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How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and everything else) By Roger C. Parker. I’m pleased to present a guest article today from essay contest 2013, Roger C. Parker, the author of numerous best-selling books who also self-publishes and framework research papers runs the Published and Profitable Blog, a source of endless tips for brand-building, graphics, publishing and other interests. Personal 2013. I turned to Roger to introduce me to mind mapping and here’s his response: Although mind mapping as a creativity and productivity tool has been around for decades, it amazes me that many authors still haven’t discovered this simple technique for theoretical, organizing ideas and personal essay 2013 creating action plans for planning, writing, and marketing books.
I say “technique” to obesity essay emphasize that mind mapping can be done anywhere, including the back of a napkin, on 2013 yellow legal pads, or white boards. However, authors who use mind mapping software on their computers and basic outline for a essay mobile devices enjoy the most benefits. Reduced to its essence, mind mapping is personal essay 2013 a form of basic for a, visual thinking that converts ideas and words into easily-understood visuals that let you to display the part-whole relationships that exist in complex projects, like the personal contest 2013 chapters and contents of horse essay, a book or the tasks (and deadlines) associated with a book marketing plan. Think in 2013, terms of clouds in the sky. Take a piece of club themes essay, scratch paper, and: Draw a big cloud in personal essay, the middle. Block Pattern. Label it My Next Book . Add several smaller clouds around it, (like planets around the sun). Temporarily label them Chapter 1 , Chapter 2 , Chapter 3 , etc. (Later, you can add the specific titles of each chapter.) Next to the cloud indicating each chapter, list the ideas you plan to essay contest address in each chapter. The power of mind mapping is conceptual theoretical that, at a glance, you can see the whole project and how the various parts fit together. From this fresh perspective, you can add, delete, or move chapters and their contents until everything fits together just right. If you’re mind mapping on a computer, of course, you can simply drag-and-drop chapters and ideas to different locations.
Here are some of the ways you, as an author, can use mind mapping: Organize your ideas into a table of contents for your book Plan a book proposal or a book marketing plan Create an essay editorial calendar for upcoming blog posts and the rocking horse essay outline social marketing Plan articles , speeches, white papers, and marketing materials like one-sheets Locate and analyze competing books on Amazon.com Prepare creative briefs for personal essay contest, vendors like web designers Create a business plan for leveraging your book into cause back-end profits. Plan, prepare, and present visuals for meetings—even at personal essay contest, the last minute. Click for the complete mind map. For example, here is the the rocking horse winner essay outline mind map I used as the contest 2013 basis of breakfast club themes essay, this article. I created it in bed on my iPad, using Mindo, a $6.99 mobile app. After I finished the map, I exported it as a text file to Microsoft Word, for contest 2013, completion on my primary computer. Download a PDF copy of the map. What features are found in most mind mapping programs? There are over 100 mind mapping software programs available, but most offer the following 12 features. (Note that the terminology, however, is likely to differ from program to program.) Topics and subtopics.
These are the building blocks of a mind map. Topics are equivalent to the sections, or parts, of a book. Subtopics are equivalent to chapters. Each subtopic can contain its own subtopics for the main ideas, of topic headings, included in each chapter. Topics and subtopics can include graphics, like photographs, as well as links to obesity files, email addresses, and personal essay contest 2013 website URLs.
Icons are symbols supplied with most mind mapping software programs. Breakfast Club Themes. You can use icons as a type of personal essay contest 2013, visual shorthand to cause indicate topic category, importance, or sequence. You can also use icons to show progress completing a task. Personal Contest 2013. Boundary. Add boundaries to outline for a narrative visually group topics and essay 2013 subtopics together by adding a common border and background color. You can also use boundaries to provide selective emphasis. Comments. Use comments to add brief explanations to topics or subtopics, such as describing the relevance of the topic. You can also use comments to remind you to add more information at a later date. Breakfast Club. Notes.
Notes are one of the two most often ignored features found in mind mapping software. Personal. Notes permit you to add longer text passages, like sentences and paragraphs, to any topic or subtopic. When ideas occur to you, you can start writing your book right in the mind map. Children Curse. Notes are normally not visible, until desired. Thus, you can write as much as desired without cluttering up your map. Relationships. You can add lines between non-adjacent topics and 2013 subtopics, to show cause and effect relationships between them or common characteristics. Tasks. Mind maps can be used for project management, such as scheduling your writing and marketing tasks. Many programs let you add start and stop dates to topics and the rocking horse subtopics, making it easy to plan, delegate, and track the various tasks involved in essay contest, complex projects.
Another task tool is the ability to add resources to cause essay topics, to indicate who is responsible for completing the essay 2013 tasks. Filtering (or, reporting). Many mind maps can create summary views that display only themes completed, incomplete, or tasks that are behind schedule. They can display task responsibilities for different individuals or departments. View.
Mind mapping software permits you to display as much, or as little, of each map as desired. You can get an overall view by personal 2013, collapsing your map to display just the pattern essays chapters of your book. Or, you can expand your map to display all the subtopics associated with each chapter. Essay Contest. Some programs permit you to temporarily display just one topic and its sub-topics. Club Themes Essay. All programs let you zoom-in to magnify part of contest, a map or zoom-out to display the pattern essays big picture. Collaboration.
Mind maps are intended to be shared with others. Special “reader” software permits you to share maps with others, like editors and essay contest 2013 literary agents—even if they don’t own the mind mapping program that you use. For A Essay. Other mind mapping programs permit multiple users to share and contribute comments, ideas, and personal essay 2013 information to mind maps hosted online. Review. Many programs include a review feature, similar to cause obesity essay Microsoft Word’s Track Changes command, that permits you to track individual contributions. Export is the second important, but frequently under-utilized feature. It’s important to remember that mind maps are not islands , but are intended to contest 2013 be used with other software programs. Most programs can export the information displayed in a mind map to various word processing, presentation, spreadsheet, and project management programs.
In addition, most programs can create graphic files for including in cause obesity essay, print publications and personal HTML files for display online or embedded in obesity essay, blogs and websites. Finally, many programs can export, or share, files with other popular mind mapping file formats. Other frequently found mind mapping features. Many programs permit you to select from among different map backgrounds, or you can visually brand your maps by adding your own custom background. Some mind mapping programs can automatically number topics and subtopics, or sort them alphabetically. Many offer editing features like Find and Replace which can save a lot of time.
Why you can’t go wrong choosing a mind mapping program. Mind mapping software programs are available for all platforms, including Windows, Macintosh, and mobile apps for iPhones and iPads. There are 2 reasons you really can’t go wrong when you’re getting started. Risk free trials . Some mind mapping programs are free, and most mind mapping program offer 30-day, risk -free trial versions. This allows you to try before you buy . File-sharing . Many mind mapping programs can exchange files with other mind mapping programs, importing and exporting data. This allows you to start with one program and not lose access to previously-created maps if you move on to a different program. (Some formatting may be lost, but the ideas will be there.) Like all self-employed professionals, today’s authors have more to do and less time to essay contest 2013 do it . Today, efficiency is as important to an author’s success as their ability to express their written ideas clearly as possible. Mind mapping can make a major contribution to an author’s success by horse, making it easy to organize ideas and schedule tasks at the start of a project. Time spent planning and organizing ideas at the start of a project planning your projects will be more than saved later, when you find yourself writing more in less time.
And, you can start planning anywhere, when the personal contest 2013 ideas strike, drawing mind maps by conceptual theoretical research, hand or starting them on your iPhone or iPad, then exporting them to your primary computer for essay 2013, completion. Invitation: if you’re using mind mapping to write your books, or are new to mind mapping, share your experiences and questions below, as comments. Roger C. Obesity Essay. Parker is a book coach and consultant who has been advocating mind mapping for authors for over a decade. His Published Profitable blog contains numerous mind mapping tips and mind maps of personal 2013, current nonfiction books. Roger’s written 40 marketing, design, and writing books, including one of my favorites, #Book Title Tweet: 140 Bite-Sized Ideas for Compelling Article, Book, and Event Titles . If you’re looking for obesity, do-it-yourself developmental editing tips, Roger invites you to download a free proof of his do-it-yourself guide to developmental editing, 99 Questions to personal essay contest Ask Before Writing and Self-Publishing a Brand-building Book. It’s a workhorse of a workbook you can immediately put to good use. Well said, Roger.
I love mind mapping technique. Therefore, I mostly use a software – Mind Vector on block essays Mac for making my task plans, activities and personal project plan as well. Thanx everyone for sharing your experience. I am looking for a project management solution that integrates mind maps, process flows and can be exported to MS Project and MS word. I’ve tested concept draw on breakfast club themes the advice of personal essay contest, a friend and I am very impressed with it. I also save bunch of info in evernote as i think this is the best note taking free app so now i can copy all the stuff to mindmaps and send my topics to evernote. I’m now on advertisement curse my phd and these programs help me to keep structured all the information i should collect for my research. I hope this is the right topic for contest, asking what you think about it and how you do things like this.
Roger C. Parker says. Thank you for sharing another mind mapping resource with us. I will explore XMIND tomorrow. Best wishes on your writing and framework publishing success. I’ve been building a fiction book from concepts through actual chapter by chapter outline with mind mapping software already. I peeked in on essay 2013 your writeup to see if I was missing anything .. I’m using the for a free software XMIND after trying others out. It works on both Windows and Linux. After finishing with the personal 2013 mind map, it will export as a traditional outline data file too. Mind mapping can be very challenging to the rocking horse winner outline learn. Personal Essay. I’m right-brained, so I should have found it easy — but it still took more a year to really get comfortable with doing them. The most discouraging thing that I had to outline for a accept is that I’m not an artist.
I do mine by hand — the programs actually get in the way for me — but I’m a terrible artist. Yet, when I looked at all the examples, the mappers were these fantastic artists, and essay 2013 meanwhile I’m drawing a car that might be a cat or a horse. I had to accept that I wasn’t going to be any better than that. Use color coding on different branches. This makes a huge difference in how the map looks!
Check out Tony Buzan’s books. Breakfast Club Essay. They discuss techniques for using them effectively. Thank you for the two tips you shared. That was kind of you. I was saddened, however, to personal contest read of your frustration with the appearance of your mind maps. Perhaps you’re being harder on conceptual theoretical framework research yourself than necessary. I think there’s an analogy between your critiques of your own mind maps and essay the photographs I take.
It probably won’t surprise you that any number of photographers take better photographs than I do; Walker Evans, Ansel Adams, Peter Ralston, Andre Kerstez, and David Plowden. But, I can’t allow myself to compare myself to them. Likewise, the value of research papers, a mind map isn’t how good it looks, but how much writing time it saves you and how much it improves the quality of your writing. Don’t forget, too, that many of the mind map examples you might see in a book or online portfolio may reflect weeks of work and years of experience. Take a gander at Sunni Brown’s http://www.doodlerevolution.com site and look at personal essay contest 2013, the examples of sketches she displays. There’s not beautiful, but they have either helped with a planning project or graphically recorded a live event for sharing with others.
Think of your mind maps as something you’re preparing for basic outline for a essay, an audience of 1–yourself. And think of essay contest 2013, your mind maps as having a short lifetime, i.e., they only need to breakfast club last until you’ve finished your article or book. If you create a mind map with a stick on personal 2013 a sandy beach, and it helps you save time and write a better short story or book, that’s all that really matters! Great insight – and absolutely spot on. To me, mind mapping is a way of documenting concepts – which, for a novelist, then have to the rocking horse outline be turned into the linear thread demanded of writing. A skill of its own. Essay 2013. Yet to me, at least, paper is not only the starting point but also a fair part of the process – otherwise we’re going to essay be prisoners to personal essay whatever notion the programmer has of how things must work. One way or another. Seriously. Think about all the cause obesity way philosophers have argued that reality works.
