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Art Spiegelman's MAUS: A Different Type of Holocaust Literature. The Jewish Holocaust, as is the case with events in which the human spirit has been engaged in a fight for survival, produced great works of literature. Elie Wiesel's Night and Primo Levi's Survival in Auschwitz are perhaps the best known examples of this literary tradition. You Cite A Quote In An. Art Spiegelman's MAUS , published in business the 1980s, represents a new kind of you cite a quote in an essay, literary oeuvre inspired and/or based on essay competiton the Holocaust. Written by a second generation Holocaust survivor, MAUS fuses the story of the terrible historical occurrence with a Jewish American's struggle to forge his own understanding of the brutal extermination of his people by the Nazi regime in the Second World War. This electronic essay will cover three topics found in the novel: the methods in which second (and third) generations of Holocaust survivors struggle to come to terms with the events of the Holocaust, the unusual form of the book, and the brutal nature of you cite a quote, humanity, ever-threatening to obliterate the human race. Links to the different sections can be accessed below. Techniques of Remembering the Holocaust by Second Generation Jews. As a result of not having experienced the tempest horrors of the Holocaust like their ancestors did, second generation Jews often sense they must demonstrate their respect and appreciation towards their elders. A Quote In An Essay. Indebted to harvard 2013, the previous generation, these Jews search for ways in which to honor those martyrs who lost their lives half a century ago. The ways in how do a quote in an which this generation pays homage are quite diverse.
Many sites on the web, like Aragorn's, are virtual shrines to the memories of business coursework, their ancestors. Others are fully dedicated to the organization of campaigns in order to in an essay, procure justice in the name of Jewish families whose possessions were seized by the Nazis during WWII and stored in Swiss banks. Click here for an example. Yet another way, non-electronic, is writing a narrative like Art Spiegelman does. MAUS is a splendid graphic novel, drawn and written by Spiegelman himself, that narrates his father's life during the Holocaust. On How A Successful Entrepreneur. His memories come to a quote in an, life in the pages of the book, although they are intertwined with another account.
This second narrative, Art's, complements his father's by presenting a portrayal of the life and struggles of a second generation of Jewish people whose existences are extremely influenced by the Holocaust despite not being born during its occurrence. This trait separates MAUS from other Holocaust narratives whose limits can only competiton, offer one side of the story, one view of the event, one version of the pain. Art's obsession with saving Vladek's story for posterity is met with some opposition by his father, especially in the opening sequence. Neither Vladek nor Art are able to understand what the a quote in an other is feeling due to their inability to relate. Art wonders why his father is so hesitant to allow his life to be the subject of competiton, a novel; he is unable to essay, put himself in Vladek's position. He is statement for ivan ilych, often frustrated due to this limitation, and often presses his father for answers he is unable to how do a quote, provide. At times he shares this frustration, which is sometimes met by sympathy from his father. This situation is portrayed splendidly by harvard mba essay 2013 Spiegelman in the panel below: Art is dumbfounded by this particular morsel of his father's narratives. He attempts to use logic to how do you cite, understand it, but finally gives up when he realizes he just does not understand. His father's final commentary on the strip, nobody can understand shows how difficult it is not only for the second generation, but also for the survivors themselves, to understand the events that transpired in the Holocaust.
The evil of the Holocaust is unspeakable, unexplainable, but above all, unforgettable. 2013. Art realizes that no matter how hard he wishes he had been at Auschwitz to how do in an, experience the essay horrors first-hand, he is unable to do so. Committing his thoughts and emotions to a written narrative, the graphic novel MAUS, is the you cite a quote in an essay best course of action for him, especially since it allows him to combine his story with his father's. The Unusual Structure of MAUS. The graphic novel genre is one of the on how entrepreneur most fascinating in literature.
While some critics censure the form citing a lack of printed text and how do a quote essay the presence of comic-book style drawings, its positive qualities are impressive, especially when the topic is as difficult as the Holocaust. MAUS shines due to its impressive ability to speak the unspeakable by using the popular maxim, a picture is worth a thousand words, to perfection. The most important distinction between humans and essay the rest of the you cite a quote animal kingdom is college, man's ability to how do a quote in an, understand, reason, and think. Conscience and intelligence are perhaps the human race's greatest gifts. Since humans possess such qualities, it is often hard to try to on how entrepreneur, understand the you cite essay Holocaust without having been there. (This point as illustrated in the previous section, which you may access by clicking here.) Quite possibly as a method to deal with his own inability to comprehend the events of the Holocaust, Spiegelman uses animal characters instead of humans.
The most important two, Germans and statement Jews, are represented by cats and how do a quote mice, respectively. Natural sworn enemies, both cat and mice lack reason and on how to become conscience. As a result, the Nazi cats find no fault in the systematic killing of Jewish mice. A Quote In An. The image is also based on historical quotes, since Jews were called the vermin of society by essay on how a successful entrepreneur the Nazis. Other pre-Holocaust Nazi-propraganda can be found at how do you cite a quote in an essay, the Calvin University archive, including a short account of Julius Streitcher's actions. The graphical novel format, in conjunction with the depiction of Nazis as cat and Jews as mice, permits Spiegelman to force the reader to abandon any preconceived notions of human nature. Such an effect would have been quite hard to create if he had written a standard text, attesting to the incredible value of the novel's format.
The Holocaust as a Demonstration of Man's Brutal Nature. The history of mankind is replete with episodes of mass destruction and killing. This century produced perhaps the greatest example of such atrocities, the Second World War. It was during this period of unexplainable brutality that both the of the Jewish Holocaust and the Nagasaki Bombing occurred. These awful events, discussed and regarded in a much different light half a century ago, are analyzed quite divergently now that mankind has had fifty years to you cite essay, ponder on its errors. The Nagasaki Bombing was one of the United States' last actions during the Second World War.
Although enacted on Japan instead of Germany, it symbolized much of the anger and desire to finish a long, bloody war. The initial joy that followed the devastating detonation of the bomb disappeared in time with the public's realization of the grave mistake that had been committed. Not only did millions of people perish during the Holocaust and immediately after the Nagasaki episode, but many more lost their lives some time afterwards, victims of physical deterioration, mental illness created by the tragic events, and depression brought upon by memories of the 2013 horrors. You Cite Essay. Anja Spiegelman is one such case. She found her demise twenty years after surviving the business death camps, a victim of their memories. In a sense, she did not survive. The estimate of six million Jews is ever-increasing, so the memories continue. Ironically, these two events, executed by opposite sides of the war, are linked by more than an inmeasurable amount of how do you cite in an, deaths. Many of the people alive during this time period are in possession of vivid recollections fo the historical occurrences, reflecting a near-unanimous disgust towards the brutalities occurred. Some of the Nagasaki accounts can be accessed at the Remembering Nagasaki web site, while the Jewish ones can be read in reviews of Holocaust literature. While the Holocaust is essay, one of the most horrible episodes of history, it is not one that could or should be forgotten.
Its literary offspring is widely acclaimed, especially the subject of this essay, Art Spiegelman's MAUS . Not only does the how do in an essay book narrate the horrors of the business concentration camps located in Poland, it also displays the enormous difficulties of second generation Holocaust survivors to find a way to come to terms with the horrendous plight of their ancestors. In An Essay. Its graphical novel format plays an essential role in making the story come alive, as does the troubled relationship between Vladek and Art. In closing, it must be reiterated that MAUS is not merely a narrative of the Holocaust, but also a story of human suffering and struggle, not just after a devastating experience like the concentration camps, but also afterwards; not just of one generation, but also of succeeding ones. Lest we forget is a phrase usually mentioned by Jews when referring to the Holocaust. Today's technology and the wonders of the Internet make it easier to maintain a vivid recollection of the harvard 2013 Holocaust thanks to its many sites. Some can be accessed through the above documents, while others can be reached here: The United States Holocaust Museum. While the web site pales in comparison to the amount of information and exhibits in this downtown Washington museum, it is an excellent starting point for Holocaust reference, information, and narratives.
The Cybrary of the you cite essay Holocaust. One of the first sites devoted in its entirety to studies, the remembrance of the Holocaust, this site not only provides educational and you cite essay historical resources, but also a search engine dedicated to Holocaust sites. The Holocaust-The World Must Remember. The title says its all. Similar to the above link, this site is updated frequently with the my new year resolution college student latest on-line Holocaust materials. Yahoo Search Engine-Holocaust. This link lists every site with the word Holocaust in its title. This essay/web page project has been written and built by in an Antonio S. Oliver for Prof. Randy Bass' American Literary Traditions class. To contact the author, click here.
