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architecture essays The essays and articles below by seasoned thinkers provide a unique on-line resource for study. When these thoughts are read in combination with winning student essays, it is more then abundantly clear the scope and importance of the fact that architecture is online content writing a social art. Each year the genetic engineering opinion essay, Berkeley Prize Committee invites a distinguished professor or scholar in the field of architecture or the related social sciences to write about online content writing some aspect of the year#39;s Berkeley Prize topic. These essays serve several purposes: They are meant to help focus students#39; thoughts on the issues surrounding the year#39;s Question. Thesis! They are a model for excellence in writing. They exhibit both how defined and how broad the range of possible response to a Question. Anthony Schuman: Toward an Architecture of Solidarity.

Architecture for the Public Good: A Photo Essay by the BERKELEY PRIZE Committee. Paul Broches: A Gentle Push Toward Design for Everyone. John Cary: 2011 Commencement Address, College of content Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley. Benjamin Clavan: Creating Architectural Monuments. Brest Rennes! Charles Debbas: Zimbabwe Childcare Centers: A Collaboration between the International Child Resource Institute and Debbas Architecture. Tom Fisher: Public-Interest Architecture: A Needed and Inevitable Change. Lance Hosey: The role of the street in fostering social life.

Nathan Koren: Architecture in Reverse: Building the Pyramid from the content writing, Top Down. Michael Pyatok: Personal Choices, Social Purpose. Engineering Essay! David Salazar: studioMDA in New York City: Making Social Architecture a Reality. JUDITH LEE STRONACH UNDERGRADUATE TRAVEL SCHOLARSHIP winner Julian Daley on architects confronting poverty in Chile. Sophia Bannert#39;s winning BERKELEY PRIZE 2013 essay published on Archdaily.com. Content Writing! A quick overview of 12 of the U.S. Pavilion exhibits at the Venice Architecture Biennale. Read about the current Venice Architecture Biennale and its theme of Common Ground that explores the relationship between construction and society and, as a result, the architect and cv writing society. Construction and Society From the current issue of ARCHITECT magazine, published in the United States in association with the American Institute of Architects, a few words about the future of architectural discussion by the architectural critic for the NEW YORK TIMES that reinforces the idea that architecture is, ultimately, a social art. Social Agent/Expanding Architecture#39;s Discourse Jargon interferes with our appreciation of the art that has perhaps the most impact on online content, us. Why don#39;t we read about architecture? is the brest resume, question asked by Allison Arieff in this recent online opinion piece - and yearly by content writing the BERKELEY PRIZE.

Arieff argues that jargon interferes with our appreciation of the art that has perhaps the most impact on us. (From the New York Times Opinionator blog ). Why Don#39;t We Read About Architecture The Curry Stone Design Prize was created to recognize that designers can be a force for improving people#39;s lives. Read about cv writing service this year#39;s winners from around the world and how the prize not only online, rewards ingenuity, but it is also rewarding bottom up social change. (From Huffington Post#39;s IMPACT internet newspaper) Curry Stone Design Prize: Design with a Mission. The exhibition Design with the Other 90%: CITIES, organized by the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, is art essay utopian currently on display through January 12, 2012 at the United Nations in New York City. Curator Cynthia Smith#39;s in-depth assessment, adapted from her catalogue essay, of the research that took her to Asia, Africa and Latin America explores innovations in humanitarian design and describes how she found many examples of hybrid solutions that work to bridge the content writing, formal and informal city and to make the art essay function selected utopian, planet#39;s rapidly growing cities more just and humane. (From DESIGN OBSERVER, 10.20.11) . Read a review of this survey of Design for the Public Good from around the world in the New York Times. In a shift from a time when New York City hired only the content writing, lowest bidders for civic projects, dozens of new city buildings have been designed by gifted architects. for the public good. Essay Tempest! One attempt at making city streets more pedestrian friendly by online content writing greening the resume, hard cityscape quickly, cheaply, and creatively. One of the content, best summaries of the state of humanitarian design today, part of ARCHITECT magazine#39;s September 2011 issue on Natural Disasters: Architecture to the Rescue. BERKELEY PRIZE Committee Member John Cary on public-private art pieces. Art Essay Selected Utopian! Opinion piece by BERKELEY PRIZE Committee Member John Cary: Architect Barbie fails to address the online writing, very real gender gap in architecture.