As a writer, I often start with paper. Then turn it into personal essay 2013 a computer file. Spreadsheets or Word tables can help refine those, sometimes. Obesity. Eventually, of course, the word processor is personal contest a vital writing tool. But for creativity, it is vital we are not constrained by the nature or limits of the technology – even today’s. I’m currently pondering that. (‘How to write by spreadsheet’). Interesting, Matthew. I’ve never written any of my fiction via spreadsheet.
I use this mind-mapping for conceptual research papers, non-fiction a lot and sometimes for aspects of fiction, but I use a manual (post-it note and foam core) storyboarding technique for all my fiction. Again, for me, I think it breaks me out of the personal essay routine of sitting behind a keyboard and makes me slow down and think. Thank you for your contribution to papers the conversation. I like your dichotomy between “creativity” and “writing.” My only convent, after becoming familiar with the iPod, is how liberating it sometimes feels to personal essay grab an idea or phrase with my fingertip and drag it to another location. My iPod has given me a new perspective on how awkward MM’s can be–i.e., mice and menus. I guess the themes most telling experience of the past month has been the many times I’ve touched the screen of my Kindle, (obviously, not the latest version), and tried to essay open an obesity essay ebook or move something. Best wishes on your writing. Off to explore your website and blog. I actually do use spreadsheets as a book planning tool, or, at least, Word’s table feature. When I was planning and organizing the 99 questions in my latest ebooks, #Book Title Tweet and 99 Questions to Ask Before Writing and Self-Publishing a brand-building book, I brain-stormed, then sorted, my ideas in personal 2013, a spreadsheet-like manner.
I’ve never really used mind maps in the way described here, but I am a convert to Steven Berlin Johnson’s style of using Devonthink Pro. Conceptual Research. It’s close but not identical to what’s above. Okay – some photos are uploaded from the basic mind mapping I did in about 15 minutes. I usually leave these on the whiteboard until I finish the outline of the doc because I will think of essay 2013, something to essay add on the fly a LOT and it makes it easy to just write it in personal essay 2013, (usually in basic for a narrative, a different color). 2: Three topic boxes added and personal essay I’ve “parked” some notes I already had in the bottom right corner – http://www.flickr.com/photos/8175480@N08/6235380856/ 3: Notes moved from corner to What and horse winner essay Why sections and more notes added to those sections – http://www.flickr.com/photos/8175480@N08/6235381328/ 4: How section is now broken into three subsections and notes added to personal essay 2013 those – http://www.flickr.com/photos/8175480@N08/6234856507/ Very neat, Maura, thanks so much for posting those so we can see the process in action. This is masterful, absolutely wonderful.
Thank you for sharing; it is right on essay children advertisement blessing target and it “proves” that mind mapping doesn’t require software. BTW, do you know what a Prezi is? http://www.prezi.com. It’s a way of creating an online presentation that steps viewers through a sequence of personal contest, steps. There’s a fairly “unsophisticated” example here: We should ask Joel if he would like us to work together and create a Prezi of your photos that could be embedded in an upcoming blog post. Thanks, again, for sharing! Glad you liked it, Roger. It’s a fairly simple example but I often do these little mind maps to help both map out what I want to do but also to find patterns among what can be fairly large sets of disparate “tidbits” that I’m trying to wrap a structure around. Another thing I’ve done is write my tidbits on post-it notes, draw the structure on the whiteboard and then move the post-it notes around into groups while creating more structure to suit the groups until I have something that works.
This can save writing and rewriting on block essays the board (my handwriting is personal contest 2013 decent but can go WAY downhill after a while). I tend to use the whiteboard or manual methods because it pulls me out of essay children advertisement blessing, my “normal” mode of keyboard and computer. This forces me to think a bit more slowly and differently than I would if I were just sitting and fiddling with outlines instead. (Hopefully that makes sense). I checked out the Prezi site and personal essay contest 2013 it looks relatively simple to implement. Since I have a pretty clear pattern to how I start and work through the map, it could be an interesting example for people. I certainly wouldn’t mind partnering for a post, if you’re interested. The Rocking Essay Outline. My email is mauravanderlinden at 2013, gmail dot com. (My co-workers were VERY confused at my taking photos of my whiteboard, lol) I’m a big fan of Omnigraffle (Mac), but I’ve been looking for an affordable iPad app. Honestly, I find paper and pen to the rocking essay be the most powerful and flexible option. Thank you for commenting and sharing Omnigraffle, an important resource for the Mac.
But, honesty is always appreciated, g). There’s nothing wrong with paper and pen…whiteboards, or doodles (see http://www.doodlerevolution.com.) The important thing is to get in personal 2013, the habit of planning before writing. BTW, James, did you know that Moleskin–the company that has been making notebooks for creatives since the Renaissance–sells a notebook cover that combines a paper and pen pad with an iPad in a very handy package? See http://tinyurl.com/Moleskin-iPad Less than $100. (not an affiliate) Talking about having it your way! This is my next purchase. Thanks for winner essay outline, commenting. Great post on personal contest mind mapping. I use mind mapping a lot when writing technical articles or books – sometimes via xMind or sometimes on the whiteboard in essay, my office.
It’s really useful when I have a bunch of personal essay contest, information that I know I need to include but not where it should be included. Thank you for sharing your experiences. How about conceptual sharing a quick iPhone photo of one of your mind mapped whiteboards? It would be a great example. Best wishes, Roger. I don’t have one up at the home office right now but I’ll be doing a new one at the day job tomorrow because I’m trying to puzzle out how to present something. I’ll take a picture then #128578;
Maybe I’ll be organized and essay contest try to take step-by-step ones #128578; Sounds like a plan! Looking forward to sharing it here. Working on the whiteboard mind map now. Essay. Should have pics up in about an hour #128578; Will post a new comment with picture links. Comment with links is up but awaiting moderation. I’m sure it violates the “anti-spam” rules of how many links you should have #128578;
Porter Anderson says. Roger’s Twitter handle, by the way, is @Rogercparker. Thank you! I appreciate your adding this important bit of information. Thank you for interesting.
I work in a similar way. I use iThoughtsHD on My iPad for mapping my new works, so I can export an OPML file in Dropbox that I can refine in Scrivener on my desktop. Or, viceversa, I can start from Scrivener and rethink my works in my ipad. Thank you for personal essay contest 2013, your comment, especially your emphasizing that importing files from desktops is essays as important as exporting files to the iPad. Thanks for mentioning the iThoughtsHD app; I’ve downloaded it but haven’t had a chance to personal essay work with it. One of my mind mapping mentors, http://www.William Reed.jp, also highly recommends it.
Best wishes, Roger. Me too – although I prefer iMindmap for the desktop, iThoughts is by far the best iPad Mind Mapping app IMHO – exports to absolutely everything too. Mind you in my creative writing classes and when working 1-2-1 with clients, I use pen paper as it switches on different parts of the neurology helpful to creative flow. Sergio, that’s very interesting. I use iThoughtsHD for the iPad quite a bit, and breakfast club themes essay export mind maps for use in Mind Manager on essay contest my desktop. But I haven’t found formats that work for import to iThoughts, just the other way. I really like both programs, but for presentations and cause speed of formatting you can’t beat Mind Manager.
On the other hand, iThoughts is so fluid and interactive it’s my overwhelming choice when I’m working on something creative. Joel, I agree with you on iThoughts, it’s perfect for creative works. Yes, Mind Manager is a great and powerful program. But I never tried to personal essay contest 2013 work with it, because I need a more simple tool (and less expensive :). My workflow is bidirectional o cyclic: from pattern essays, iThoughts to personal essay contest Scrivener (or MindNode) via Dropbox with OMPL file, and viceversa. It was inspired from these sources: – Never Stare At A Blank Page Again With Scrivener and cause obesity iThoughts | MichaelSchechter.Me http://bit.ly/mOVfc8. Sergio, many thanks for that link. I’m a Scrivener user, and this looks like an awesome workflow idea.
Thanks for the opportunity and personal essay 2013 encouragement to winner essay outline share the basics of mind maps with others. I appreciate your art direction, i.e., seeing the “graphic hiding within the graphic” of the mind map example, and essay magnifying just pat of it. Turns information into essays art! And thanks for a wonderful article, Roger. Regarding the essay 2013 images, I find there’s a lot of breakfast club themes, graphic interest in many of the most prosaic tools we use everyday, and personal contest “going macro” often exposes them. […] #4. Outline Essay. How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4. How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4. How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4.
How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4. How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4. How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4. How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4. Personal. How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4. How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4. How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4. How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4. How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4. How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4.
How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4. How to basic outline narrative Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4. How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] #4. Personal. How to essays Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and Everything Else) […] […] Rather than muddy the waters, I’ll let a more experienced mind-mapper explain how he uses the technique for his own books. […] […] Rather than muddy the waters, I’ll let a more experienced mind-mapper explain how he uses the technique for his own books. […] […] Rather than muddy the personal waters, I#039;ll let a more experienced mind-mapper explain how he uses the block essays technique for his own books. […] […] Mindmap your ideas, either on paper, or use software if you enjoy using it. This brainstorming will enable you to map […] […] fun! This year, I’m also trying Roger C. Personal Essay Contest 2013. Parker‘s suggestions for mind mapping a book, using some mind map software for essays, my iPad (I’ve been using the Total Recall mind […] […] C. Parker makes a good a case for How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book (and everything else). What I’d like to see is some research that helps us understand why it helps true word […] […] How to Get Started Mind Mapping Your Book […] Writers change the 2013 world one reader at a time. But you can't change the world with a book that's still on your hard drive or in a box under your bed. This blog exists to help you get that book into people's hands.
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zzzz best case study ZZZZ BEST COMPANY, INC. Source: Contemporary Auditing: Issues Cases - Michael Knapp. On May 19, 1987, a short article in The Wall Street Journal reported that ZZZZ Best Company, Inc., of Reseda, California, had signed a contract for a $13.8 million insurance restoration project. This project was just the most recent of a series of large restoration jobs obtained by ZZZZ Best (pronounced “zee best”) Company. Located in personal the San Fernando Valley of cause essay, southern California, ZZZZ Best had begun operations in the fall of 1982 as a small, door-to-door carpet cleaning operation.
Under the direction of Barry Minkow, the ambitious sixteen-year-old who founded the contest, company and outline, initially operated it out of personal essay, his parents’ garage, ZZZZ Best experienced explosive growth in both revenues and profits during the first several years of its existence. In the three-year period from 1984 to 1987, the company’s net income surged from less than $200,000 to more than $5 million on revenues of $50 million. When ZZZZ Best went public in 1986, Minkow and several of his close associates became multimillionaires overnight. Club! By the personal essay, late spring of 1987, Minkow’s stock in pattern essays the company had a market value exceeding $100 million, and the total market value of contest, ZZZZ Best surpassed $200 million. The youngest chief executive officer in the nation enjoyed the theoretical framework papers, “good life,” which included an elaborate home in an exclusive suburb of Los Angeles and a fire-engine red Ferrari. Minkow’s charm and entrepreneurial genius made him a sought-after commodity on the television talk show circuit and caused the print and visual media to tout him as an personal essay contest 2013 example of what America’s youth could attain if they would only apply themselves. During an appearance on The Oprah Winfrey Show in April 1987, Minkow exhorted his peers with evangelistic zeal to “Think big, be big” and encouraged them to adopt his personal motto, “The sky is the limit.” Less than two years after his appearance on The Oprah Winfrey Show, Barry Minkow began serving a twenty-five-year prison sentence.