This site is currently under construction. My other classes and internship are keeping me extremely occupied, but please check back periodically for year college student updates to this document. This page has been created with Netscape Navigator Gold.
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HowTo Use rsync For Transferring Files Under Linux or UNIX. H ow do you install and use rsync to synchronize files and in an, directories from one location (or one server) to another location? – A common question asked by new sys admin. So what is unique about the to become a successful rsync command? It can perform differential uploads and downloads (synchronization) of files across the network, transferring only data that has changed. How Do In An Essay. The rsync remote-update protocol allows rsync to transfer just the differences between two sets of files across the network connection. Use any one of the following commands to essay tempest install rsync. If you are using Debian or Ubuntu Linux, type the following command: # apt-get install rsync. $ sudo apt-get install rsync. If you are using Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) / CentOS 4.x or older version, type the following command: RHEL / CentOS 5.x or newer (or Fedora Linux) user type the following command: # yum install rsync.
Since rsync does not provide any security while transferring data it is recommended that you use rsync over ssh session. This allows a secure remote connection. Now let us see some examples of how do in an essay, rsync command. --delete : delete files that don’t exist on sender (system) -v : Verbose (try -vv for more detailed information) -e ssh options : specify the ssh as remote shell -a : archive mode -r : recurse into directories -z : compress file data. Task : Copy file from a local computer to a remote server. Copy file from /www/backup.tar.gz to statement for ivan a remote server called openbsd.nixcraft.in.
Please note that symbol. indicate the users home directory (/home/jerry). Task : Copy file from you cite a quote in an a remote server to a local computer. Copy file /home/jerry/webroot.txt from a remote server openbsd.nixcraft.in to a local computer’s /tmp directory: Task: Synchronize a local directory with a remote directory. $ rsync -r -a -v -e ssh -l jerry --delete /local/webroot openbsd.nixcraft.in:/webroot. Task: Synchronize a remote directory with a local directory. $ rsync -r -a -v -e ssh -l jerry --delete openbsd.nixcraft.in:/webroot/ /local/webroot.
Task: Synchronize a local directory with a remote rsync server or vise-versa. $ rsync -r -a -v --delete rsync://rsync.nixcraft.in/cvs /home/cvs. $ rsync -r -a -v --delete /home/cvs rsync://rsync.nixcraft.in/cvs. Task: Mirror a directory between my “old” and “new” web server/ftp. You can mirror a directory between my “old” (my.old.server.com) and “new” web server with the command (assuming that ssh keys are set for password less authentication) $ rsync -zavrR --delete --links --rsh=ssh -l vivek my.old.server.com:/home/lighttpd /home/lighttpd. Other options – rdiff and rdiff-backup. The rdiff command uses the competiton rsync algorithm.
A utility called rdiff-backup has been created which is capable of a quote in an essay, maintaining a backup mirror of a file or directory over the network, on another server. rdiff-backup stores incremental rdiff deltas with the backup, with which it is possible to recreate any backup point. Next time I will write about these utilities. Please note if you are using MS-Windows, try any one of the program: = Read rsync man page. The author is the business studies creator of nixCraft and how do in an essay, a seasoned sysadmin and a trainer for the Linux operating system/Unix shell scripting. He has worked with global clients and in essay competiton various industries, including IT, education, defense and space research, and the nonprofit sector.
Follow him on how do you cite in an essay Twitter, Facebook, Google+. Share this on (or read 63 comments/add one below): Your support makes a big difference: I have a small favor to ask. More people are reading the nixCraft. Many of you block advertising which is your right, and thesis statement for ivan ilych, advertising revenues are not sufficient to cover my operating costs. So you can see why I need to you cite a quote ask for essay, your help. You Cite Essay. The nixCraft, takes a lot of my time and hard work to competiton produce. A Quote. If everyone who reads nixCraft, who likes it, contributes to support it with donations: I have RSYNC running to copy files from a mapped linux server (through a windows PC running cwrsync) to a remote linux server.
Everything works fine, but the permissions and ownership changes. I added this line: and that seems to business coursework work fine in ensuring I have chmod 0755 set for my folders and files. However, it keeps reverting my users:groups from myuser:nobody to 400:401. What is the code that I add to rsync to have it: a) Retain the existing ownerships, or. b) Force myuser:nobody for all files and how do you cite a quote in an essay, folders? Oops. Second question. I’d like for all directories to retain their original ownership and permissions (rather than forcing the chmod). The reason is because I’d like for competiton, most directories to be 0755, but need 0777 on some specific ones for how do a quote essay, a templating system and tiny_mc plug-in to work. How can i retain the original ownership and permissions? rather than having to go through and modify them one-by-one after the essay competiton Rsync, or giving a blanket 0777 for everything? Regardless, I don’t know how to specify folder-specific privileges in how do you cite a quote in an rsync and would prefer to just have them remain the same as before the rsync.
owever, it keeps reverting my users:groups from essay on how to become a successful entrepreneur myuser:nobody to 400:401. You need to add myuser:nobody to your local server. I donaˆ™t know how to specify folder-specific privileges in rsync and would prefer to just have them remain the same as before the rsync. Make sure files are transferred in how do in an essay “archive” mode, which ensures that symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved in harvard mba essay 2013 the transfer. rsync -avr src/path /dest/path2. Can you give a help about. I have some unix specific setup.
We have the following directories on p1cpe, and how do you cite in an essay, p2cpe: I need them to my new year resolution essay college be available, and in sync to both systems. A Quote In An. The originals should all be one p1cpe, so if you have to copy or do anything, those should be considered the source. The idea is, if a developer makes changes to ilych files on p1cpe:/opt/Apps/StaticContent, I want it also available on p2cpe, without them having to modify it twice. All the how do you cite work should be done as the user “webdude”. You should have sudo rights to webdude on p1cpe and p2cpe. Couls you please help me on that. I want to rsync 800Gb data over 4Mbps link. there are many folders which more than 100Gb, so it is keep failing rsync. i am using even –bwlimit also.
i need some script which look into folders and mba essay 2013, rsync one by one folder instead of one 100Gb folder. does it make sense? any kind of how do essay, script shell or php? hi, i hope someone could help me. I need to synchronize files between two servers like every few minues, but i need to do it automatedly using crontab. My problem is essay to become entrepreneur I need to how do you cite a quote essay use SSH with a different port, so i need to tempest use the ssh n the rsync command line. If i put the command line into you cite in an essay, cronjob, it will prompt for of the, password rite? then it will erroneous. Please help how to solve, as in it will rsync successfully in cronjob.
use `echo ‘your pw’ | rsync -e ssh ….` to automatically deliver the password to your rsync. You need to use password less login using ssh keys. hmm.. i found the how do you cite essay answer here. I want to mirror our web server into of the, a backup server. How can I use the rsync? I see –delete in the command line above and I dont know why?
I am also afraid to how do you cite in an run the rsync from the WRONG server putting useless files into our web server, so where do you run rsync from and what files do you copy to competiton make a good mirror/backup server? This is for in case the web server goes down we can bring this one up(back up) and you cite a quote essay, use it until the other one is fixed. I have setup cert on year resolution essay student both servers so ssh-ing is no problem. Thank You Very Much! I suggest you use rsnapshot tool, which uses rsync as backup tool. How Do You Cite A Quote In An Essay. rsnapshot makes hourly, daily, weekly and monthly backup. Coursework As Level. You can restore from any point like hourly or weekly as per a quote your requirement. Thank You Very Much Vivek for quick response! I will try that. Isn’t the “r” redundant in coursework as level the examples as it is you cite a quote in an implied by the “a” option?
A look at the man page says that “a” is short for my new year essay student, “rlptgoD”. how to do automatic backup using rsync. How to essay sync specific files (in this case *.dat) from multiple directories where directory name is different? For example, I’d like to copy/sync all server1:/dir1/1*/*.dat files to corresponding server2:/dir2/2*/*.dat files (where 1* directory names are 101,102.. Harvard Mba Essay. 199 and 2* are corresponding 201,202 .. 299 directories). Something like (calling rsync from server2): rsync -zrv server1:/dir1/1*/*.dat /dir2/ rsync -zrv --include=*.dat server1:/dir1/1 /dir2/ I’m trying to set up a classroom, and on my server I have a folder with virtual machine images and config files that I need to distribute to 12 classroom computers. I need to make a script that “anyone” can run, including teachers with little computer experience. The teacher has access to the server, and how do you cite, the plan is that he/she only needs to run one script on thesis the server to update all the classroom computers. Is rsync the right tool? Yes, it is right tool to push (from server) or pull files (from clients).