Read the recent CNN.com editorial, #39;Apple#39;s philanthropy needs a reboot#39;, co-authored by John Cary, a BERKELEY PRIZE Committee member. Read about cv writing service this United Nations effort to tie colleges around the world together in the pursuit of, among other ideals, the organization#39;s Millenium Development Goals. These precepts provide a foundation for the social art of architecture. It is not pretty, but here is some imaginative thinking about how to let cities grow naturally and writing incrementally. Read about an architect who has gained international fame by thinking about literature design in writing, its essence as first a social art. From one of the United States#39; premiere intellectual journals, an essay article about the online, need for more skyscrapers that barely addresses the issues of the day-to-day lives of all those who would be asked to call these new structures #39;home#39;. Eye-sores to eye-catchers?

A great audio piece about Privately Owned Public Open Spaces, little sacred spots scattered throughout the city, from the fabulous 99% Invisible. Contested semantics around calling the Cordoba a Mosque-Cathedral, and the history of a place that has been sacred to two faiths. Mad Men, the critically-acclaimed United State#39;s television series, is more than just a period piece about Madison Avenue, New York in the 1960s. The social art of architecture hits the airwaves! A report on a current attempt to tie together sustainability and brest the social art of architecture in the Mid-East.

The BERKELEY PRIZE is endorsed by the Department of Architecture, University of writing California, Berkeley.

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Altbatterien können Schadstoffe enthalten, die bei nicht sachgemäßer Lagerung oder Entsorgung die Umwelt oder Ihre Gesundheit schädigen können. Batterien enthalten aber auch wichtige Rohstoffe wie z.B. Content! Eisen, Zink, Mangan oder Nickel und können verwertet werden. Sie können die Batterien nach Gebrauch entweder an genetic essay uns zurücksenden oder in writing, unmittelbarer Nähe (z.B. Brest! im Handel oder in online writing, kommunalen Sammelstellen oder in master thesis, unserem Versandlager) unentgeltlich zurückgegeben. Content! Die Abgabe in cv writing, Verkaufsstellen ist dabei auf für Endnutzer für die übliche Mengen sowie solche Altbatterien beschränkt, die der Vertreiber als Neubatterien in seinem Sortiment führt oder geführt hat.

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Die nachfolgenden Hinweise richten sich an content writing diejenigen, die Batterien nutzen und in rennes, der an online content writing sie gelieferten Form nicht mehr weiterveräußern (Endnutzer): Da in cv writing, unseren Sendungen Batterien und Akkus enthalten sein können, sind wir nach dem Batteriegesetz (BattG) verpflichtet, Sie auf Folgendes hinzuweisen: Batterien und Akkus dürfen nicht im Hausmüll entsorgt werden, sondern Sie sind zur Rückgabe gebrauchter Batterien und Akkus gesetzlich verpflichtet. Online! Altbatterien können Schadstoffe enthalten, die bei nicht sachgemäßer Lagerung oder Entsorgung die Umwelt oder Ihre Gesundheit schädigen können. Art Essay Function Utopian! Batterien enthalten aber auch wichtige Rohstoffe wie z.B. Eisen, Zink, Mangan oder Nickel und können verwertet werden. Sie können die Batterien nach Gebrauch entweder an online writing uns zurücksenden oder in genetic opinion essay, unmittelbarer Nähe (z.B. Online Content! im Handel oder in brest rennes resume, kommunalen Sammelstellen oder in content writing, unserem Versandlager) unentgeltlich zurückgegeben. Rennes! Die Abgabe in writing, Verkaufsstellen ist dabei auf für Endnutzer für die übliche Mengen sowie solche Altbatterien beschränkt, die der Vertreiber als Neubatterien in proposal help, seinem Sortiment führt oder geführt hat. Das Zeichen mit der durchgekreuzten Mülltonne bedeutet, dass Sie Batterien und Akkus nicht im Hausmüll entsorgen dürfen.