Tried and convicted on children advertisement blessing fifty-seven counts of securities fraud, Minkow had been exposed as a fasttalking con artist who bilked his closest friends and Wall Street out of essay 2013, millions of dollars. Federal prosecutors estimate that, at a minimum, Minkow cost investors and creditors $100 million. Block Pattern Essays! The company that Minkow founded was, in fact, an elaborate Ponzi scheme. The reported profits of the firm were nonexistent and the huge restoration contracts, imaginary. As one journalist reported, rather than building a corporation, Minkow constructed a hologram of a corporation. Essay Contest! In July 1987, just three months after the company’s stock had reached a market value of $220 million, an auction of its assets netted only $62,000. Unlike most financial frauds, the ZZZZ Best scam was perpetrated under the outline narrative essay, watchful eye of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Essay! The scrutiny of the SEC, one of the themes essay, largest Wall Street brokerage houses, a large and reputable West Coast law firm that served as the company’s general counsel, and an international public accounting firm had failed to uncover Minkow’s daring scheme. Ultimately, the persistence of an essay 2013 indignant homemaker who had been bilked out of a few hundred dollars by ZZZZ Best resulted in the rocking horse essay outline Minkow being exposed as a fraud. How a teenage flimflam artist could make a mockery of the complex regulatory structure that oversees the U.S. Essay Contest! securities markets was the block essays, central question posed by a congressional subcommittee that investigated the ZZZZ Best debacle. Representative John D. Essay 2013! Dingell, chairman of the U.S.
House Committee on Energy and pattern, Commerce, pointed out, “The ZZZZ Best prospectus told the essay contest, public that revenues and earnings from insurance restoration contracts were skyrocketing but did not reveal that the contracts were completely fictitious. Where were the independent auditors and the others that are paid to alert the public to obesity essay, fraud and deceit?”  Like many other daring financial frauds, the ZZZZ Best scandal caused Congress to reexamine and modify the maze of rules that regulate financial reporting and serve as the foundation of the 2013, U.S. Block Pattern! system of corporate oversight. However, Daniel Akst, a reporter for The Wall Street Journal who played a large role in exposing Minkow, suggests that another ZZZZ Best is inevitable: Changing the personal essay contest 2013, accounting rules and securities laws will help, but every now and cause obesity, then a Barry Minkow will come along, and ZZZZ Best will happen again. Such frauds are in personal essay contest the natural order of things, I suspect, as old and enduring as human needs.  THE EARLY HISTORY OF ZZZZ BEST COMPANY. Barry Minkow was introduced to the carpet cleaning industry at the age of twelve by his mother, who helped make ends meet by working as a telephone solicitor for a small carpet cleaning firm. Although the obesity, great majority of personal contest, companies in the carpet cleaning industry are legitimate, the nature of the business attracts a disproportionate number of essay children blessing, seedy characters. Personal! There are essentially no barriers to entry: no licensing requirements, no apprenticeships to be served, and only a minimal amount of start-up capital needed. A sixteen-year-old youth with a driver’s license can easily become what industry insiders refer to as a “rug sucker,” which is exactly what Minkow did when he founded ZZZZ Best Company. Minkow quickly recognized that carpet cleaning was a difficult way to earn a livelihood. The ease of outline, entry into the field meant that cutthroat competition was hue of prevalent within the industry.
Customer complaints, bad checks, and contest 2013, nagging vendors demanding payment complicated the young entrepreneur’s life. Within months of striking out on his own, Minkow faced the ultimate nemesis of the small businessperson: a shortage of working capital. Because of his age and the. table fact that ZZZZ Best was only marginally profitable, local banks refused to loan inter- him money Ever resourceful, the horse winner essay outline, brassy teenager came up with his own innovative ways to essay 2013, finance his business: check kiting, credit card forgeries, and outline for a, the staging of thefts to fleece his insurance company. Contest 2013! Minkow’s age and obesity, personal charm as a allowed him to personal essay 2013, escape relatively unscathed from his early brushes with the law that resulted from his creative financing methods.
The ease with which the “sys ula- tern” could be beaten encouraged him to exploit it on a broader scale. Throughout his short business career, Minkow realized the benefits of having an extensive social network of friends and acquaintances. Many of these relationships he developed and cultivated at a swanky Los Angeles health club. Block! Soon after becoming a friend of personal contest, Tom Padgett, an insurance claims adjuster, Minkow devised a scheme to exploit that friendship. Minkow promised to pay Padgett $100 per the rocking winner week if he would simply confirm over the telephone to banks and personal essay 2013, any other interested third parties that Minkow’s company was the recipient of occasional insurance restoration contracts.
Ostensibly, these contracts had been obtained by an- Minkow to clean and do minor remodeling work on properties damaged by fire, storms, or other catastrophes. The gullible Padgett was led to believe that the sole a purpose of horse, such confirmations was to allow Minkow to circumvent much of the bureaucratic red tape in the insurance industry. From this beginning, the ZZZZ Best fraud blossomed. Initially, the insurance restoration work, which was totally fictitious, was a small sideline that Minkow used to personal 2013, generate paper profits and revenues to convince bankers to loan him money Minkow’s phony financial statements served their purpose, and he expanded his operations by opening several carpet cleaning outlets across the San Fernando Valley Minkow soon realized that there was no need to essay advertisement blessing curse, tie his future to the cutthroat carpet cleaning industry when he could literally dictate the size and profitability of his insurance restoration ‘‘business.’’ Within a short period of personal, time, insurance restoration, rather than carpet cleaning, became the major source of revenue appearing on the ZZZZ Best income statements. Minkow’s the sky is the limit philosophy drove him to be even more innovative. Children Blessing Curse! The charming young entrepreneur began using his phony financial statements to entice wealthy individuals in essay contest his ever-expanding social network to invest in ZZZZ Best. Eventually, Minkow recognized that the ultimate scam would be to take his company public, a move that would allow him to curse, tap the bank accounts of investors nationwide. GOING PUBLIC WITH ZZZZ BEST. The decision to take ZZZZ Best public meant that Minkow no longer was able to completely control his firm’s financial disclosures. Registering with the SEC required auditors, investment bankers, and outside attorneys to peruse the ZZZZ Best financial statements.
Federal securities laws impose a due diligence obligation on these parties; that is, under the federal securities laws, parties associated with a securities registration statement must attempt to contest, determine that the information therein is for a, materially accurate. ZZZZ Best was first subjected to a full-scope independent audit of its financial statements for the twelve months ended April 30, 1986. George Greenspan, the sole practitioner who performed that audit, confirmed the personal, existence of breakfast club essay, ZZZZ Best’s major insurance restoration contracts by contacting Tom Padgett, the principal officer of Interstate Appraisal Services, which reportedly contracted the jobs out to ZZZZ Best. By this time, Padgett was an active and willing participant in Minkow’s fraudulent schemes. Minkow had established Interstate Appraisal Services and essay contest 2013, Assured Property Management for the sole purpose of generating fake insurance restoration contracts for essays ZZZZ Best.
According to Greenspan’s testimony before the congressional subcommittee that investigated the personal essay 2013, ZZZZ Best scandal, he not only confirmed the essays, existence of the insurance restoration jobs but also obtained and reviewed copies of all key documents regarding those jobs. Personal Essay Contest! In addition, Greenspan performed various analytical procedures to determine that the company’s key financial ratios were in line with industry averages. However, Greenspan did not inspect any of the conceptual papers, insurance restoration sites. The congressional subcommittee was surprised, if not alarmed, that he had not personally visited at least a few of the job sites. CONGRESSMAN LENT: Mr.
Greenspan, I am interested in the SEC Form 5-1 that ZZZZ Best Company filed with the SEC. You say in that report that you made your examination in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards and accordingly included such tests of the accounting records and other auditing procedures as we consider necessary in the circumstances…..You don’t say in that statement that you made any personal on-site inspections. MR. GREENSPAN: It’s not required. Personal Essay Contest 2013! Sometimes you do; sometimes you don’t. I was satisfied that these jobs existed and I was satisfied from at least six different sources, including payment for the job. What could you want better than that?
CONGRESSMAN LENT: Your position is that you are an honest and reputable accountant. MR. GREENSPAN: Yes, sir. CONGRESSMAN LENT: You were as much a victim as some of the investors in this company? MR. GREENSPAN: I was a victim all right. Breakfast Club Essay! I am as much aghast as anyone.
And every night I sit down and say, why didn’t I detect this damned fraud. RETENTION OF ERNST WHINNEY BY ZZZZ BEST. Shortly after Greenspan completed his audit of ZZZZ Best’s April 30, 1986, financial statements, Minkow dismissed him and essay, retained Ernst Whinney to perform the following year’s audit. Apparently, ZZZZ Best’s investment broker requested that Minkow obtain a Big Eight accounting firm to enhance the credibility of the obesity, company’s financial statements. About the same time, and for the same reason, Minkow retained a high-profile Los Angeles law firm to represent ZZZZ Best as its legal counsel. The congressional subcommittee asked Greenspan what information he provided to Ernst Whinney regarding his former client. In particular, the subcommittee was interested in whether Greenspan had discussed the insurance restoration contracts with the new auditors. CONGRESSMAN WYDEN: Mr. Greenspan, in September 1986, Ernst Whinney came on 2013 as the new independent accountant for framework ZZZZ Best. What did you communicate to Ernst Whinney with respect to the restoration contracts? MR.
GREENSPAN: Nothing. Personal Contest 2013! I did—there was nothing because they never got in touch with me. It’s protocol for the rocking horse essay outline the new accountant to personal, get in the rocking touch with the old accountant. They never got in personal 2013 touch with me, and it’s still a mystery to me. Representatives of Ernst Whinney later testified that they did, in fact, communicate with Greenspan prior to conceptual theoretical framework research, accepting ZZZZ Best as an audit client. However, Ernst Whinney’s testimony did not disclose the contest 2013, nature or content of that communication, and Greenspan was not recalled to rebut Ernst Whinney’s testimony on this issue. Exhibit 1 contains the engagement letter signed by children curse Ernst Whinney and Barry Minkow in September 1986.
The engagement letter outlined four services that the audit firm intended to provide ZZZZ Best: a review of the essay contest 2013, company’s financial statements for the three-month period ending July 31, 1986; assistance in the preparation of a registration statement to cause, be filed with the SEC; a comfort letter to personal essay, be submitted to ZZZZ Best’s underwriters; and a full-scope audit for the fiscal year ending April 30, 1987. Ernst Whinney completed the theoretical, review, provided the comfort letter to essay contest, ZZZZ Best’s underwriters, and apparently assisted the company in preparing the registration statement for the SEC; however, Ernst Whinney never completed the 1987 audit. Breakfast Themes Essay! The audit firm resigned on June 2, 1987, amid growing concerns that ZZZZ Best’s financial statements were grossly misstated. The congressional subcommittee investigating the ZZZZ Best fraud questioned Ernst Whinney representatives at essay contest, length regarding the bogus insurance restoration contracts—contracts that accounted for 90 percent of ZZZZ Best’s reported profits. The congressional testimony disclosed that Ernst Whinney repeatedly insisted on visiting several of the largest of these contract sites, and that Minkow and his associates attempted to discourage such visits. Eventually, Minkow realized that the auditors would not relent and agreed to outline, allow them to visit certain of the personal essay contest 2013, restoration sites, knowing full well that none of the sites actually existed. To convince Ernst Whinney that the insurance restoration contracts were authentic, Minkow and his associates devised a series of sting operations. In the late fall of 1986, Larry Gray, the basic outline narrative, engagement audit partner for ZZZZ Best, insisted on visiting a restoration site in Sacramento on which ZZZZ Best had reported obtaining a multimillion-dollar contract.
Minkow sent two of his cohorts to Sacramento to find a large building under construction or renovation that would provide a plausible site for a restoration contract. Gray had visited Sacramento weeks earlier to search for the site that Minkow had refused to divulge. Personal Essay! As chance would have it, the building chosen by the ZZZZ Best conspirators was the pattern essays, same one Gray had identified as the most likely site of the insurance restoration job. EXHIBIT 1 Ernst Whinney's ZZZZ Best Engagement Letter. Mr.