Hi Vivek. I need to make a script to send files between local linux computers. Is the how do essay easiest way is using rsync? Or what is your recommend? Use rsync (sync update files only) or scp (one time copy) to copy files between local or remote LAN / WAN sites. I am having 2 Server. 1 server contains Unix OS another Server contains Linux. I want to merge some data directories from linux PC to Unix PC. both servers contains same named directories files. So, i want to merge all directories file without using cp -ir command, because “cp -ir” command with overwrite existing same named directories files,which i don’t want.
If Unix Server don’t have “rsync” installed linux server having rsync, is it possible to merge all data using rsync from linux PC? try cp -ur command. -u, –update copy only when the SOURCE file is newer than the destination file or when the destination file is missing. make sure backup both directories before run any commands. i hope, this will help you. Yes I want to to become a successful become a download mirror for several large companies who require me to how do a quote essay use rsync all I need to essay student do is copy files from their server to a directory in mine I need some help here please.
i am using suse linux server and windows xp as client.I am having a network connection here.I need to transfer the you cite a quote essay database back file from the linux server to my windows xp client.please give some steps/command line arguments to essay transfer this. What about rsync to different port other than 22 ? We staringrting to switch from you cite solaris to RedHat. I created RedHat intel machine for webserver. For DocumentRoot I created directory /inet/elearning and my new year essay, with empty directory or with index.html (wich I transfer from how do you cite a quote essay sparc machine apache started and working but when I rsync all content from sparc I’m getting syntax error at start saying ‘DocumentRoot must be directory’. I see problem with directory format between solaris and redhat. Business Studies As Level. I use rsync syntax: /usr/bin/rsync -avzp –delete -e /usr/bin/ssh [emailprotected]:inet/elearning /inet. Is any chance do reformat directory during transfer them or after? On solaris creation block is 512, on you cite a quote essay redhat probably 4096. Any clue help may help. I have some folder in the source machine in the format m_d_Y, now from the remote machine i need to coursework pull only last 30 days folders using rsync. Both the source and destination are linux boxes.
Any help is a quote in an essay appreciated. Is there an business studies option to synchronize/backup/copy files from one server to another every day at a certain time? Or better yet, does rsync provide on the fly replication, meaning as sson as something changes on one server, the changes are replicated to a second server? No rsync is how do in an essay not real time server file system mirroring tool. It is perfect for making backup and other purposes. Ilych. You’ve two options here for failback mirroring use DRBD (distributed storage system for the Linux which is like RAID 1, except that it runs over in an essay, a network between two servers) or use nfs / gfs2 / ofs2 with centralized storage for cluster. This was fantastic! I have a couple of questions: 1.) Can it show the percentage completed for each file on-screen? 2.) Is there a way to competiton dump the results into how do a quote, a text file instead of on-screen?
3.) What happens if your SSH connection is business studies coursework as level accidentally terminated in mid-process? Does the process continue without you? 1) use -v attribute along with rsync command. rsync -varpgo /usr/local/nagios/contacts.cfg [emailprotected]: 2) We can redirect the output to another file adding this at the end of essay, any command. EG: date file.txt. Thank you very much! This post along with your response on on how to become how to store results to a text file has been most useful! I am using rsync under ubuntu on my netbook to duplicate the in an essay contents of resolution, my /home to an SD-Card, by. rsync -av –delete /home/x/ /media/SD-Card/home.x.backup. Running this command, the program seems to do what it should.
But when I repeat the how do essay same command immediately after, the whole lot happens again! I thought the program should be done immediately as not any changes have been made. What is competiton wrong? (I don’t know if it plays a role how the how do you cite a quote in an essay hard disks are formatted. The source is ext4 while the SD-Card is FAT32 (or VFAT). Could it be an explanation that FAT can’t save the my new resolution college student information on ownership (rights) so that on starting rsync a second time the program views all files as different and how do, does the same job as before again?) I have one clearification on year essay working of rsyn.
how data will transfor wheather bytes leval or block leval or file leval. Very helpful post. Thanks. Lets say we wanted to how do a quote essay copy all of the files under our local directory, “/usbdisk/” and 2013, place a copy on the machine “somemachine” under the remote directory “/backups/”. The name of the user on the remote machine is “dinesh”. Notice we added the “-z” argument so all data will be compressed over the network.
We could use the following line: I found this article very useful especially for beginners. I will try to how do you cite a quote in an contribute as more as possible, so it would be helpful for others… Very Nice Article… Can You please give more details about –delete option ? When Shall I use this option ? This is exactly what I am after. Haven’t set the second server up yet but will try this between centos5 and essay competiton, vista for now. I hope this is you cite in an gonna be good enough to my new year college student get rid of the how do in an useless Plesk backup tool. Next step will be to learn about load balancing so the 2 servers can be used simultaneously instead of the live/backup setup. This is a fantastic explanation of rSync and business studies, all it’s idiosyncrasies. I had been putting off syncing my sites across to another server, until I came across this.
Previously, I just used LFTP (another great tool, but more difficult to automate, or use with cron). How to use rsync with a username and a quote essay, password that is supplied by the remote server ? I have a tar file which I need to upload to a remote server. The remote server has provided me with IP address, a username and essay, a password. How Do In An. How do I use rsync with the username and password to upload the file on remote server ?? I am doing a rsync between two servers. I have put the script in crontab file so that it runs automatically everyday at night. But the problem is that rsync stops once it encounters a large file. But, surprisingly, If I execute the same script from the my new essay student CLI, it works perfectly right.
Only, when it happens in the background via rsync, it gets stuck. Please advise what could be the a quote in an essay issue. Do settings need to be changed somewhere. Thanks in advance. i think you need -P option for resuming of coursework, file / folder … #128521; i have downloaded a file in one account and want to copy the file to the other account in the same machine,i have tried to copy using scp and cp command but without success,it keeps prompting for password.please help. I am pretty sure you have your directories round the wrong way in your examples about synchronize a local directory with a remote directory and vice versa! I am totally fresher in Unix, and I want to cut the log files from server1 and paste them to server2. I am very much confused on the command part. Below are my understanding , Please suggest.
1.) Create public key through ” ssh-keygen -t rsa” 2.) Copy the public key to Server2 – If yes, then where exactly I have to a quote essay copy the key? 3.) write command in business studies coursework Server1 “scp -C $file Path$ [emailprotected]:/path$ – I want to cut the file from server1, what is the exact command for that? – from where I can get the info regarding “public_key_username” as you used it in SSH example. 4.) You must have SSH running on Server2 to make this work. 5.) write cron job to a quote essay make it automatic. Require guidance on same.
Thanks in advance. Can anyone assure me that the rsync –delete –delete-after parameter deletes files. only on the DESTINATION (target) that NO file deletion occurs on on how to become entrepreneur the SOURCE? I am copying a 2gb single file over you cite a quote essay, 2MB link, If copy is fail and I want to start the mba essay copy again from where it left then what is the option I need.
Thank you thank you thank you #128512; keep this alive. which protocol version rsync support ? Hi Vivek, Friends, Is there any way to how do you cite a quote exclude any directory from essay tempest sync at either end ? How it is better than unison ? thanks. that was helpful. I am trying to use r sync to sync up files between 4 servers . The issue is all the how do a quote in an essay servers would be master servers and thesis for ivan ilych, files can come on any of the server at anytime . Can i use rsync in this case ? what i am scacred of is what if the file tranfer is still going through one server and another file in the same time comes on how do in an that server . Thanks so much for this intro. I’ve been meaning to start using rsync for ages, this got me straight in. i have rsync errror in my downloading system.the network ip address is to be changed. so how to 2013 configure new static ip address in rsync.
I’m not sure if I’m simply misreading the how do you cite essay “Task” titles, but it seems you’ve got the “Synchronize a local directory with a remote directory” and “Synchronize a remote directory with a local directory” mixed up. To say “Synchronize X with Y” implies X is the my new year resolution college student destination and Y is the how do you cite a quote essay source; X is the thing being acted upon, Y is thesis statement for ivan ilych what is how do you cite a quote essay being used to my new resolution essay college student act. However, this is a quote essay definitely NOT what is shown in the example command. Rsync’s first directory argument is the competiton source, the second argument is the how do in an destination. I would like to do a schedule backup using cron job in Ubuntu. If I use “rsync -ave ssh [emailprotected]_ip:/var/mail/ /tmp/backup_location/”, it will need to essay tempest enter remote host password. So how can I use above command accompanied by how do you cite in an remote host password. Thank you for your help. Hi!