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sample cv resume uk This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and online content, covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of phd research proposal your work experience and online writing, education, used for job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for a CV.

A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about selected, your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from online content, somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for you. How should I design the art essay utopian layout of my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. Online. This section gives an genetic opinion, example.

Print your CV on good quality white paper. Content. The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to use is 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on your CV). The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman.

Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to essay of the, emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to online content writing, keep the CV on one side of cv writing paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and content, simple. A typical section order is: There is an resume, example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and online content writing, your family name last (even if you write the family name first in art essay function selected utopian your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to online content, forward letters to brest, you).

If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. Writing. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for genetic opinion, you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the telephone at online writing, your accommodation. The telephone number should start with the art essay literature area code, written in online writing brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for function utopian, dates.

For start and online content, end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about each of art essay function literature your job roles. Start by writing the name of the company (in bold) and its location. On the next line you might give a brief description of what the company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for online writing, recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for which you are now applying.

If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). You should not use the word I on your CV; this is literature selected utopian understood. Content Writing. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at the shop. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the proposal education system in online content writing your country. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for the dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00)

In the right-hand column, list the genetic engineering opinion name of the school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on writing, the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in selected utopian this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of online content writing this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is essay of the clear. If you have been to a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the online writing name so that the level is clear. Function Literature Selected Utopian. If the university is one of the online content writing top universities in thesis your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). Writing. State the name of the town and country after the university's name. In the description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in American English).

If you studied English, the cv writing service subject should perhaps be described as English language and online writing, literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the service British university grade system is probably different from that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and 18, but not before this age. Online. You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the words High School in cv writing service the name. If you took exams in a wide range of subjects, you may prefer to list only the content writing number of subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in the UK, you may want to include details of this course. If so, write this in a line under the main table. For example, you could write Currently studying English at genetic engineering opinion, ABC school, London (since January 2001).

If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and online writing, the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job)

Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for information. The exact list of personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of of the birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by online your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to write Gender:, followed by essay tempest Male or Female, if this is not obvious to content, a British person from your name. Essay Tempest. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by a short list of online content writing perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to phd research, the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at an interview.

Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by Available on request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. Content. It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to proposal, do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in content English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT.

Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: akiko9999@hotmail.com. · Advised the main shop's customers about art essay literature, organic and writing, health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the engineering benefits of supplements and online content, organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the business by establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to thesis fbw, the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in writing English) into art essay selected Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and online content, procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and help, the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of English and Korean. If you are sending an application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to writing, accompany your CV (a covering letter).

The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an example covering letter shown below. State what type of phd research proposal help visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to mention the writing level of your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. Master Ugent. If you are about to online writing, change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. If you give the telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an answering machine.

EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to selected, apply for online content writing, the job of a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in art essay function literature selected Japan. This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and online writing, a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in London since last September, and am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the proposal Cambridge First Certificate in English exam).

My fluency in content Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to work up to rennes resume, 20 hours per content week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the job vacancy with you on the telephone or at an interview. Master Thesis Ugent. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at the top of online content this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and opinion, covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the spell-checker on content, the computer (set the language to brest resume, British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and content writing, ask this person for any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the job).

If you send an application by e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in cv writing service your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the writing company and phd research, ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the online content writing company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the jobs to which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. Resume. If you are rejected by a company, ask them to writing, give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications. Prepare for tempest, a job interview: Work/Interview.

Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.

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7 Power Words That MUST Be on Your Resume. Online Content. Another resume from another early careerist. Another rejection. Thesis Ugent. Not necessarily because of typos on writing the resume or formatting issues, a lack of internships or other forms of relevant experience. And certainly not because of a low GPA or a diploma from a not-so-prestigious school.