Barry Minkow. Chairman of the Board. ZZZZ Best Co., Inc. 7040 Darby Avenue. This letter is to confirm our understanding regarding our engagement as independent accountants of ZZZZ BEST CO., INC. (the Company) and the nature and personal, limitations of the services we will provide. We will perform the following services: 1. We will review the balance sheet of the Company as of July 31, 1986, and the rocking horse, the related statements of income, retained earnings, and changes in financial position for the three months then ended, in accordance with standards established by essay 2013 the American Institute of cause obesity essay, Certified Public Accountants. We will not perform an audit of such financial statements, the objective of 2013, which is the expressing of an opinion regarding the financial statements taken as a whole, and, accordingly, we will not express an opinion on them. Our report on the financial statements is presently expected to read as follows: “ We have made a review of the condensed consolidated balance sheet of ZZZZ BEST CO., INC. and subsidiaries as of July 31,1986, and block, the related condensed consolidated statements of contest, income and changes in financial position for the three-month period ended July 31, 1986, in accordance with standards established by pattern the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.
A review of the condensed consolidated financial statements for contest the comparative period of the prior year was not made. A review of financial information consists principally of obtaining an understanding of the system for the preparation of interim financial information, applying analytical review procedures to essay, financial data, and personal essay 2013, making inquiries of persons responsible for financial and block pattern essays, accounting matters. It is substantially less in scope than an examination in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, which will be performed for the full year with the objective of personal contest, expressing an opinion regarding the financial statements taken as a whole. Accordingly, we do not express such an opinion. Based on our review, we are not aware of any material modifications that should be made to the condensed consolidated interim financial statements referred to horse winner essay outline, above for contest them to be in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles” Our engagement cannot be relied upon to disclose errors, irregularities, or illegal acts, including fraud or defalcations, that may exist. However, we will inform you of any such matters that come to our attention.
2. We will assist in the preparation of a Registration Statement (Form S-1) under the Securities Act of 1933 including advice and block, counsel in conforming the financial statements and related information to Regulation S-X. 3. Personal Essay Contest 2013! We will assist in resolving the accounting and financial reporting questions which will arise as a part of the preparation of the Registration Statement referred to club, above. 4. We will prepare a letter for the underwriters, if required (i.e., a Comfort Letter), bearing in mind the limited nature of the work we have done with respect to the financial data. 5. We will examine the consolidated financial statements of the personal contest 2013, Company as of April 30, 1987, and for the year then ended and issue our report in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards approved by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. These standards contemplate, among other things, that (1) we will study and evaluate the Company’s internal control system as a basis for reliance on the accounting records and for horse outline determining the extent of personal, our audit tests; and (2) that we will be able to obtain sufficient evidential matter to afford a reasonable basis for our opinion on breakfast club themes the financial statements. However, it should be understood that our reports will necessarily be governed by the findings developed in the course of our examination and that we could be required, depending upon the circumstances, to modify our reporting from the typical unqualified opinion. We will advise you, as our examination progresses, if any developments indicate that we will be unable to express an unqualified opinion. Because our examination will be performed generally on a test basis, it will not necessarily disclose irregularities, if any, that may exist. However, we will promptly report to personal 2013, you any irregularities which our examination does disclose.
Our fees will be derived from conceptual framework research papers, our customary rates for the various personnel involved plus out-of-pocket expenses. Certain factors can have an effect on the time incurred in the conduct of our work. Among these are the general condition of the accounting records, the amount of personal essay contest, assistance received from your personnel in essay the accumulation of data, the size and transaction volume of personal, business, any significant financial reporting issues that arise in connection with the SEC’s review of the S-1, as well as unforeseen circumstances. Based upon our current understanding of the situation, the amount of our proposed billing for the various services which we will be providing are estimated to be: Review of the July 31, 1986 financial statements $5,000—$7,500.
Assistance in the preparation of the Registration Statement 8,000—30,000. Comfort Letter 4,000— 6,000. Audit of financial statements as of April 30, 1987 24,000—29,000. We will invoice you each month for the time charges and expenses incurred in the previous month and essay blessing curse, such invoices are due and essay, payable upon presentation. Larry D. Gray, Partner, is the block pattern essays, Client Service Executive assigned to the engagement.
Peter Griffith, Audit Manager, and Michael McCormick, Tax Manager, have also been assigned. We greatly appreciate your engagement of our firm; if you have any questions, we shall be pleased to discuss them with you. Please indicate your acceptance of the above arrangements by personal essay signing and returning the enclosed copy. This letter constitutes the full understanding of the terms of our engagement. Very truly yours. By Larry D. Gray, Partner. ZZZZ BEST CO..
INC. Barry J. Minkow, Chairman of the Board. Minkow’s two confederates, while posing as leasing agents of a property management firm, convinced the supervisor of the construction site to provide the keys to the building one weekend on breakfast themes the pretext that a large prospective tenant wished to tour the facility. Essay! Prior to the arrival of Larry Gray and an attorney representing ZZZZ Best’s law firm, Minkow’s subordinates visited the site and placed placards on the walls at conspicuous locations indicating that ZZZZ Best was the contractor for the building renovation. Obesity Essay! No details were overlooked by Minkow’s lieutenants; they even paid the personal contest, building’s security officer to greet the visitors and demonstrate that he was aware in advance of conceptual framework research, their tour of the site and its purpose. Although the building had not been damaged and instead was simply in the process of personal 2013, being completed, the sting operation went off as planned. Exhibit 2 presents the memorandum Gray wrote describing his tour of the building—a memorandum that was included in the rocking winner outline Ernst Whinney’s ZZZZ Best workpapers. Congressional investigators quizzed Gray regarding the measures he took to personal essay 2013, confirm that ZZZZ Best actually had a restoration contract on club the Sacramento building.
They were particularly concerned that he never discovered the building had not suffered several million dollars in damages a few months earlier, as claimed by ZZZZ Best personnel. CONGRESSMAN LENT: . . . Personal! did you check the themes essay, building permit or construction permit? MR. GRAY: No, sir. That wouldn’t be necessary to accomplish what I was setting out to accomplish. CONGRESSMAN LENT: And you did not check with the building’s owners to see if an insurance claim had been filed? MR. GRAY: Same answer. Contest 2013! It wasn’t necessary. I had seen the framework papers, paperwork internally of our client, the support for a great amount of detail. So, I had no need to ask—to pursue that.
CONGRESSMAN LENT: You understand that what you saw was not anything that was real in any sense of the word. You are saying you were duped, are you not? MR. GRAY: Absolutely. Congressional testimony disclosed that one of the visitations by Ernst Whinney forced ZZZZ Best to 2013, lease a partially completed building and to essay, hire subcontractors to personal contest 2013, do a considerable amount of work on breakfast club themes essay the site. In total, ZZZZ Best spent several million dollars for the sole purpose of deceiving its auditors. The success of the bogus site visitations was due in large part to personal 2013, Minkow’s insistence that Ernst Whinney and ZZZZ Best’s law firm sign confidentiality agreements before the visits were made.
A copy of one such agreement is shown in Exhibit 3. Members of the congressional subcommittee were troubled by the following stipulation of the confidentiality agreement: “We will not make any follow-up telephone calls to for a, any contractors, insurance companies, the building owner, or other individuals involved in the restoration contract.” This restriction effectively precluded the auditors and essay, attorneys from corroborating the insurance restoration contracts with independent third parties. EXHIBIT 2 Ernst Whinney Internal Memo Regarding Visit to ZZZZ Best Restoration Project. TO: ZZZZ Best Co., Inc. File. FROM: Larry 0. Outline! Gray. RE: Visit to essay 2013, Sacramento Job.
At our request, the basic outline for a, Company arranged for a tour of the essay 2013, job site in Sacramento on November 23rd . The site (not previously identified for us because of the confidentiality agreement with their customer) had been informally visited by me on October 27. Theoretical! I knew approximately where the job was, and was able to personal contest, identify it through the construction activity going on. On November 23, Mark Morse accompanied Mark Moskowitz of block pattern, Hughes Hubbard Reed and myself to personal essay 2013, Sacramento. Conceptual Theoretical Framework Papers! We visited first the offices of the Building Manager, Mark Roddy of Assured Property Management, Inc Roddy was hired by the insurance company (at Tom Padgett’s suggestion according to Morse) to oversee the renovation activities and the leasing of the 2013, space. Roddy accompanied us to the building site. We were informed that the damage occurred from the water storage on the roof of the building. Block Pattern! The storage was for the sprinkler systems, but the water was somehow released in total, causing construction damage to floors 17 and 18, primarily in bathrooms which were directly under the water holding tower, then the water spread out and flooded floors 16 down through about 5 or 6, where it started to spread out 2013 even further and be held in pools. We toured floor 17 briefly (it is currently occupied by a law firm) then visited floor 12 (which had a considerable amount of unoccupied space) and floor 7. Morse pointed out to us the carpet, painting and clean up work which had been ZZZZ Best’s responsibility. We noted some work not done in some other areas (and in unoccupied tenant space).
But per research papers Mark, this was not ZZZZ Best’s responsibility, rather was work being undertaken by tenants for their own purposes. Per Morse (and Roddy) ZZZZ Best’s work is substantially complete and has passed final inspection. Final sign-off is expected shortly, with final payment due to ZZZZ Best in early December. Morse was well versed in the building history and in the work scope for ZZZZ Best. The tour was beneficial in gaining insight as to personal essay contest, the scope of the damage that had occurred and the type of work that the Company can do.
EXHIBIT 3 - Ernst Whinney’s Confidentiality Agreement with ZZZZ Best Regarding Visits to conceptual theoretical framework research, Restoration Projects. Mr. Barry Minkow, President. ZZZZ Best Co., Inc. 7040 Darby Avenue. In connection with the proposed public offering (the Offering) of Units consisting of common stock and warrants of ZZZZ Best Co. , Inc. (the Company), we have requested a tour of the site of the Company’s insurance restoration project in Sacramento, California, Contract No. 18886.
Subject to personal essay contest, the representations and warranties below, the Company has agreed to arrange such a tour, which will be conducted by a representative of Assured Property Management Inc. (the Representative), which company is unaffiliated with Interstate Appraisal Services. The undersigned, personally and on behalf of Ernst Whinney, hereby represents and warrants that: 1. Pattern Essays! We will not disclose the personal essay 2013, location of such building, or any other information with respect to the project or the building, to any third parties or to any other members or employees of our firm; 2. Cause Obesity Essay! We will not make any follow-up telephone calls to any contractors, insurance companies, the essay contest, building owner, or other individuals involved in the restoration project; 3. Essay! We will obey all on-site safety and other rules and essay contest 2013, regulations established by outline narrative the Company, Interstate Appraisal Services and the Representative; 4. Essay Contest! The undersigned will be the only representative of this Firm present on the tour. This Confidentiality Letter is also being furnished for the benefit of Interstate Appraisal Services, to the same extent as if it were furnished directly to such company. RESIGNATION OF ERNST WHINNEY. Ernst Whinney resigned as ZZZZ Best’s auditor on June 2, 1987, following a series of disturbing events that caused the firm to question the integrity of Minkow and his associates.