Did you find how to essay do it? Have to in an do exactly the same. I think you must change these with each other: Task: Synchronize a local directory with a remote directory. $ rsync -r -a -v -e “ssh -l jerry” –delete /local/webroot openbsd.nixcraft.in:/webroot. Task: Synchronize a remote directory with a local directory. $ rsync -r -a -v -e “ssh -l jerry” –delete openbsd.nixcraft.in:/webroot/ /local/webroot.
the format is rsync source dest. You can remove spaces, replace spaces with underscore, Uppercase/lowercase filename, add a prefix/suffix, remove/replace strings and competiton, also catalog files by adding an incremental number to the file name. In my scenario i want to take back up through rsync only changed files in remote system. lets say in my 1st system my folder is pasha and in my 2nd system folder is kalyan , when i synchronise both the folders i get complete backup , Then i added some files in pasha and again synchronise with the remote system kalyan. At this time i need only how do you cite in an, changed file in a separate folder in studies as level remote system kalyan.
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New York OTB: Remembering a city icon. The moment I swore never to return to another offtrack betting parlor in New York City was on the second Saturday of April 2010. How Do You Cite In An Essay. I arrived at noon to the tiny OTB in downtown Brooklyn. The parlor was in a squat gray building on a dreary side street around the corner from Brooklyn’s Municipal Building and courthouses, not far from historic and affluent Brooklyn Heights. Its immediate neighbor was Empire Bail Bonds. Inside was a diverse crowd, but alike in that few had much to bet. Nobody seemed to studies, be handicapping.
Most didn’t even have programs. One short, kinetic man bounced around the room rooting for every horse in a race, yet somehow was never happy with the result; he watched the few newcomers suspiciously, as if they were intruding on his social club. A small group of how do you cite a quote essay Jamaican men held sway in one corner. Essay On How. Two older women did a crossword puzzle in the back. How Do You Cite A Quote Essay. At 2, a tattered old man finished off a bottle of Colt 45 nestled in a brown bag, set it on the floor, swung his legs around, and studies coursework, stretched his body across three seats and sank into a deep slumber. I looked outside the how do a quote in an, dust-covered windows and saw the first great sunshine of harvard 2013 spring. I left hastily.
Eight months later, on Dec. 7, 2010, New York City Off-Track Betting Corporation closed. The largest bookmaker in the country, dead at the age of how do you cite in an essay 40. More than two years later, the statement for ivan ilych, impact of New York City OTB’s closing is still felt acutely most of all by former employees, but also by bettors and anyone who came into its orbit during its outrageous lifespan. Their stories reveal an era of New York City that no longer exists, washed away by wealth and the chasm-like gap in you cite a quote in an essay it. They speak to a cultural resonance, a grittiness once symbolic of New York that, for for ivan all its mishaps, OTB had in spades. You Cite A Quote In An. When people cared more about horse racing and had a convenient place to share that interest with others. At the time of tempest its demise, 54 parlors were left, down from more than 150 at how do a quote in an its mid-1980s peak. There were also three floors of office space in the old Paramount Pictures building at 1501 Broadway on Times Square. About 1,300 employees lost their jobs, and 900 retirees were stripped of their health insurance.
Mayor Ed Koch said point-blank in 1984: “OTB here in the city of essay college New York is civil service.” Employees were told on their first day that working 25 years guaranteed them a pension and health insurance after retirement. Benefits were paid out of OTB’s profits, but when those profits became losses something nobody anticipated when drafting its legal framework in 1970 the how do you cite, retirees were forced into the cold. They have suffered dearly. Michael Mellon, 58, was one of the longest-serving employees. Thesis Ilych. He managed a parlor in Coney Island for the final eight years of his 36-year career, which began as a part-time cashier at 18. You Cite A Quote Essay. He retired in December 2008 and expected to enjoy retirement with his wife, who worked at OTB for studies eight years, and his daughter, a recent college graduate and aspiring stage actress. Mellon didn’t anticipate losing his health insurance. But in you cite in an essay the spring of 2011, he received a letter from the city terminating his benefits. “It felt like a stab in the heart,” he said. “None of us when we were working all those years imagined this would happen.” Mellon left Brooklyn College in 1972 to work as a part-time cashier.
He had aims of playing the guitar on the side, but in his mid-20s he decided to stick it out at essay OTB. He liked the job, but like other city employees his abiding motivation was the perpetual benefits. You Cite A Quote In An. He was a cashier for essay 17 years, night manager for you cite a quote seven, pool manager for three, and finally a branch manager, which made him part of statement for ivan a select group of employees. Thinking about all he went through, Mellon spoke emotionally: “I felt like they tried to invalidate my life.” His voice cracked, and he paused to gather himself. “I stuck it out there because I knew I’d have health benefits for my family and I.” Mellon, who lives in Queens near Aqueduct Racetrack, now pays $1,500 per month for insurance for you cite essay his wife and daughter. Some nights, he dreams that he is called to work the night shift at one of his old branches in essay competiton Brooklyn’s far-flung Bensonhurt neighborhood. He did not raise the white flag, however.
Drumming support from elected officials and his fellow retirees, many of whom were worse off, Mellon led a grassroots campaign to restore their benefits in Albany. Twice Gov. Andrew Cuomo vetoed a bill doing so, most recently in you cite in an December. Mellon refuses to quit and continues to meet with local politicians and pepper fellow retirees with updates on their Facebook page. When Mellon retired, Joseph Fusco, then 36, was on his way in. An independent filmmaker and lifelong New Yorker, Fusco was looking for a night job so he could edit his film during the competiton, day. He learned of the job through a friend of his mother’s. He joined a sizable 400-person phone betting operation on the 10th floor of how do a quote essay 1501 Broadway. Fusco was a per-diem employee, the first rung of three leading to full-time status. He knew nothing about competiton horse racing, but two weeks of intensive training prepared him. Like a stevedore, he would call the scheduling manager every day and a quote in an, request a shift.
He rarely had trouble getting one until OTB entered bankruptcy. Fusco relished the experience. Year Resolution Student. He joined a workforce in phone betting that epitomized the diversity of New York in terms of race, age, and ethnicity. There were octogenarians and twenty-somethings, people who had worked there decades and rookies who were students or recent graduates. He found other artists, students, and musicians, similarly drawn to OTB for its flexibility. “OTB was a fantastic place to work if you are interested in the human condition, as I am,” he said with a laugh. How Do Essay. “It was as much there for the employees as well as the of the, customers. “When I started it really was the perfect scenario for me,” he continued. “The job for me was fairly easy; I knew what was expected of me. Essay. I sat down, I took bets, I left. There was no emotional baggage attached to the job. The worst part really was fighting your way through Times Square to get to the subway.”
Returning home, he would edit until eight in the morning, sleep, wake up and edit some more, and go to work. He was close to becoming full-time when, a week shy of his two-year anniversary, his manager told him to forget coming in. It was swift and harvard, decisive. OTB had been to the brink so many times before that, like the boy who cried wolf, nobody thought it would actually close. There was no farewell party, no good-byes, no chance to how do a quote essay, exchange phone numbers with colleagues. This angered Fusco, and he responded in the way he knew how. With Matthew Flannery, co-producer and director of photography, he is making a documentary on resolution college student, the subject entitled “Finish Line: The Rise and how do essay, Demise of Off-Track Betting.” He has started editing and is currently holding a fund-raising campaign. Tragedy motivated him: two former colleagues and friends he interviewed Patti McCole and Barbara Sweeting died from health complications after losing their insurance. Looking at the fate of its blue-collar employees, Fusco said he saw an American story that reaches Wisconsin and other places where unions have come under attack.
It also reveals the changes in New York over the last 30 years. “OTB was the harvard, last bastion of the pre-gentrified New York City,” he said. “Its loss takes away another place where poor and working-class folks could go and hang out.” OTB intended to provide revenue to localities and clean the streets of organized-crime bookmaking. You Cite A Quote In An. Little care was afforded to the street-front parlors, or their patrons; they were designed spare and greenish, shorn of amenities. Their trademark was convenience. They were community centers of a sort, and almost admirable in their stubborn seediness. This was New York after all, not Tucson. Some parlors remain undisturbed. Essay. One of the how do you cite essay, most popular, on essay tempest, Chatham Square in Chinatown, endures like a museum exhibit. The doors were padlocked on a recent visit but otherwise everything remains the same outside and inside, except with two years of in an dust collected.
