for the understanding of the cultural factor in thesis bringing about social change. It has been acknowledged by all that there is an caryl essay intimate connections between the technological advance and our cultural values. Hence, we may note here that our culture, our thoughts, values, habits are the consequences of technological changes; the personal, latter also is the consequences of changes of the former.
Both technology and order phillips essay, cultural factors are the essay, two important sources of social change. The two are not only interdependent but also interactive. Man does not simply want a thing but he wants a thing which may also be beautiful and appealing to world order caryl, his senses. Dowson and Gettys, in introduction to Sociology’, rightly remark, “Culture tends to on returning back to school, give direction and momentum to social change to set limits beyond which social change cannot occur. It is the culture which has kept the social relationship intact.
It makes people think not of their own but also of the others. Any change in cultural valuation will have wider repercussion on the personality of the individual and the structure of the group. Every technological invention, innovation, new industrial civilization or new factor disturbs an a new world old adjustment. The disturbance created by mechanism was so great that it seemed to be the enemy of culture, as indeed all revolutions seem. The wealth-bringing machine brought also, ugliness, shoddiness, haste, standardization.
It brought new hazards, new diseases, and of research for master thesis, industrial fatigue. That was not the fault of the machines and power plants. It was due to the ruthlessness and greed of a new order caryl phillips, those who controlled these great inventions. But human values or cultural values reasserted themselves against economic exploitation. On Depression! Culture began, at first very slowly, to a new order phillips essay, redirect the new civilization. It made the new means of living at length more tractable to the uses of personality and new arts blossomed on thesis the ruins of the old. To conclude, social systems are directly or indirectly the creation of cultural values.
So eminent sociologist Robert Bierstedt has rightly remarked, “What people think, in short, determines in world caryl phillips essay every measure… what they do and what they want”. Thus, there a definite relation is a definite relation between changing beliefs and thesis, attitudes and changing social institutions. So Hobhouse says, there is “a broad correlation between the system of institutions and mentally behind them”. Demographic Factor of Social Change: The demographic factor plays the most decisive role in causing social change. Order Caryl Phillips! The quantitative view of demography takes into account the types of research for master thesis, factors that determine the population: its size, numbers, composition, density and the local distribution etc. The population of every community is always changing both in numbers and in composition.
The changes in population have a far-reaching effect on society. During the 19th century, the population of most countries of Western Europe fell down. During the same time also, the death rate of these countries declined. This double phenomenon is unprecedented in caryl essay the history of man. Population changes have occurred all through human history. Types Of Research Thesis! It is due to various reasons such as migration, invasion, and war, pestilence, changing food supply and changing mores.
There was depopulation and overpopulation in times past. The swift and steady decline of both the birth rate and death in the past 70 years or so witnesses to a great social transformation. In a society where the size or number of female children is greater than the number of male children, we will find a different system of world order caryl, courtship, marriage and family disorganisation from that where the case is personal essay contest, reverse. Women command less respect in that community where their numbers are more. It has always been recognised that there exists a reciprocal relation between population and social structure. The social structure influences population changes and is affected by them. It is beyond doubt that economic conditions and population rates are interdependent. Increasing 254 Social Change interaction results from an increase in order caryl phillips the size and density of population. Increase in narrative on returning back population also leads to an increase of social differentiation and a division of labour.
With the changes in size, number and density of population, changes take place in composition. The most important reasons for world caryl phillips essay the contemporary population explosion are the tremendous technological changes on the one hand and a most spectacular advance in controlling the diseases by science and preventive medicines on the other hand. Advancement in narrative on returning back science and technology is indirectly boosting the world population by delaying the death rate. A New Phillips! For example, take the to school, case of ‘Malaria’. This disease was responsible for the death of million of people in India and a new world caryl, other countries. But it has now been completely eliminated by destroying the malaria carrying mosquitoes with the use of pesticides. Surgery too has advanced so much today. Essay On Depression Introduction! The vital organs of human body such as kidney and heart can be transplanted or replaced when worn out. The growth of population has given birth to a great variety of a new world order caryl, social problems such as unemployment, child labour, wars, competition and production of synthetic goods. It has led to urbanization with all its attendant evils. Countries with growing population and relatively limited resources have an incentive to imperialism and to militarism.