First, Ernst Whinney was alarmed by a Los Angeles Times article in mid-May 1987 that revealed Minkow had been involved in a string of credit card forgeries as a teenager. Second, on May 28, 1987, ZZZZ Best issued a press release, without consulting or notifying Ernst Whinney, that reported record profits and revenues. The purpose of this press release was to restore investors’ confidence in the company—confidence that had been shaken by the damaging Los Angeles Times story. Third, and most important, on May 29, Ernst Whinney auditors discovered evidence supporting allegations made several weeks earlier by a third party informant that ZZZZ Best’s insurance restoration business was fictitious. The informant had contacted Ernst Whinney in April 1987 and asked for $25,000 in exchange for information proving that one of the block essays, firm’s clients was engaging in a massive fraud. Ernst Whinney refused to contest 2013, pay the sum, and the individual recanted shortly thereafter, but not until the firm determined that the essay outline, allegation involved ZZZZ Best. Personal Contest! (Congressional testimony disclosed that the individual recanted because of essays, a bribe paid to him by Minkow.) Despite the retraction, Ernst Whinney questioned Minkow and contest 2013, ZZZZ Best’s board of directors regarding the matter, at framework papers, which point Minkow denied ever knowing the individual who had made the allegation. On May 29, 1987, however, Ernst Whinney auditors discovered several cancelled checks that Minkow had personally written to the informant several months earlier. Because ZZZZ Best was a public company, the resignation of its independent auditor was required to be reported to essay contest 2013, the SEC in an 8-K filing. One purpose of this requirement is to alert investors and basic outline, creditors of the circumstances that may have led to the change in auditors.
At the time, SEC registrants were allowed fifteen days to file the 8-K auditor change announcement. After waiting the maximum permissible time, ZZZZ Best reported the change in auditors but, despite Ernst Whinney’s insistence, made no mention in the 8-K of the fraud allegation that had been subsequently recanted. The SEC’s rules that were in effect at the time also required a former audit firm to file an exhibit letter to a former client’s 8-K commenting on the 8-K’s accuracy and completeness. Former audit firms were given thirty days to file the exhibit letter, which was the personal contest 2013, length of club themes essay, time Ernst Whinney waited before submitting its exhibit letter to the SEC. In that letter, Ernst Whinney reported its concern regarding the earlier allegation that ZZZZ Best’s insurance contracts were fraudulent. The congressional subcommittee was alarmed that forty-five days passed before the charges of fraudulent misrepresentations in ZZZZ Best’s financial statements were disclosed to the public. By the time Ernst Whinney’s exhibit letter was released to the public, ZZZZ Best had filed for protection from its creditors under Chapter 11 of the federal bankruptcy code. During the personal 2013, period that elapsed between Ernst Whinney’s resignation and its filing of the 8-K exhibit letter, ZZZZ Best obtained significant financing from club themes, several parties, including $1 million from a close friend of personal essay 2013, Minkow’s. These parties never recovered the funds invested in, or loaned to, ZZZZ Best.
As a direct result of the ZZZZ Best debacle, the SEC shortened the length of time that registrants and their former auditors may wait before filing the required auditor change documents with the SEC. The congressional subcommittee also quizzed Ernst Whinney representatives regarding the information they disclosed to Price Waterhouse, the audit firm hired by Minkow to replace Ernst Whinney.  Congressman Wyden was concerned that Price Waterhouse had not received all relevant information that Ernst Whinney had in its possession regarding its former client. CONGRESSMAN WYDEN: I am going to insert into the record at conceptual framework research papers, this point a memo entitled “Discussion with successor auditor,” written by Mr. Essay! Gray and horse essay, dated June 9, 1987. Regarding a June 4 meeting, Mr. Gray, with Dan Lyle of Price Waterhouse concerning the personal essay contest 2013, integrity of basic for a narrative essay, ZZZZ Best’s management, you stated that you had no reportable disagreements and no reservations about management integrity pending the personal, results of a board of directors’ investigation. Then you went on to say that you resigned because, and I quote here: “We came to a conclusion that we didn’t want to become associated with the financial statements.”
Is that correct? MR. GRAY: That is correct. MR. WYDEN: . . Essay Children Blessing Curse! . Mr. Gray, you told the committee staff on May 29, 1987, that when you uncovered evidence to personal 2013, support allegations of fraud that you decided to pack up your workpapers and leave the ZZZZ Best audit site. Conceptual Framework! How did your leaving without telling anybody except the ZZZZ Best management and contest 2013, board of directors the advertisement blessing curse, reasons for personal 2013 leaving help the public and investors? Ernst Whinney’s reluctance to disclose its reservations regarding Minkow’s integrity quite possibly stemmed from cause obesity, concern that such disclosures might result in Minkow suing the audit firm. Contest 2013!  A final twist to essay, the ZZZZ Best scandal was an anonymous letter received by Ernst Whinney exactly one week after the firm resigned as ZZZZ Best’s auditors. On that date, no one other than Ernst Whinney and ZZZZ Best’s officers was aware of the firm’s resignation.
The letter, shown in Exhibit 4, detailed a number of personal contest, allegations suggesting that the ZZZZ Best financial statements were fraudulent. Blessing Curse! According to personal, the congressional testimony, Ernst Whinney forwarded this letter to the SEC on June 17, 1987. EXHIBIT 4 Anonymous Letter Received by essays Ernst Whinney Regarding ZZZZ Best. 515 South Flower. Los Angeles, California 90021. I am an personal contest 2013 individual having certain confidential information regarding the financial condition of ZZZZ Best Co., Inc. Outline! I have read the prospectus and your Review Report dated October 3,1986 and recognize you have not done an examination In accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, but that such audit will be forthcoming by personal essay contest 2013 you. I wish to make you aware of the following material facts which require you to confirm or disaffirm: 1. The electric generators which appear on the rocking essay outline the balance sheet under Note 6 as being purchased for $1,970,000 were purchased for scrap for less than $100,000 thru intermediaries of personal, ZZZZ Best and resold to basic outline, ZZZZ Best at the inflated value. The sole purpose was to boost the assets on the balance sheet.
These generators have never been used and have no utility to the company. 2. Note 5 of the balance sheet discusses joint ventures and two restoration contracts. These contracts are fictitious as are the bookkeeping entries to support their validity Interstate Appraisal Service [sic] did not let such contracts although they confirm their existence. The same is true for the alleged $7,000,000 Sacramento contract and the $40—100 million contracts with Interstate. 3. Further, checks made and passed between ZZZZ Best, its joint venturers and some of its vendors are no more than transactions among conspirators to personal contest, support the validity of these restoration contracts. 4. Cause Obesity Essay! Earnings reported by ZZZZ Best are being reported as Billings In excess of costs and personal essay 2013, estimated earnings on restoration contracts. These contracts do not exist nor do the earnings.
This can be confirmed directly by contacting the alleged insurance carriers as well as physical inspections as to the existence and horse essay, extent of the essay, contracts. 5. Obesity Essay! Billings and Earnings for 1985 and 1986 were fabricated by the company before being presented to essay 2013, other accountants for breakfast club essay certification. Confirmation of these allegations can be accomplished by a careful due diligence. Personal! Such due diligence on your behalf is imperative for your protection. Very truly yours, B. Cautious (Signed) COLLAPSE OF ZZZZ BEST.
When the block pattern essays, extremely negative and revealing article regarding Minkow appeared in the Los Angeles Times in mid-May 1987, the contest 2013, collapse of ZZZZ Best was probably inevitable. Several years earlier, a homemaker had fallen victim to Minkow’s credit card forgeries. Minkow had added a fraudulent charge to the credit card slip the woman had used to make a payment on her account. Despite her persistence, Minkow avoided repaying the horse essay, small amount. The woman never forgot the insult and essay 2013, industriously tracked down, and kept a record of, the individuals who had been similarly harmed by Minkow. At the urging of this individual, a reporter for the Los Angeles Times investigated her allegations. The woman’s diary eventually became the basis for the Los Angeles Times article that, for the first time, cast doubt on the integrity of the cause obesity, “boy wonder” who was the talk of Wall Street. The newspaper article triggered a chain of events that quickly spelled the end of ZZZZ Best. First, a small brokerage firm specializing in 2013 newly registered companies with suspicious earnings histories began short-selling ZZZZ Best stock, forcing the stock’s price into conceptual framework papers, a tailspin. Second, Ernst Whinney, ZZZZ Best’s law firm, and ZZZZ Best’s brokers began giving more credence to personal essay contest, the allegations and rumors of financial wrongdoing by Minkow and his associates. Third, and most important, the article panicked Minkow and pattern, compelled him to personal 2013, make a number of daring moves that cost him even more credibility.
The most critical mistake was his issuance of the May 28, 1987, press release that boldly reported record profits and revenues for his firm. Among the parties most criticized for their roles in the ZZZZ Best scandal was Ernst Whinney. Included in framework research papers the congressional testimony into the ZZZZ Best fraud was a list of personal essay 2013, ten “red flags” that the audit firm had allegedly overlooked while examining ZZZZ Best’s financial statements (see Exhibit 5). In testifying before the subcommittee, Leroy Gardner, the West Coast director of obesity essay, accounting and auditing for Ernst Whinney, maintained that when all the facts were revealed, his firm would be totally vindicated. The ZZZZ Best situation proves at least one thing: a well-orchestrated fraud will often succeed even against careful, honest, hard-working people. . Essay 2013! . The facts that have begun to emerge establish that Minkow along with confederates both inside and outside ZZZZ Best went to breakfast club, extraordinary lengths to deceive Ernst Whinney. For example, Thomas Padgett, an alleged conspirator, revealed in a recent televised interview that Minkow spent $4 million to deceive Ernst Whinney during a visit to one of ZZZZ Best’s job sites. . . . Essay Contest! Ernst Whinney never misled investors about the reliability of ZZZZ Best’s financial statements. Ernst Whinney never even issued an audit opinion for ZZZZ Best. . We are not part of the problem in outline essay this case.
We were part of the solution. In one of the largest civil suits stemming from the ZZZZ Best insolvency, Ernst Whinney was found not liable to a large California bank that had extended ZZZZ Best a multimillion-dollar loan in personal essay 1986. Block Pattern Essays! The bank alleged that in granting the loan, it had relied upon the review report issued by Ernst Whinney on ZZZZ Best’s financial statements for essay contest 2013 the three-month period ending July 31, 1986. Breakfast Themes Essay! However, an appellate judge ruled that the bank was not justified in relying on the review report since Ernst Whinney had expressly stated in the report that it was not issuing an personal essay contest opinion on the ZZZZ Best financial statements: “Ernst, because it issued only a review report, specifically declined to express an opinion on horse outline ZZZZ Best’s financial statements. Essay Contest 2013! The report expressly disclaimed any right to rely on its content.”  In the late 1980s, the former stockholders of ZZZZ Best filed a large class action lawsuit against conceptual theoretical papers, Ernst Whinney, ZZZZ Best’s former law firm, and ZZZZ Best’s former brokers. An Internet publication reported in March 1996 that this lawsuit had been settled privately The defendants reportedly paid the personal essay contest, former ZZZZ Best stockholders $35 million. However, the contribution of each defendant to essays, the settlement pool was not disclosed.  In December 1994, Barry Minkow was released from prison.
Minkow earned the reduction in his twenty-five-year prison sentence for “good behavior and efforts to improve himself.”  These efforts included earning by correspondence bachelor’s and master’s degrees in religion from personal, Liberty University, the university founded by Jerry Falwell. Breakfast Themes Essay! Shortly after his release from prison, Minkow began serving as the associate pastor of a large evangelical church in a community near his hometown of Reseda. In February 1997, Minkow was appointed the senior pastor of a large nondenominational church in San Diego. Besides his pastoral duties, Minkow presents lectures and seminars across the personal contest 2013, United States on how to essay, prevent and detect financial fraud. Minkow has spoken to personal essay contest, groups of CPAs, educational institutions, and, most notably, the FBI Academy at Quantico, Virginia.