Chinese letters hang below the OTB signage. Harvard 2013. Untouched are two walls of Plexiglass-protected teller windows. It was always crowded, and until the citywide ban you could barely see through clouds of cigarette smoke. Before the races, Chinese men used to sit at the counter of the how do you cite a quote in an essay, greasy dim-sum restaurant next door, examining the entries while eating Frisbee-sized pork buns. Flyers notifying patrons where to cash their remaining tickets are still stuck on the dirty windows. Standing there, you half expect somebody to year resolution essay student, walk up and unlock the door, open the register and begin taking bets. OTB still handled approximately $750 million a year upon how do you cite a quote in an its death nearly 40 percent of the state’s parimutuel handle. Of the total, about $140 million was bet through its advance-deposit wagering operations. So how did it lose money? Simple, says Sandy Frucher, the former chairman who was appointed in 2009: All of its contractual obligations, to essay, the city and state and the racetracks, came off the top of revenue instead of profits. Then came rent on their many parlors and a quote essay, millions in studies coursework benefits to their employees and how do you cite, retirees.
Unfunded post-employment retirement benefits bulged its deficit. “The fundamental problem with OTB was not management or the business as level, running of OTB,” said Frucher, now the vice chairman of the how do you cite a quote in an, NASDAQ OMX Group. “All of the payments required by the Legislature of OTB put our distributions ahead of expenses.” Frucher, who worked for free for OTB, quit after a year. Year Resolution Essay College. He had offered a plan that would have cut staff in how do you cite in an essay half, closed most parlors, and installed self-service kiosks in dozens of bars and restaurants. Much of his plan, which ended up before the state Senate, would have allowed the operation to downsize significantly but stay in essay tempest business. Frucher apparently had the best interests of employees in a quote essay mind. At the first DC-37 union rally after OTB closed, he told employees that he wished he could have done more. Essay. He feels the employees were made scapegoats and then victims. “During the creation of OTB or the transition to the state,” he said, “it was never fully disclosed to in an, the employees or retirees what a shut down would mean.” He called this “unethical and immoral.”
After Frucher left, Greg Rayburn, a corporate “turnaround expert,” was hired on a $125,000 a month salary 10 times more than his predecessor. There was no turnaround. Business Coursework As Level. Rayburn soon took his talents to Hostess Brands, which had strong unions like OTB. Three months ago, the Twinkie died. OTB couldn’t resurrect itself because it never had a real business plan. The first chairman, Howard Samuels, staffed upper management with people who would work on his campaign for governor while thousands of applications from how do you cite in an, people with racetrack backgrounds went unopened, according to Irving Rudd, the famous sports publicist who worked for OTB in its early years.
So it grew haphazardly. In 1974, the state and city added a 5 percent surcharge on all winning bets despite bitter opposition from essay tempest, OTB. How Do You Cite A Quote. It no longer had to maximize its revenue but only increase handle to coursework as level, pay localities from the increased surcharge. More branches were opened. Over time OTB horse-traded with the racing industry for more signals, live calls, the display of live odds.
Oversaturation became the norm. Simulcast theaters were opened in how do a quote restaurants, places like the Inside Track on the East Side, the Winner’s Circle near Penn Station, and the Yankee Clipper across from South Street Seaport. The Yankee Clipper was on the ground floor of a beautiful old ship chandlery built in business coursework 1840, the only surviving granite Greek Revival building in how do a quote in an essay the city. If OTB couldn’t make it there, then where could it? Kevin Depew, 44, was a Clipper habitué during its final 3 1/2 years. A native of Lexington, Ky., who bought his first house there using his track winnings, Depew had moved to New York in of the tempest 2004 with his family to in an essay, become the editor of a financial news website. Settling above the legendary Paris Café on Peck Slip in 2005, he went looking for the nearest OTB. He bounced around to on how to become a successful, the Financial District, Tribeca, and Chinatown, before one day realizing that the Yankee Clipper, only a few blocks south, was more than a fancy looking restaurant. It was not clearly marked; only white print on small blue awnings over each window revealed its nature.
The first awning read: NYC OTB. Yankee Clipper on the second. How Do In An. Teletheatre. Student. Restaurant. Then repeated. The clever advertising was intentional, so tourists might wander in how do from the essay competiton, Seaport.
The food was lousy. In the how do you cite in an, rear of the windowless restaurant was the bar, which is where Depew commanded a booth most weekends. Harvard. There were three tellers in the place. There was also a basement room, with self-service machines, where a familiar Asian-American crowd resided. They were serious bettors and often had laptops out. There were also two high-roller rooms upstairs. On an ordinary weekend, 60 people might show up. It was a minor, but perhaps vital part of the residential community.
Depew said he and friends used to watch the Triple Crown at the Paris Café, and they would draw straws to see who had to you cite essay, run bets to the Clipper. Most people kept to themselves at the Clipper, which as a serious horseplayer Depew appreciated. Like all OTBs, however, there was one tragic figure who showed up regularly. Essay. He worked in the Financial District and in an essay, lived nearby. “You would hate to see him,” Depew said, “because you know money is being lost and lives ruined. On How A Successful Entrepreneur. He showed up most weekends.
He’d say, ‘I’m not here to gamble. I’m just here to have a beer. Going to pick up the kids soon.’ Then you’d see him two hours later having gone to the ATM twice and sitting at the bar with a load of tickets.” It was a strange place, and as grim as any other OTB in its twilight years, Depew said. “The only difference is, it looked good on how do in an, the outside.” As OTB went, so did the Clipper. A new law in 2003 allowed OTB to stay open later to show evening Thoroughbred racing. Thinking this expansion would be a gold mine, OTB had to essay competiton, compensate harness tracks for the supposed competition. Expenses and overtime pay skyrocketed, but additional handle never materialized, leaving OTB locked into how do a quote in an, even more expensive contracts.
Its image was not helped by essay on how to become a successful entrepreneur, profligate spending: It had a fleet of 87 cars, and employed 22 executives. OTB was a sinking ship, but not only metaphorically. The parlors became even more bare bones in a self-destructive cycle. In the final months, the Clipper, with its lack of windows and in an, nautical theme, grew to resemble a sunken cruise ship. It took on water until it scared everybody away. The restaurant had ceased to function, leaving only a nearly empty bar.
Depew remembers watching the my new year, Breeders’ Cup there one month before it closed. “They didn’t have soda guns anymore,” he recalled. “They had two-liter bottles of Coke and 7-Up for how do you cite a quote in an essay making mixed drinks. I don’t think they had beer on tap, only domestic bottles.” Still, Depew remembered, “There was a sense everybody had that you can’t close the OTBs. You can’t have New York City without the essay, OTBs.” The bets found their way into you cite a quote, the pools, even though bettors scattered. The New York Racing Association profited from the fallout. They got OTB’s ADW operation for free; a majority of its 20,000 accounts migrated to NYRA Rewards, which has seen that same number of to become a successful entrepreneur accounts added in how do in an two years. Essay On How To Become A Successful. For months after OTB closed, NYRA bused bettors from a dozen city parlors to you cite in an essay, Aqueduct. You get the sense that the tracks were happy to see NYCOTB and its seedy parlors go. In 2011, NYRA’s ontrack handle which includes phone and Internet wagering rose $219 million, which works out to 36 percent of the $616 million wagered on Thoroughbreds at studies NYCOTB in its final 11 months and one week.
NYRA draws about four times as much revenue from each ontrack bet as it did from one placed at OTB. NYRA has proposed installing self-service terminals in existing bars and how do a quote essay, restaurants, beginning with 10 and essay competiton, growing to 40 in you cite a quote essay five years a low-overhead model, short on business studies coursework, staff. But its own instability since being taken over by the state has put this plan on hold. Something will replace OTB, but whatever does will look nothing like it. Few people will protest one way or another.
New York City is how do you cite essay, a wrecking ball, but maybe the Landmarks Commission can offer historic status to one parlor, like the ilych, one in how do you cite a quote in an essay Chinatown.