These attitudes in turn, encourage a further increase of population. Increase in population threatens the standards of living and thus inspires a change of attitude. Due to unprecedented growth of population in the 19th century, the practice of birth control took a new development. This practice (use of contraceptive), in turn, had many repercussions on family relationships and even on attitudes towards marriage. With a change in population, there is personal essay 2013, also a change in a pattern of ‘consumption’. Societies having large number of children are required to spend relatively large amounts of money on food and education. On the other hand, societies with large proportions of world, elderly people have to spend relatively more amount on essay 2013 medical care. In some cases, population changes may initiate pressures to change political institutions. For example, changes in world caryl essay the age, sex or ethnic composition of a people of then complicates the political process of country.
Besides, there is a close relationship between the growth of population and the level of physical health and vitality of the people. Because there are many mouths to feed, none gets enough nutritious food to eat, as a result chronic malnutrition and associated diseases become prevalent. These, induce physical incompetence, apathy and lack of enterprise. Due to these people’s low level of physical well-being, they are socially backward and unprogressive. They show their indifference to improve their material welfare. An underfed, disease-ridden people are lethargic people. Moreover, if the narrative essay back, growth of population is caryl, checked, it would mean a higher standard of living, the emancipation of women from child-bearing drudgery, better care for the young and consequently a better society. Demographers have shown that variation in the density of population also affects nature of our social relationship. In a low population density area, the people are said to exhibit a greater degree of primary relationship whereas in the area of high density of population, the on depression, relationship between people is order, said to thesis, superficial and secondary. In the opinion of Worth, high density areas witness the growth of a new world essay, mental stress and loneliness of life. The importance of demography as a factor of social change has been realised by various sociologists and economists.
An eminent French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, went on to the extent of developing a new branch of sociology dealing with population which he called “Social Morphology” which not only analyses the size and narrative on returning, quality of population but also examine how population affects the quality of social relationships and social groups. Durkheim has pointed out that our modern societies are not only characterised by caryl phillips essay increasing division of labour but also specialisation of types of research for master thesis, function. The increasing division of labour and specialization of function have a direct correlation with the increasing density of population. Order Phillips Essay! He stresses on the fact that in a simple society with comparatively lesser number of people, the necessity of complex division of labour is less felt. This society, according to topics in the life denisovich, Durkheim, is based on “mechanical solidarity”. But as the groups grow in a new size and complexity with the essay topics in the denisovich, increase in population, the “services of the experts” are more required. The society, according to him, moves towards “organic solidarity”.
There is, so to say, a drift from mechanical to organic solidarity. M. David Heer, in his book “Society and Population”, has developed a “theory of demographic transition”. The theory was popularised just after the end of World War-II. It has provided a comprehensive explanation of the effects of economic development both on fertility and mortality decline. Schneidar and Dornbusch, in their book “Popular Religion”, have pointed that decline in mortality rate evokes several changes in social structure. They have stressed on the point that due to decline in mortality rate in a new world caryl phillips USA since 1875, negative attitude towards religious beliefs have been cultivated by the people. They also point out that in a society wherein children die before reaching the age of five, parents may not develop a strong emotional attachment to their children and also in a high mortality society, arranged marriages are common, but in a low mortality society love marriages become the dominant feature.
Again when mortality rate is high, individual tends to have a weaker orientation towards the future and stronger orientation towards the present. Thomas Robert Malthus, an English cleargyman, mathematician and economist, was one of the earliest demographers. In his work, “An Essay on the Principles of Population”, published in 1978, he mentioned that under normal conditions, population would grow by geometrical progression, whereas the means of subsistence would grow by arithmetical progression. The imbalance or lag or gap between the two would create a lot of problems for society. That is types methods for master, why, Malthus has pleaded for two types of checks which can keep the population down. He spoke of hunger and disease as positive check, and late marriage and enforced celibacy as the preventive check. From the above analysis, we find that demographic factor has been contributing to the great transformations in society’s socioeconomic and a new caryl phillips, political structure throughout human history. For example, most countries in Asia where more than half world population is now living, is characterised by high birth rate.
These countries in general and Indian society in particular, are passing through a critical period of great poverty, unemployment and moral degeneration. The gap between the term paper e-commerce, living standards of phillips essay, general masses of these countries and that of the developed countries is widening. The gap is cruelly frustrating the third world country’s hopes for development. With the current rate of population increase, it is expected that the essay of ivan, total requirements for future health, education, housing and many other welfare needs are bound to order caryl phillips, increase. This will certainly bring the essay contest 2013, drastic changes not only in the microstructures, but also in a new order phillips macrostructures of Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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