Many of the anecdotes included in Minkow’s presentations are drawn from his autobiography Clean Sweep, which was published in 1995 by Thomas Nelson Publishers. Finally in 1996, Minkow began hosting a syndicated radio talk show in which he discusses his personal views on financial and spiritual matters. By late 1997, approximately forty radio stations scattered across the nation broadcast Minkow’s talk show. EXHIBIT 5 Ten Red Flags that ZZZZ Best’s Auditors Allegedly Overlooked. 1. The amounts called for by the insurance restoration contracts were unrealistically large. 2. The number of multimillion-dollar insurance restoration contracts reportedly obtained by ZZZZ Best exceeded the total number available nationwide during the relevant time period.
3. The purported contracts failed to identify the insureds, the cause obesity essay, insurance companies, or the contest, locations of the jobs. 4. The contracts consisted of a single page, which failed to contain details and specifications of the work to be done, such as the the rocking horse essay outline, square yardage of carpet to be replaced, which were usual and customary in the restoration business. 5. Virtually all of the insurance restoration contracts were with the same party. 6. Personal Essay! A large proportion of the essay children advertisement blessing, ZZZZ Best insurance restoration contracts occurred immediately, and contest, opportunistically, prior to a planned offering of stock. 7. The purported contracts provided for payments to ZZZZ Best or Minkow alone rather than to club themes essay, the insured or jointly with ZZZZ Best and the insured, contrary to the practice of the industry.
8. The purported contracts provided for payments by the insurance adjustor contrary to normal practice in the industry under which payments are customarily made by the insurance company directly to its insured or jointly to its insured and the restorer. 9. Personal! ZZZZ Best’s purported gross profit margins for its restoration business were greatly in excess of. he normal profit margins for the restoration industry. 10. The internal controls at ZZZZ Best were grossly inadequate .  This and all subsequent quotations, unless indicated otherwise, were taken from the block, following source: U.S. Congress, House, Subcommittee on 2013 Oversight and the rocking winner essay outline, Investigations of the Committee on Energy and personal essay contest, Commerce, Failure of ZZZZ Best Co. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Essays! Government Printing Office, 1988).  D. Akst, Wonder Boy, Barry Minkow—The Kid Who Swindled Wall Street (New York: Scribner, 1990), 271.  Price Waterhouse never issued an personal audit report on ZZZZ Best’s financial statements because the company was liquidated less than two months after that audit firm was retained.
 For a discussion of this issue and related issues, see M.C. Knapp and pattern essays, F.M. Elikai, “Auditor Changes and Information Suppression,” Research in Accounting Regulation 4 (1990), 3—20.  “Ernst Young Not Liable in ZZZZ Best Case,” Journal of essay, Accountancy 172 (July 1991), 22.  C. Byron, “$26 Million in block the Hole,” Worth Online, March 1996.
 M. Matzer, “Barry Minkow,” Forbes, 15 August 1994, 134.
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7 Parts to a Winning Business Plan. Starting a business is an exciting venture. To make it an absolute success, getting all the details right from the very beginning is absolutely crucial. This is 2013, where a business plan becomes relevant. Advertisement Curse? A business plan is a formal statement that comprises the goals of a business, reasons why they are attainable and the ways in 2013, which these can be accomplished. In short, a business plan is a road-map to success.
It is important to essay advertisement blessing, understand that while a business plan may not make success inevitable for a business, it can definitely help you identify viable ways to personal essay 2013, avoid failure. It helps you get a clear understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of your business and devise ways to capitalize on the strength and minimize the risks. Regardless of whether you are starting a business or planning to grow your existing one, a business plan is an absolutely crucial element. Let#8217;s take a look at what to include while craft a winning business plan. An executive summary briefly outlines the goals and objectives of the the rocking winner essay, business. It summarizes a description of the essay contest, business, the products and/or services provided, growth potential, funding requirements, a proper plan on how you will repay loans, if any, etc.
Sometimes, you might require to obesity essay, show the business plan you formulate to investors and financiers. Therefore, you should ensure that you get to personal contest, the to-the-point in the summary. Winner Essay? This is personal contest, where you introduce readers to theoretical papers, the business. Describe the products and personal services that your business plans to provide and where and theoretical research how you plan on personal contest 2013 providing these to essay children advertisement, your potential customers. By now, you would need to have a clear idea about which industry corresponds to your business and personal essay who your target customers are going to be. Also include, an industry analysis and how your business fits in. It should also comprise an outlook for the future.
Include how further developments in breakfast themes, your industry may affect your business and add facts supporting your inferences. Analysis of Market Opportunities and Competition. Essay Contest? A thorough market research is crucial for your business. This research should analyze the buying habits of conceptual theoretical framework papers, customers, purchasing cycle, their willingness to accept new products and services etc. In short, you would need to determine whether there is a viable market for the products and/or services your business will offer. Personal Essay Contest 2013? Also, it is important to obesity, have an idea about your competitors and what works for them. These findings will help you determine how to essay 2013, differentiate your product or service from the existing ones. The strategies you devise for this purpose should be included in your business plan. This section should comprise a layout of your marketing plan.
One of the primary purposes of essay children advertisement blessing, this section is to find ways to spread awareness of the products and services among your target customers. Marketing involves advertising and promoting your products while maintaining proper public relations. Your plan should include the techniques that you will implement to generate leads, increase conversion and retain customers. These should be actionable and based on essay contest facts. Business Operations and Management.
This section is dedicated to how you plan on essays running the business. This may include requirements related to staffing, logistics and development of the business. Also, the tasks assigned to every division, responsibilities of the management team etc. are included. Some other aspects that you need to consider are infrastructure, working equipment, WiFi requirements and so on. Personal Essay Contest 2013? You should keep in mind that the operations will change as the company grows. Therefore, your business plan should have provisions for these changes. The success or failure of a business boils down to its profits and this section will help in planning how to the rocking, keep it steady. The major aspects include: • An income statement comprising the sources of the business#8217;s cash generation. • The cash flow statement determining how you plan on meeting financial obligations.
Additionally, the business plan should be inclusive of proper funding options for expansion and growth. Even with a full-fledged plan, there can still be certain areas that can go wrong. Your business plan should include strategies that you will implement in contest, case things don#8217;t go as anticipated. This could include a shift in for a, marketing strategies in case the desired results are not obtained within a specific time, change in product focus etc. While this is a basic structure of a business plan, you can include variations depending on the type of business. The benefits of a business plan are endless. A well-drafted plan is crucial in driving your business towards success. What I did when I first started writing a business plan is work with a template.
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chocolat 1988 essay In a small town where life has been the same for 100 years, a war is about to break out between the tranquility of essay, tradition and the fear of change. Breakfast Essay? The shock of the new, the excitement of letting go, the dangers of denying people joy and the temptations of intolerance are aroused by a chocolaterie's delectable sweets in CHOCOLAT, a comic fable about the magical power of indulging in pleasure. Directed by Lasse Hallstrm, CHOCOLAT is itself a richly layered confection, the tale of several interconnected villagers whose comical confrontations and misbegotten dreams become a moving exploration of tolerance and personal liberation. The film features an personal contest, all-star ensemble cast including Juliette Binoche, Dame Judi Dench, Alfred Molina, Lena Olin, Johnny Depp, Carrie-Anne Moss, Peter Stormare and Victoire Thivisol. At the center of CHOCOLAT is a woman charged with special powers: Vianne Rocher, a mysterious outsider who arrives in the French village of outline for a, Lansquenet to personal, open a chocolaterie featuring luscious candies that can, in addition to tantalizing the tongue, cure lost hopes and awaken unexpected emotions. Vianne's effect is immediate and extraordinary: the elderly find themselves recalling young love, troubled couples regain their spark and sniping neighbors become happy friends. But Vianne's sumptuous candies also arouse something else: an escalating battle between passion and moral indignation. As some in the town begin to let go, others clamp down, led by the righteous Comte de Reynaud, who declares Vianne public enemy number one. Just as Vianne is about to raise the white flag, an unexpected romance with a handsome stranger forces her to choose between leaving her hostile surroundings or making a true difference to the townsfolk of Lansquenet.
The battles the essay free-spirited Vianne undertakes in essay, the name of living life without denial first came to the fore in horse winner essay outline, Joanne Harris's acclaimed, mouthwatering novel Chocolat. Critics and readers alike were swept up by the novel's dramatic use of chocolate as a metaphor for the liberating powers of pleasure. Essay Contest 2013? One of those drawn to theoretical framework papers, Harris's tale was director Lasse Hallstrm, who most recently undertook the screen adaptation of John Irving's Cider House Rules, The (1999), garnering critical acclaim and essay contest, multiple Oscar nominations, including two Academy Award wins. Essay Blessing Curse? Hallstrm saw at the heart of Harris's unusual fable a quality he always looks for in his cinematic stories: a celebration of the funny, eccentric and wonderfully unpredictable ways human beings behave with one another. Hallstrm also found himself enchanted by the story's exploration of life's most delectable moments - and how they arise from the bitter, the dark and the semi-sweet. Contest? Ultimately, he saw the fable's moral as a call for horse winner essay outline tolerance, not just tolerance for indulgent pleasures like chocolate but a deeper appreciation for personal contest 2013 the wide expanse of human foibles and quirks. To me, CHOCOLAT is essay curse, a very funny fable about temptation and the importance of not denying oneself the good things in essay contest, life, says Hallstrm. It's about the constant conflict in life between tradition and change. And at its very center it is obesity, about intolerance and the consequences of personal essay, not letting other people live out their own lives and beliefs. Hallstrm was particularly intrigued by the story's multi-layered tone, which has the magical essence of a fairy-tale, yet presents a series of characters whose emotions and the rocking horse winner, concerns - from marital mistakes to family dishonesties -- are palpably, often humorously, real. Personal Essay? I was interested in children advertisement curse, the broad range of elements in this story: the dramatic, comedic, at times farcical, the poetic, a comic fable that doesn't simplify its character portraits but is rooted in reality.
Hallstrm continues: I think a noticeable common thread in personal essay contest, all my movies is a fascination with depicting human irrationality in for a essay, all its wondrous, endearing forms. Personal Contest 2013? CHOCOLAT offered the the rocking horse winner essay opportunity to explore yet another set of character eccentricities. In this story, the characters are full of essay, contradictions and winner outline, therefore come alive and enter our hearts. Personal Contest 2013? The heroine of the pattern essays story is Vianne, a truly free spirit but at the same time a prisoner to her destiny. Her nemesis, the Comte de Reynaud, appears in control but is personal, a prisoner to cause essay, his sense of tradition. The Comte de Reynaud looks through the town and sees sinners and failures; Vianne sees only human beings with flaws that might be forgiven. Everyone involved with CHOCOLAT saw the involvement of Lasse Hallstrm as a pitch-perfect match.
Produder Kit Golden notes: When David Brown and I first read the 2013 novel, we immediately thought of essay, both Lasse as director and Juliette as Vianne Rocher. Contest 2013? To actually get them was a dream come true! It seemed to all of framework, us that this was a great story for Lasse because he always has so much fun bringing rich characters to personal contest 2013, life, says executive producer Alan C. Breakfast Club? Blomquist. And that's what this story is all about - a wonderful collection of characters who abandon themselves to temptation and personal essay contest 2013, emerge renewed. Adds producer David Brown: CHOCOLAT has so many wonderful qualities - it has deep, rich characters and an enveloping charm. It's unlike any other story. Obesity? But most of personal contest 2013, all, it has the essence of a fable, and yet, it tells the truth.
Just One Taste: The Story Of Chocolat. Writer Robert Nelson Jacobs found himself descending deeper and deeper into a chocoholic haze as he worked on the adaptation of CHOCOLAT, for which he conducted intensive research into the history, mystical legacies and myths surrounding chocolate. (Despite his cardiologist brother's warnings, Jacobs felt that he had to sample the wide range of chocolate's exultant effects -- for authenticity's sake, of course.) But the more Jacobs savored the chocolate, the more he was drawn into the story's rich center and its insights into human desires and the destructive impulses of the rocking essay, repression and bigotry. Jacobs decided from the beginning that his priority would be to get the personal contest 2013 mix of CHOCOLAT's elements exactly right, blending comedy, sensuality and dramatic confrontation with a hint of essays, something mysterious in the recipe as well. I was very drawn to the charm and the magic in the story, to the mixture of wit and 2013, wisdom, says Jacobs. I wanted to conceptual theoretical research, strike a real balance between the humor, the dramatic surprises and most of all the real emotional honesty of the characters.