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essay on economy However, the problem is that economists may often disagree on the best solution to these challenges. For example, at the start of the you cite a quote great depression in 1930, leading economists in the UK Treasury suggested that the UK needed to balance the budget; i.e. higher taxes, lower unemployment benefits. But, this made the recession deeper and led to a fall in demand. The over production of negative externalities (e.g. Essay Competiton! pollution/congestion) The underproduction of goods with positive externalities (e.g. education, health care, public transport). Non-provision of how do you cite a quote, Public Goods - (national defence, law and order) In recent years, behavioural economics has looked at harvard, the diverse range of factors that influence people's decisions. For example, behavioural economists have noted that individuals can exhibit present-bias focus.
This means placing excess importance on the current time period and making decisions our future self may regret. This includes over-consumption of demerit goods like alcohol and tobacco and failure to how do you cite a quote in an essay save for a pension. What may cause a run on the Pound? A run on the pound is more likely in a semi fixed exchange rate. e.g. when the Government is committed to trying to keep the Pound at a certain level. If markets feel this level is unsustainable they may keep selling Pounds until the government is essay tempest forced to devalue. For example, in 1992, the UK tried to maintain value of Sterling in ERM, but, ultimately markets forced the UK out and we had to you cite a quote in an essay devalue. Harvard Mba Essay 2013! The graph above shows the near 20% devaluation in 1992. We also had a run on the pound in the late 60s, causing the essay Wilson government to devalue pound. (In 1967, Wilson devalued pound by 15% after selling many foreign currency reserves trying to essay competiton maintain value of Pound) In 1976, there was another on the Pound as markets feared the UK's fiscal position. How Do You Cite Essay! Financial crisis depreciation. The credit crunch of 2008 hit the UK economy hard because it was more reliant on the financial sector than most other economies.
Other potential causes of a run on the Pound. High inflation - high inflation reduces the value of Pound Sterling. Foreign investors will be nervous of my new year essay student, holding UK assets if the UK has high inflation. Threat of sovereign debt default . If markets feel government borrowing is too high and unsustainable then there is a risk of foreigners losing their government bonds. Therefore, the market will sell bonds causing an outflow of foreign currency and essay fall in value of sterling. This can build up a momentum effect.
As the fall in the currency can alarm other investors. Large current account deficit. Entrepreneur! A large current account deficit implies we rely on capital flows to finance the current account deficit. How Do A Quote In An! Therefore, the UK would be more vulnerable to capital flight. In this circumstance a run on the Pound would be stronger. However, the UK has run a persistent current account deficit since the 1980s. (See: Current account deficit) Is the UK at risk from a Run on the Pound?
Would membership of Euro protect against a run on the Pound? Link between inflation and interest rates. Interest rates can influence the rate of competiton, inflation and the rate of you cite essay, economic growth. The Bank of England change the 'base' interest rate to try and essay competiton target the government's inflation rate of 2% +/-1 Generally, an increase in how do a quote, inflation leads to higher interest rates. A fall in the inflation rate and lower growth leads to lower interest rates. Graph Showing Inflation and Interest Rates in the UK. Real Interest Rates.
Typically, nominal interest rates are 1 - 2 % higher than inflation. My New Year Resolution College Student! When interest rates are higher than inflation, it means savers are protected against the effects of how do, inflation. However, in 2008 and 2011, we had a period of negative real interest rates. This meant the inflation rate was higher than the base rate. A negative real interest rate is bad news for essay competiton savers, but good news for borrowers. How Do You Cite In An! Response to Rising Inflation. If inflation rises, generally, the Bank of essay competiton, England increases interest rates to you cite reduce inflationary pressure. Mba Essay! Higher interest rates tend to reduce consumer spending. This is because homeowners see an increase in the cost of their mortgage payments and have less disposable income. How Do A Quote In An! Therefore, they spend less.
Also, higher interest rates increase the incentive to save and reduce the incentive to borrow. Therefore, an harvard mba essay increase in interest rates tends to reduce the rate of how do a quote in an, economic growth and prevent inflationary pressures. See more on: Effects of Higher interest rates on economy Response to Fall in Inflation Rate. Lower interest rates increase motivation to borrow Lower interest rates mean cheaper mortgage payments and increase disposable income. Why A Cut in Interest Rates May Not Work. The recession was so sharp that investment and statement for ivan consumption have fallen dramatically and so the cuts in interest rates have only mitigated the how do you cite a quote extent of the downturn House Price falls provide a powerful negative impact on spending. Lower interest rates should boost spending. But, with house prices falling 20% since the peak, this has reduced consumer wealth and therefore reduced spending. Global downturn.
Even sharp depreciation has been unable to boost export growth because of the extent of the economic downturn. Time Lags. A cut in interest rates can take a long time to have an effect. For example, people with a two-year fixed rate mortgage won't notice for quite a long time. (until they re-mortgage. Also, commercial banks may be reluctant to pass the interest rate cut onto consumers. In some circumstances, the Central Bank may not increase interest rates, despite an increase in inflation. For example, in 2008 and 2011, we had a rise in inflation to 5%, but, the Central Bank kept interest rates low.
Why? They kept interest rates low because: They felt inflation was just due to temporary cost-push factors like higher taxes and harvard 2013 volatile food prices increasing They felt economy was at risk of inflation. Therefore, it was more important to tolerate a temporarily higher inflation rate, than increase interest rates and push the economy back into a quote in an essay recession. Essay! Related. UK Exchange Rate Mechanism Crisis 1992. In October 1990, the UK made the decision to join the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) The ERM was a semi-fixed exchange rate mechanism. The value of the Pound was supposed to be kept at a certain level against the DM.
Keep inflation low Provide stability for exporters encouraging trade Enable countries to join the single currency - the Euro. In the late 1980s, the chancellor, Nigel Lawson was keen to join the ERM. But, Mrs Thatcher with her euro-sceptic views wanted to you cite a quote essay stay out. The late 1980s saw an extraordinary economic boom - boosted by booming house prices, tax cuts and low interest rates. Growth reached record levels of 5-6% a year. Enthusiastic government ministers talked of an economic miracle - hoping Government policies had enabled, at long last, to catch up with other countries like Germany. However, this miracle was an harvard mba essay 2013 illusion.
High growth was unsustainable and led to inflation.(see: Lawson Boom) With inflation of you cite in an essay, 10%, Nigel Lawson was able to studies as level convince Mrs Thatcher that the UK would benefit from joining the ERM to help reduce inflation. Therefore, the UK joined in October 1990. at a rate of DM 2.95 to the Pound. Increasing interest rates - this attracts hot money flows - it is how do you cite a quote essay more attractive to save in UK with high interest rates. Buying pounds with foreign exchange reserves. However, these policies of protecting the value of the Pound was causing a serious economic downturn. High interest rates particularly hit the housing market.
With rising house prices, many had taken out large mortgages to get on the property ladder. But, now interest rates were increasing, mortgage repayments became unaffordable and default rates increased. Combined with rising unemployment from the business as level recession, the housing market saw a dramatic fall in prices that was to you cite last 4 years. It was increasingly clear to the financial markets that the Pound was overvalued. The government was exhausting its foreign currency reserves in buying pounds. But, more problematically, the high interest rates was causing a serious recession and misery for homeowners. For a long time, the essay British government fought a losing battle.
But, the in an essay foreign currency reserves of the business British government were no match for the trillions of Pound Sterling traded on the foreign currency and how do in an essay the pound kept sliding. Studies Coursework As Level! It is estimated that the Treasury used ?27 billion of foreign currency reserves trying to prop up the Pound. The Treasury estimated the final cost to how do a quote in an the taxpayer was estimated at ?3.4 billion. An overvalued currency can lead to lower economic growth, due to uncompetitive exports. Trying to keep currency at a level which is too high, may require high real interest rates - which can cause economic downturn. Essay A Successful Entrepreneur! It is hard to buck the how do essay market. Even government intervention on foreign currency markets is not sufficient to prevent depreciation if this is what reflects market fundamentals. A devaluation of the currency can be beneficial for the economy - under certain circumstances. This devaluation did not cause significant inflation, because the my new year essay student economy was depressed.
UK Recession of you cite essay, 1991-92 UK devaluation of 1967 - many similarities UK Economic history Factors influencing exchange rate UK Crashes out of ERM in 1992 at BBC Unemployment is A Price well Worth Paying for lower inflation - Norman Lamont commenting on studies as level his own policies. European harmony - European Union countries are no longer at loggerheads like they were in the past. With the exception of civil war in Yugoslavia (which wasn't in the EU at the time), Europe has managed to heal the you cite in an divisions which were so painfully exposed in the two World Wars in the Twentieth Century. The EU was awarded the essay Nobel Peace Prize in 2012 for helping to how do a quote essay promote peace and international co-operation. Many Eastern European countries are keen to competiton join the EU because they feel it will help promote economic and political stability. Legal and how do you cite a quote human rights. The EU has a strong commitment to human rights, preventing discrimination and the due process of law. This makes the EU attractive to countries, such as the Ukraine who wish to share in similar legal and human rights. Prospect of coursework, membership has helped modernise countries, such as Turkey. The Copenhagen Criteria for essay EU membership enshrine a commitment to human rights, the rule of law and a market economy.
The prospect of coursework, gaining membership of the how do you cite in an EU, encourage countries to implement human rights legislation. Economic benefits. EU is one of strongest economic areas in the world. A Successful! With 500 million people, it has 7.3% of the world's population but accounts for how do you cite in an essay 23% of studies as level, nominal global GDP. Free trade and removal of non-tariff barriers have helped reduce costs and prices for consumers.
Increased trade with the you cite essay EU creates jobs and higher income. Over 52% of UK exports are to the EU. Trade within the thesis statement for ivan EU has increased 30% since 1992. According to one study - over ten years (1993-2003), the Single Market has boosted the EU’s GDP by ˆ877 billion [?588 billion]. This represents ˆ5,700 [?3,819] of extra income per household. A paper, Campos, Coricelli, and Moretti (2014) used the synthetic counterfactuals method (SCM) pioneered by Abadie and Gardeazabal (2003). The red dotted line shows estimated GDP if the country had not been a member of the EU. This shows that even more prosperous EU countries, such as the UK have benefited from higher GDP as a result of being in the EU. Free movement of you cite in an essay, labour and capital have helped create a more flexible economy. For example, UK and Ireland have benefited from the immigration of Eastern European workers to fill labour market shortages in certain areas, such as plumbing, nursing and cleaning. Far from 'taking jobs', migration has helped increase productive capacity and makes a net contribution to tax revenues. (see impact of net migration) Free movement of labour also enables British people to to become a successful live and work in Europe.
Roughly 1.6 million British citizens live in the EU outside the UK ( UNCTAD World Investment Report 2010 ) EU migrants are net contributors to UK Treasury. In An Essay! EU migrants tend to be young. Therefore they pay taxes, but use a relatively small share of the NHS and pensions. See: Fiscal effects of immigration. Net migration has helped deal with the UK's demographic timebomb. EU has enabled people to travel freely across national boundaries making trade and tourism easier and cheaper. According to the European Commission, more than 15 million EU citizens have moved to other EU countries to my new resolution student work or to you cite in an enjoy their retirement. 1.5 million young people have completed part of my new year resolution student, their studies in another member state with the help of the Erasmus programme.
The possibility to study abroad is considered positive by 84% of EU citizens. A Quote In An! (benefits of EU) Easier to use qualifications in resolution college student, different member countries. A Quote Essay! This makes it easier to work abroad without having to retrain in different national qualifications. Mutual recognition of safety standards and rules have helped reduce costs for firms. Mba Essay 2013! This has encouraged the development of small and medium business who rely on the low cost of exports. Social charter enshrines protection for workers such as a maximum working week, right to collective bargaining and fair pay for employment. European Arrest Warrant (EAW) scheme has made it easier to track criminals across the European continent. Environmental benefits of the EU. The EU has raised the quality of sea water and beeches, by implementing regulations on water standards 'Bathing Water Directive'. 92% of tourist locations now meet minimum water quality standards. How Do! (Clean water at Europa.eu) Tackling global warming.
In 2006, the (EU) committed to my new year resolution college reducing its global warming emissions by at least 20 percent of how do you cite a quote essay, 1990 levels by 2020. The EU has also committed to spending $375 billion a year to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 percent by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. (global warmingpdf) Tackling acid rain. Business Studies! Environmental treaties which have sought to you cite essay deal with European wide environmental problems such as acid rain. The EU has set strict restrictions on emissions of pollutants, such as sulphur , and other causes of acid rain. (BBC Link) Consumer benefits of the EU. EU competition policy has harmonised regulation of monopoly and cartel power within Europe. The EU competition policy seeks to avoid abuses of cartels / monopoly / dominant market power and protect the interest of the consumer. There has been successful deregulation of airlines, electricity and gas markets.
The EU has reduced the price of as level, making mobile phone calls abroad. In 2007 EU legislation set maximum charges for making and receiving calls. The EU also agreed with 14 mobile phone manufacturers to create a standard design for chargers from 2011 in order to make life easier for consumers and reduce wastage. In 2014, it is has voted to scrap roaming charges which will drastically reduce the you cite a quote essay cost of using a mobile phone abroad. Essay Tempest! (BBC link) Consumers are free to shop in how do in an, any EU countries without paying any tariffs or excise duties when they return home. So what have the EU ever done for essay on how to become entrepreneur us, apart from straightening all those pesky bananas? Recent posts on Brexit and Europe.
Unemployment - A price worth paying for lower inflation? To some extent N.Lamont will claim to be vindicated by events. Although unemployment rose to 3 million in how do a quote essay, the early 1990s, inflation was reduced and since then the economy has experienced a long period of essay competiton, uninterrupted growth without inflation and unemployment has fallen. 2. Costs of inflation. 1. Unemployment can last for a long time. Yet, this period of undoubted prosperity and you cite essay rising living standards helped to mask a decline in 2013, the relative competitiveness of the in an essay UK economy. UK economic growth in the 1960s. Competiton! There were brief dips in output, but these were not sustained. Lack of willingness / ability to innovate Poor industrial relations with a growing number of days lost to strike action.
There was often a break down between owners and managers and increasingly militant trade unions. Some argue this was exacerbated by Britain's class system. Whilst Japanese workers sang company songs with zest and loyalty, British workers were more likely to be working to rule or considering strike action. Barbara Castle as Labour minister tried a moderate reforms of trades unions, through her white paper 'In Place of Strife '. How Do A Quote In An Essay! However, the unions effectively lobbied Labour ministers and the reform bill was blocked. Complacency. On How A Successful Entrepreneur! Some argue that in the post-war period, the UK was affected by complacency of being a global power. This complacency was in stark contrast to the defeated countries of Germany and Japan, who put greater energy into business. The UK was also hampered by coming to terms with letting go its Empire and you cite in an essay trying to join Europe.
In the 1960s, two applications to join the EEC were vetoed by the French. Business Studies As Level! Lack of public sector infrastructure. Burdened by high post-war debt, the UK struggled to essay invest in essay tempest, new transport and technologies. For example, the UK was still relying on steam trains until the mid 1960s - later than many other countries who made switch to cheaper and more efficient electricity and diesel. Balance of Payments. In the 1960s, the you cite essay trade deficit was seen as a vitally important economic statistic, with important politically considerations. Unfortunately, for business studies as level the Harold Wilson government of the 1960s, the you cite essay UK trade deficit was embarrassingly large - a result of the decline in competitiveness and a wish to retain a strong pound. Campaigns like 'Buy British' were surprisingly prominent, but, ultimately failed to my new resolution essay make any real dent in the trade deficit.
The problem was that if you wanted a car or electrical good that worked - you were much better off buying from overseas. If we made jokes about Skodas and Ladas in the 1980s, British Leyland was the you cite in an butt of many jokes during 60s and 70s. Despite the business coursework economic weaknesses of the 1960s, it was still an how do you cite a quote in an era of full employment and rising real wages. Compared to the rest of the Twentieth Century, the 1950s and 60s were a rare period of full employment. In fact, there were serious labour shortages in industries, such as manufacturing and transport, leading to the mass immigration from Commonwealth countries.
Devaluation of 1967. It does not mean that the pound here in Britain, in my new year resolution essay, your pocket or purse or in your bank, has been devalued. A Quote Essay! (BBC) But, it did cause the price of tempest, imports to rise and contribute to rising inflation. It was also hoped the devaluation would tackle. Our decision to devalue attacks our problem at the root and that is why the international monetary community have rallied round. You Cite A Quote Essay! However, although it proved a temporary boost in competitiveness.
It could not tackle the fundamental issues, such as productivity and labour relations. After the Second World War, the UK was left with huge debts. National debt as a % of GDP exceeded 200% of GDP in the early 1950s. Britain was reliant on loans from the United States. Despite growth and a steady reduction in debt to GDP during the 1960s, the UK still required US help. The Lawson Boom of the late 1980s. The Lawson boom of the late 1980s was a classic example of a 'boom and bust' economic cycle. The late 1980s were a period of thesis for ivan ilych, rapid economic expansion.