He continues: I felt that CHOCOLAT was, at its heart, the story of how Vianne gives people faith in themselves and how, in turn, they give that gift back to her. It's not just the story of how Vianne changes Lansquenet but how Lansquenet changes Vianne. Jacobs also wanted to present each of the townsfolk of Lasquenet as real, flesh-and-blood human beings, each filled with strengths and foibles of their own - the personal 2013 heroes fallible, the villains compassionate. Essays? His vision of contest, Lansquenet was of a fable-like town populated by very human troubles and triumphs. Jacobs did make one major change from the novel, which places the town's priest at conceptual theoretical research papers, the center of the battle with Vianne. Jacobs instead turned Reynaud from a priest into a nobleman - and personal contest, turned the town's priest into a mere pawn in Reynaud's machinations. Explains producer Leslie Holleran: In Robert Nelson Jacobs' script, the conflict between Vianne and Reynaud goes beyond church versus chocolate to something more universal. It becomes a conflict between a woman who blows in on the wind and a man who believes in tradition, rigidity, control and piety. This was an for a, inspired and surprising bit of writing that really resonates in a global way. It's a testament to Bob Jacobs' inventiveness that he took the personal essay contest ideas of the novel and gave them even more scope.
And of course the humor and humanity of the breakfast essay Comte De Reynaud really appeals to Lasse Hallstrm's style. What's wonderful about the script is that it could translate into any society in the world at any time period, notes David Brown. It is personal essay contest, a written as a story that people of all ages can enjoy but it has a real cutting edge to essay, it. Robert Nelson Jacobs also deepened the historical aspects of contest 2013, CHOCOLAT, delving into essay advertisement curse, the myth-laden history of chocolate among Mexico's lost Mayan Indian civilization. Comments Joanne Harris, author of the novel: I loved Robert Nelson Jacobs' script, and I thought he did a very nice job of essay 2013, interpreting the block pattern essays essence of the book in a way that comes alive at the movies. Sensualists And Nay-sayers: The Townsfolk Of Lansquenet. From the beginning, the only person Lasse Hallstrm could envision as the mystical, mysterious single mother Vianne Rocher was Juliette Binoche. Personal Contest 2013? Juliette was always the conceptual first choice for us and it was an absolute treat to have this chance to work with her, he says. Her character is the center of the story, and Vianne must stand for kindness, tolerance and the free-spiritedness of love. Juliette is able to capture this because her approach to 2013, her work is to always be emotionally present in the scene.
She respects the horse camera and 2013, knows just how little you need to convey a deep emotion. I think she was really able to expand in obesity, this role, which is different from anything she's done before. Juliette Binoche was drawn not only to the character of Vianne, but by the power of the unique mother/daughter relationship between Vianne and contest, her imaginative daughter Anouk, who has grown weary of her mother's persistent travels. The Rocking Horse Winner Essay? Vianne is a wanderer, and personal essay contest, she expects to always keep moving, observes Binoche. But I don't think she necessarily wants this life. It is pattern inside her and she can't yet pull herself away from it. Outline For A Essay? She has an enormous struggle inside her that many people face: between the way her life was as a child, and the way she wants to live now. It's something we all struggle with - to break from our parents and our past and live our own lives. She continues: Despite these conflicts, there is something very essential and pure to the relationship between Vianne and Anouk. It comes from the guts, from the essay inside and is based on conceptual theoretical framework papers love. Binoche was also intrigued by Vianne's more magical side - to personal 2013, which she ascribes a rational explanation.
Vianne's magic actually comes from believing that people can change and be happy. Her magic is about liberating people and making them believe in who they are. The Rocking Horse Essay? That really interested me. Indeed, as Binoche plays Vianne, her powers are just as psychological as they are psychic. But what Vianne doesn't see for a very long time is essay contest, how the town works its own magic on her.
She spends so much time giving people what they need, that when they give her something back, it comes as a complete surprise, explains Binoche. Vianne sells small dreams and narrative, small comforts that add up to transformation in people's live. But without knowing it, they are able to transform hers just as much. One of the personal contest 2013 characters Vianne transforms most dramatically is theoretical framework research papers, Josephine, played by Lena Olin. Olin and Binoche previously worked together in Philip Kaufman's acclaimed Unbearable Lightness of Being, The (1988), and their acclaimed chemistry as complex female friends is captured again in CHOCOLAT. 'Unbearable Lightness' was a long time ago and personal contest 2013, people change, but we still had a real connection, notes Binoche. It was a great pleasure to work together again. Lena Olin also happens to be the wife of director Lasse Hallstrm, and CHOCOLAT marks the first time they have worked together on a major feature film. It was dream-like to work with her, says Hallstrm. I knew it would be easy and comfortable but I never expected it would be such a high. Seeing her at work and having the give-and-take of ideas was a real kick and outline for a narrative, an inspiration to us both.
Hallstrm adds: The role of Josephine is wonderful for Lena because it is so multi-layered and she's great at portraying characters who have a range of qualities. Josephine is eccentric and sensitive but she's also very strong. Lena honors these contradictions and unites them. The mortal enemy of Josephine's awakening becomes the personal 2013 Comte De Reynaud, who rules the small town of cause obesity essay, Lansquenet with an abiding sense of moral rigidity. But, as Alfred Molina plays Reynaud, there is much more to him than authority and piety. Essay Contest? Reynaud probably goes through the the rocking most cathartic experience in the whole story, says Molina. He is a very complicated man, foolish and rather pompous and takes himself way too seriously. Essay? He sees Vianne as this wild creature who threatens his patriarchy. And yet, Vianne and her chocolate unlocks the framework research possibility for change.
Molina particularly saw the humor at the core of Reynaud's humorless lifestyle - and the ways in which his true self comes to the fore. I find him quite comical, especially because he chooses to go to war over chocolate, says the actor. Essay 2013? Reynaud can't stand that Vianne is happy and he is deeply suspicious of her. Something in her, the freedom and the joy she brings to the rocking horse, people, really frightens him. Says producer Leslie Holleran of the Comte de Reynaud: It's a great part because it allows the actor to personal, be at once comical and powerful. Reynaud is both the foil and the person who gets totally unraveled in the end. Alfred Molina worked wonderfully because he truly has the ability to essay outline, be both frightening and contest, funny at the same time. Obesity Essay? To watch him work is to see a color wheel of possibilities: sometimes dark and heavy, sometimes very comedic, covering the whole spectrum.
In the town of Lansquenet, the Comte de Reynaud's austerity is balanced out by the eccentricity of Armande, an contest 2013, elder town figure. Armande is one of the first of the townsfolk to basic outline, be taken in by Vianne's charms, and becomes her champion. One of the most acclaimed actresses of today, Dame Judi Dench, gives another many-hued performance as Armande, playing her as a woman with a crusty sense of independence and essay 2013, a grand sense of humor. Says Dench: I think Armande is a bit of a witch who sees in Vianne a reflection of herself. Like everybody else in the story, Armande is caught up by Vianne's ability to create change.
What I loved about the film is that it's about the lifting of spirits - not to mention that I got to eat and drink enormous amounts of chocolate! Armande is one of true centers of the story, adds Holleran, and Dame Judi Dench filled us with awe in her portrayal - she was so smooth, so effortless, so dead on emotionally. She can turn anything into a magical moment. Another source of CHOCOLAT's magic comes from the romance Vianne has with the vagabond traveler Roux, played by Johnny Depp in a role he has rarely been seen in -- the film's romantic lead. Depp was drawn both to the film's iconoclastic love story and to a second chance to work with Lasse Hallstrm, with whom he previously collaborated on theoretical framework research What's Eating Gilbert Grape? (1993) I would do just about personal essay 2013, anything Lasse asked of me, admits Depp, but this was such a beautiful story, such a beautifully written script. And it fits so well with Lasse and his interest in essay, telling stories that actually try to say something in an entertaining, funny and different way. Depp created Roux as a rough-and-tumble journeyer with a Django Reinhardt-like passion for the steel-guitar blues, which also suited the actor-musician. He's the kind of guy who lands his boat in a village and busks for awhile, then moves on, Depp explains.
I thought Roux would be really into personal 2013, old blues, and essay children, this is the first time I've actually played the personal essay 2013 guitar on film. (Depp notes that he mimed his guitar lines for Cry-Baby (1990). ) Inspiring Depp throughout was Juliette Binoche, of whom he says: She's so beautiful and block pattern essays, deep, she makes you fall instantly in love with her. She's an intensely committed actress and if art is possible in cinema, I think she comes as close as anyone can. For Lasse Hallstrm, Depp brought a wonderful presence and a true leading man quality. I'm always impressed by what he does, says the director. His choices are always very tasteful and very accurate and beyond that, he is a wonderful, kind man. Roux's antithesis in Lansquenet can be found in Josephine's brutish husband Serge, whose crude and primitive impulses are brought to the fore in the battle against personal contest, Vianne. Serge is played by Peter Stormare, best known for block essays his unforgettable role as the cold-blooded killer in Fargo (1996), who had the unusual challenge of playing husband to 2013, the director's real-life wife, Lena Olin. Essay? Thankfully, as a fellow Swede, Lena and personal, I have a history together performing in plays at research, drama school, so it was all quite professional, laughs Stormare. Stormare was intrigued by the tragic part Serge plays in the town's reaction to personal essay contest 2013, Vianne. I've never played anyone like Serge before, he says.
He's such a sad character. Not really evil, I think, but sad. Essay Children? Once, he had it all, but alcohol killed that. Adds Leslie Holleran: Everyone who's seen 'Fargo (1996)' knows that there can't be a scarier person than when Peter locks in with that stare. But people haven't seen the other side of Peter: his comic timing. The role could easily have been played in a one-note fashion, but Peter creates a child-like, fanciful character and brings a whole new perspective and layer to his story.
In addition to the complexities of his own character, Stormare was intrigued by the big picture of CHOCOLAT. Essay 2013? To me, it is a story about what happens whenever an essay advertisement blessing, exotic wind blows into a town, he explains. It could be anything new, like when television arrived, anything that divides a town into those who condemn the new thing and those who welcome it. In this way, the story, which is so entertaining, is really a metaphor about life and society. Equally drawn to that metaphor was Carrie-Anne Moss, who plays Armande's estranged daughter Caroline, who also happens to essay contest 2013, be the Comte De Reynaud's ally in club themes, the war against the chocolate shop. I just loved the mix of magic and personal contest 2013, truth in the story, says Moss. She describes her character as a woman who lives a life of curse, extreme control. Personal Essay? Caroline wants to control everything - her child, herself, her mother - because it's the easiest way to get through the day. But she ends up coming full circle when Vianne turns her life upside down, continues Moss. Block? She learns to let go for a minute and experience the 2013 freedom and lightness of that. Perhaps the most innocent character in CHOCOLAT is Vianne's troubled young daughter Anouk, played by Victoire Thivisol who made history by winning the Best Actress Award at the Venice Film Festival at the age of four, for her moving role in Ponette (1996).
Victoire's a very Lasse kind of basic outline for a narrative, child in essay, that there's something wise about her, notes Holleran. Lasse's children are always old souls. They are jubilant, nave, unmannered and unpretentious, yet you also know that they are about to change your perspective on the world. The camera loves Victoire, and reveals both a kind of wisdom and the giddy playfulness of a child. Thivisol refers to Anouk as a funny, tricky little girl just like me. Outline? She adds: I loved working with Lasse. He's so sweet and personal essay contest, nice and pattern, he listened to my ideas. Another young actor who makes his feature film debut in CHOCOLAT is Aurelien Parent-Koenig, who plays the role of lonely Luc, Armande's tormented grandson. Says Dame Judi Dench of Koenig, He brings a wonderful kind of boyish energy. He has a natural curiosity in every part of 2013, life that is always marvelous in an actor.
He's terrific. Summarizes Leslie Holleran: Lasse's approach to essay children, actors is always the personal essay contest same, no matter their age. He speaks to children as adults and shows the same respect for everybody. In a sense, he sees the childishness in essays, grown ups and the grown-up wisdom in personal essay contest, children, both of which play a huge role in CHOCOLAT. Like the characters in horse winner, CHOCOLAT, chocolate itself takes on essay 2013 many different characteristics as the tale deepens: it can be devilish in its allure, compel blissful joy or comfort harrowing sorrows. Throughout, it is a catalyst for change, and because of that it becomes a danger and a threat to the status quo. To better understand the ways in which chocolate has long been associated with both power and pleasure, Juliette Binoche literally became a student of the dark, bitter and block, semi-sweet, heading off to chocolate cooking school. I have always loved chocolate but in CHOCOLAT, chocolate becomes more than just a sweet taste.
It becomes a gesture towards others or towards yourself, a sort of compassion. It is a wonderful symbol for the exchange of gifts - emotions, honesty, caring - between people, says Binoche. Binoche journeyed to essay contest 2013, several highly regarded French chocolateries and studied with the cause obesity essay chocolate specialist Walter Bienz in preparation for playing the chocolate magician Vianne. She also sampled confections from the four corners of the earth, and read about chocolate's Mayan origins as the food of the gods. In the beginning I asked Joanne Harris why she had chosen chocolate as Vianne's method and personal essay contest, she explained that it has a long history as something that has been shared around the world, says Binoche. This interested me. There is chocolate in Asia, Africa and South America, yet I discovered each tastes a little different, and each seems to bring its own special energy. Consultant Walter Bienz concurs.
I have always believed chocolate has power. It is certainly an aphrodisiac and it can bring emotions to the fore - after all, everyone goes a little mad for chocolate. Bienz also taught Juliette Binoche how to physically handle chocolate confections - the shapes, the consistencies, the various types of candy formations. There are at least fifty different types of chocolate and what you create depends on what you use and at what temperature, notes Bienz. There is a real art to it. Binoche immediately took to stirring, heating and cause obesity, testing.
I so enjoyed working with the chocolate, she admits. There's a fascination in seeing these dark, fluid rivers of personal contest 2013, chocolate and knowing how to turn them into all kinds of the rocking, different delights. Walter Bienz gave us all a sense of how sensual the essay experience of chocolate can be, adds Leslie Holleran. He quite literally swoons for the subject and is philosophical about it. Essay Curse? You come away from talking with him thinking chocolate can change your life. You feel like popping this magical candy into your mouth is going to personal essay contest, set you free. A Magically Real Town: Forging Lansquenet. CHOCOLAT takes place in a fairy tale village where the patterns of people's lives were established long before they were born and have changed little from year-to-year, until Vianne Rocher arrives and shatters the tranquil veneer. To capture the essence of what Vianne finds in tiny, charmed Lansquenet, the filmmakers of essays, CHOCOLAT wanted to create a village that would come off as magically real -- in other words, they wanted a fable-like town that actually exists, a place with outer charm yet viscerally dark corners within.
After searching the personal nooks and crannies of Europe's backroads, production designer David Gropman happened upon the medieval French town of Flavigny. Near to Dijon in the Burgundy region, Flavigny dates back to the 10th century. Here, Gropman found a picturesque village set atop a hill, with streams flowing down three sides. But that's not all he found. It turns out Flavigny's main industry is the manufacture of Anis de Flavigny candies, which are renowned around France. I liked Flavigny because it wasn't too sugar-coated and prettified, yet it had magic to it, says Gropman.
Wandering through it, I loved the outline geography the relationship of the buildings. It seemed to personal 2013, perfectly fit the design concept Lasse and I had discussed: emphasizing a simplicity of story-storytelling and the most honest expression. Another unique aspect of Flavigny was its timelessnes. Horse Essay? Explains producer David Brown: When you look out at the countryside here, there are no billboards, no high-rises, no road side businesses. All you see are horses, cows, lambs and real people in an enchanted village.
It's an extraordinary atmosphere in which to tell a story. Given this simple slate upon which to draw, Gropman worked closely with Lasse Hallstrm putting together a notebook of photographs, drawings and personal contest, illustrations that might capture the very special visual look and feel of the film. Block Pattern Essays? They were particularly influenced by the great French photographers Robert Doisneau and Lilly Ronas, who photographed the extraordinary nature of ordinary, everyday French life in the 1950s. There are some great photos of village life in that period. We also had some photos of street festivals in contest, small towns which we were able to completely recreate for the rocking horse the Festival Du Chocolat, says Gropman.
Hallstrm was particularly impressed with David Gropman's ability to bring a sense of the mystical to Vianne's chocolaterie. David really brings to life the personal essay 2013 feeling of cocoa's ancient, Mayan legacy and children blessing curse, its magical qualities through the personal 2013 design of conceptual theoretical research papers, Vianne's shop and even the look of the chocolates, says the director. I really have to hand it to him. The coming to life of Lansquenet is his handiwork. You walk onto his sets and feel as if a storybook has been brought to life, summarizes Carrie-Anne Moss, who plays the Lansquenet villager Caroline. They were so beautiful they almost seemed like they had been enchanted by personal essay 2013, a little of Vianne's magic. Filming in Flavigny stirred up its own small-town controversies, including a group of monks who had fears about the conceptual framework research film's theme of seeking pleasure in this world rather than waiting for the promise of a better one. Luckily, the mayor and the local priest were both very incredibly supportive and mustered a lot of good will among the contest locals, notes Alan C. Block? Blomquist.
The priest even wrote a very funny letter to the monks explaining to them that a film can't be judged just by personal contest 2013, the script but has to do with the club casting, the editing and the execution. We were lucky to have such a cinephile priest! Later, when the personal contest 2013 production had temporarily renovated the town square of Flavigny to become Lansquenet, the cast and crew invited the townsfolk to a party, letting them wander through the fictionalized set. It was a wonderful experience to see the essay advertisement blessing curse community of Flavigny take their evening strolls through town with their cameras - looking at their home town in a new way. Several older residents said it recalled the feeling of their youth, notes Gropman. It was a very gratifying experience - to see them enjoy so much the changes we made.
Kit Golden adds: We made it snow in Flavigny in May! All of the townspeople came out to watch. It was truly a magical moment. In addition to personal essay contest 2013, Flavigny, scenes were shot in the West Country of England. A number of locations were used, including Bruton for club themes Armande's farmhouse, the manor at Brympton D'Eversy for Reynaud's house and personal essay 2013, Fonthill Bishop for the river scenes. The remainder of the shoot took place in children curse, Shepperton Studios in Twickenham, England, where the town square at Flavigny was rebuilt and most of the interiors were shot - including the personal contest 2013 chocolate shop, the shop kitchen and Vianne's apartment.
David Gropman literally made a rubber cast of the fronts of Flavigny's buildings and carried it back to England in order to forge a perfect reproduction. It was amazing, says producer Kit Golden. We walked onto the stage on the first day of shooting at Shepperton and felt we were right back in France. Adds Lasse Hallstrm: Every wrinkle in every stone is an exact replica of the real town. It's another example of the real and the fable-like mixing in the making of CHOCOLAT. Throughout the shoot, Lasse Hallstrm attempted to blur the line between myth and emotion, fable and funny human truths. To accomplish this visually, he worked closely with cinematographer Roger Pratt, who was recently Oscar-nominated for block pattern essays his evocatively stylized work on contest 2013 End Of The Affair, The (1999). Roger Pratt supported the poetic tone of the conceptual papers film by creating images that have a sort of dreamy, nostalgic feeling to them without resorting to sepia tones, states Hallstrm. Essay Contest 2013? He really has the ability to bring you back and put you in another time and place without any sentimentality or cuteness.
The look transports you to breakfast club, a realm where these funny, magical events might be possible and where the characters' humanity can be believed. It seems that long before Vianne Rocher entered the picture, chocolate has been a factor in the battle between life's pleasures and those who would deny them. Personal Essay? The real-life history of chocolate is filled with contradictory rumors and fairytales. There are those who have spoken of chocolate's mystical powers and healing qualities, and obesity essay, yet chocolate has also incited repression, moral judgements and even political banishment. Screenwriter Robert Nelson Jacobs delved into this rich and pungent history in personal, order to outline narrative, give the character of Vianne a legacy steeped in mystery - a legacy that goes all the way back to the Mayan Indians and a tree bearing a fruit known as the food of the gods. Below are some highlights from this intricate history: Chocolate literally grows on trees, appearing in its raw state as pods on the 40-60 foot tall trees known botanically as Theobroma cacao, which means food of the personal gods. This wide-branching tropical evergreen has grown wild in Central America since prehistoric times. It also grows in South America, Africa and part of Asia.
The Mayan Indians of Mexico began using a form of chocolate as early as 600 a.d., at which point they worshiped the cocoa bean as an idol, a literal gift from the heavens. Cocoa beans were thought to have fearsome magical powers by the Maya and were carefully used in rituals, religious ceremonies and healings by priests. The Maya used cocoa medicinally as a treatment for fever, coughs and even discomfort during pregnancy. The Maya had a God, Ykchaua, who served as the patron of cocoa merchants. The Maya were the first to invent a cocoa drink, a hot, mostly bitter beverage made up ground cocoa pods and club, spices. Later, the essay contest Aztec Indians improved upon the recipe, sweetening it with vanilla and honey. They called their drink xocoatl (pronounced similar to Chocolatl), meaning bitter water. In Aztec myth, the god of the rocking outline, agriculture, Questzalcoatl, traveled to earth carrying the cocoa tree from Paradise, because it would bring humans wisdom and power. Chocolate became so highly regarded by the Aztecs that it was used as a form of currency along with gold dust. The Florentine Codex, one of the main historical sources describing Aztec life, calls chocolate The drink of nobles, and notes that it must be prepared with the meticulous care due to its powerful nature. Although Columbus returned to Europe with the first cocoa beans, no one knew what to do with them and they were dismissed in favor of essay, other trade goods.
Europeans got their first real taste of essay children advertisement blessing, chocolate when Emperor Moctezuma met the explorer Cortes and his army with a foaming hot-chocolate drink. In 1528 when Cortes returned to personal contest, Spain from the block essays New World, he brought with him the Aztec's chocolate drink making equipment and the trend began to catch on. But due to the drink's powerful reputation, the personal 2013 beans were sequestered away in monasteries and the formula for the drink kept secret, to be enjoyed only by the wealthiest of nobility. In the essay early 1600s Italian traveler Antonio Carletti carried the essay contest beans tot he rest of Europe and for the first time, chocolate came to the common people. By the 1700s, so-called Chocolate Houses were all the rage, as popular as coffee houses. Breakfast? In England, Charles II tried to close them down, calling them hotbeds of sedition. When chocolate first made its way to France, in the 18th century, it was decried by authorities as a dangerous drug. The idea of contest, mixing chocolate with milk did not come until the 18th century.
Sir Hans Sloane, personal doctor to Queen Anne, invented the secret recipe and cause essay, later sold it to the Cadbury brothers who made a fortune with new confections. It was a Dutch chemist, Johannes Van Houten, who developed the modern cocoa process, inventing a hydraulic press that would produce a fine cocoa powder. Thus began the era mass-produced chocolate.