This was caused by rising house prices, tax cuts, lower interest rates and high confidence. However, the boom caused a rise in inflation and in an a larger current account deficit. Policies to tackle this inflation caused the recession of business studies, 1991-92. The Lawson boom followed from the recession of 1981. A Quote Essay! This recession particularly affected the manufacturing sector and studies as level caused unemployment to rise to 3 million.
By 1985, unemployment was still over 2.5 million people. However, from essay 1986 the government made various decisions which helped to harvard 2013 inflate the economy causing an inflationary boom. Economic growth in the 1980s. In 1987 as a whole, output grew by getting on for 4? per cent., rather more than the rate of inflation which averaged 4.2 per cent. At the you cite a quote in an same time, unemployment fell faster than in any other year since the war, in year essay, every region of the how do you cite a quote in an essay country, and more than in any other major nation. The plain fact is that the British economy has been transformed. Prudent financial policies have given business and industry the confidence to expand, while supply side reforms have progressively removed the barriers to enterprise. (source) However, this was not the case and mba essay 2013 economic growth of essay, 4%, led to a growing current account deficit and rising inflation rate.
4. The housing boom. The low-interest rates and my new year essay college student the high consumer confidence sparked a housing boom. During the you cite in an essay boom years, house prices rose by 300% (and more in places like London). Q4 1988 was the peak of the boom period with house prices rising over 30% at an annual rate. Of The Tempest! This boom in how do essay, house prices caused a rise in household wealth and business studies coursework increased confidence. Equity withdrawal rose to record levels, which helped increase consumer spending. By 1988 and 1989, the economy was growing at 5% a year (almost double the long run trend rate) Despite signs of overheating, the government were reluctant to react.
Interest rates were increased, but not as quickly as they could have. Partly they believed there had been an economic miracle - enabling a higher long run trend rate of economic growth. But, also Nigel Lawson, didn't want higher interest rates to boost the value of the Pound above the 'unofficial exchange rate' he was following. How Do You Cite! This was a policy known as shadowing the D-Mark. However, the fast growth meant that inflation started to creep up, eventually reaching over 8% in my new year student, 1990. A widening current account deficit in the late 1980s was evidence of the economic boom. High consumer spending led to a rise in import spending causing a deterioration in the current account. It was also in the 1980s, that we saw rapid financial deregulation, which at the time was considered beneficial.
However, the financial deregulation of building societies was a factor behind the UK credit crunch of 2008. The Lawson Boom also saw a period of how do you cite essay, widening inequality - helped by cuts to tax rates for high earners. One interesting outcome of the Lawson Boom was that it encouraged later governments to essay tempest give responsibility of Monetary Policy to the Bank of England. The argument was that an independent Bank of England would avoid the you cite political pressure to keep interest rates too low to achieve high growth. Related. How does austerity affect the economy?
However, austerity, during a time of economic weakness often leads to further falls in aggregate demand, higher unemployment and a successful lower economic growth. In some cases, austerity to reduce a budget deficit can be self-defeating, with sharp falls in real GDP, causing debt to GDP ratios to in an essay continue to studies rise. However, in certain cases, 'fiscal austerity' can reduce budget deficits without causing negative economic growth. Lower inflation . Spending cuts will tend to lead to lower inflation. Firstly, the fall in aggregate demand (AD) will lead to lower inflationary pressures in the economy. Also, if the government limits public sector wages, this will put downward pressure on wages.
Lower wage growth plays a key role in reducing underlying inflationary pressure. Ireland has been one of more 'successful' countries which has embarked on austerity, but this shows GNP is how do you cite a quote in an essay still significantly below pre -crisis levels (when real GNP was growing at an average rate of close to 5% a year) The UK's budget deficit fell slower than expected. This was partly because growth forecasts proved overly-optimistic. The austerity measures led to a slowdown in growth. What determines the impact of austerity? Exchange rate . Austerity is not as damaging if a country can devalue the exchange rate. This devaluation helps to restore competitiveness much quicker than relying on internal devaluation. The depreciation helps boost export demand. Countries in harvard mba essay, the Euro, can't devalue and so have to rely solely on internal devaluation to restore competitiveness.
Should we worry about national debt? It is worth bearing in mind that in the 1940s, as well as paying for post war reconstruction, the UK set up the NHS and you cite a quote essay welfare state. Tempest! There was no austerity panic in the 1940s! The high government debt levels of the 1940s and 1950s were not a barrier to the post war boom years of the 1950s and 1960s which saw record levels of economic growth. An analogy. When I took out a mortgage loan of ?140,000, I was left with mortgage payments of ?800 a month.
In 2004, this was nearly 40% of my income. However, if my income increases by 3% a year. In 20 years time, it will be much easier to pay that mortgage payment of ?800, it will hopefully be 15% of my income. To buy a house, it makes sense to borrow a mortgage and pay back over 30-40 years. However, although national debt can be effectively managed, there are concerns when debt grows faster than National Income.
For example, in Greece debt to how do you cite a quote essay GDP has risen so quickly that it has proved very difficult to stop the ratio of debt to GDP rising. (partly because spending cuts to reduce the deficit, caused lower GDP) As UK debt rose from 35% of GDP to 80% of GDP. Bond yields fell from 5% to 2% In other-words as debt rose, borrowing costs fell. Mba Essay 2013! This is because in economic downturn, there is greater demand for government bonds. In some cases (such as Eurozone economies) higher levels of public debt pushed up bond yields. Higher bond yields are damaging to how do you cite essay the economy. It increases the cost of debt interest payments and is a reflection investors are nervous about the liquidity of government debt.
It forced the economies into competiton austerity which caused a prolonged recession. The UK has seen a fall in how do you cite, bond yields during the recession of 2008-12. This is because, in a recession, private sector saving rises. Therefore, there is demand for my new resolution essay student safe investments, such as government bonds. In a recession, people don't want to take risks, therefore demand for shares and private investment tends to fall. In a recession, government borrowing doesn't tend to cause crowding out.
Government borrowing is merely mopping up private sector saving. Possible reasons to be concerned about how do a quote in an government borrowing. However, an business studies as level ageing population can be resolved without just increasing tax on young workers. The retirement age can be increase to keep the same% of population in workforce. 3. Inflationary Pressure. There is a concern that higher levels of national debt can cause inflation. If debt becomes too high, there may be insufficient investors to buy the government securities (the usual way of financing the debt). Therefore, the government may be tempted (or forced) to fill the shortfall in revenue by printing money. Printing money and increasing the money supply, will lead to inflation. The problem with inflation, is you cite a quote in an essay that it devalues the value of bonds, people will sell bonds, leading to higher interest rates on mba essay 2013 bonds and higher debt interest payments. If investors see inflation is getting out of control, people will not want to hold bonds.
Foreign investors will sell their securities and this will cause a devaluation in the currency. This is how do a quote in an particularly a problem for the US, where foreign countries hold a high % of the essay tempest national debt.The hyperinflation of Germany in in an essay, 1922-23 was caused by the government printing money to finance reparation payments to the allies. However, it should be pointed out, this hyperinflation is quite rare and only occurs if the government prints money recklessly without regard to the fundamental economic situation. Competiton! Quantitative easing in 2009-12 didn't cause inflation in how do in an, the UK and US. The increase in the monetary base was very large, but the inflationary impact minimal. Essay! - Inflation and a quote quantitative easing. Resolution Essay College Student! 4. Crowding Out . It is argued that if government borrowing increases, it will cause crowding out of the private sector.
If the private sector buy bonds it means the private sector has less funds for a quote private sector investment. Also, if borrowing increases, interest rates may rise. Higher interest rates also reduce private sector spending and investment. However, in a recession, crowding out doesn't occur because the private sector want to buy government bonds 5. As National Debt increases as a % of GDP, it means that the interest payments as a % of GDP may increase. 2013! Therefore, higher levels of taxes have to a quote in an be spent on just financing the national debt. If the thesis for ivan government increases debt during a period of economic growth - the higher borrowing is likely to crowd out the you cite in an private sector and lead to statement for ivan a decline in private sector investment. If there is a structural deficit caused by spending commitments which can't be met by tax revenues. If the government responds to in an essay higher debt by printing money; this can cause inflation. e.g. case of Zimbabwe, Germany 1920s.
But, note QE of 2008-12, didn't cause inflation in UK and US because of liquidity trap. How to deal with an ageing population. How UK Pension spending as a % of GDP has increased in recent decades.
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