Because today, employers are looking for certain characteristics above all else; aspects of your work life that make you stand out ugent above all your competitors. And trust me when I say that those traits have nothing to do with being “detail-oriented”, a “hard worker” or a “team player” – or any other cliche now included on almost every resume. Online Writing. To get noticed by a recruiter today, applicants must show – in just one or two pages: The best way to do that? Include these seven power words, phrases (and, yes, even symbols and art essay function utopian numbers) while showing real-world impact: Employers now are doing more with less: less investment, less management and fewer employees. To be considered a strong candidate, you must show that you work well with the existing team while creating solutions with the resources available.

Be sure to include: An example where you brought a team together, or where you and your team worked together to exceed expectations. A big part of collaboration is knowing when it is time to step up and lead. Why? Because recruiters recognize many other admirable (and hireable) traits in leaders: effective listening, decision-making, confidence, ability to content writing motivate others toward a common goal, etc. Be sure to brest rennes resume include: A time when your leadership made a significant impact; show where the problem started and the end result as driven by your efforts.

Communication skills remain the Number 1 in-demand skill by employers – and quite often, the Number 1 source of disappointment. The applicant who demonstrates effective (and confident) writing, effective meeting management and confident public speaking will rise above the competition. Content Writing. Be sure to include: An editor! Your chance to prove your communication skills are well above average disappears about two seconds after a recruiter sees a typo in your cover letter, resume or LinkedIn profile. From your first job to your first corner office with a view, the art essay function literature selected, proven capacity to online writing take on a challenge, assess the alternatives and cv writing create a solution is in high-demand by writing employers. In today’s job market, show you welcome this challenge … and you’re on your way to an interview. Be sure to include: A challenge you faced, the solution incorporated and the impact of your problem-solving ability. In many aspects of our professional lives, we simply can’t rely on our education or experience to resume help us through a tough situation; we need to quickly learn what we don’t know. The ability to self-learn – through Google, forums, helpdesks, Q A sites, MOOCs, etc. – is a huge asset to writing a prospective employer. Art Essay Literature. Be sure to online writing include: In your “Summary of Skills” demonstrate your willingness to self-learn in order to problem solve and collaborate more effectively.

In the “Knowledge and Achievements” section of your resume, list the relevant courses, credentials and informal learning you’ve taken on essay outside higher education and content mandatory training. Throughout this post, we’ve talked about brest resume showing impact and the end results of writing your actions and leadership. There is simply no better way to do that than to tempest quantify using percentages and dollar signs. This is what employers understand; this is how they – in less than a second – assess your contributions. Online Content. Be sure to include: Concise statements that replace cliches like “proven sales professional” with quantified statements like “Increased sales by $300,000 in my region” and “Exceeded quota by 152% over 5 years.” Every Acronym and function Keyword Relevant to Your Industry. Especially in a larger company: before your resume is ever seen by a recruiter, you must get past the Applicant Tracking System (ATS) – a program used by recruiters to filter out resumes that don’t meet minimum qualifications.

The primary tool used: keyword and acronym searches. If your resume lacks the specified keywords and acronyms, the assumption is that you don’t yet have a clear grasp of the job or industry – and content writing your resume will not pass the ATS test. Be sure to include: In full sentences, insert the relevant keywords and proposal acronyms (but avoid the online content writing, buzzwords!) from the essay, job description and online from within your industry – including the software used and the regulations the of the tempest, company must abide by. Content. Avoid resume rejection. Function. Don’t include the same old cliches, passive words like “assisted” and empty words like “dynamic” and “successfully”. Instead, show off your potential. Prove you’re a good fit. Demonstrate your impact.

All it takes, is to use these power words on the next version of your resume. Like this post? Subscribe to online content writing get even more brilliance, and exclusive content, in your Inbox! About the Author: CEO and Founder of YouTern, Mark Babbitt is a serial mentor who has been quoted in the Wall Street Journal, Mashable, Forbes and Under30CEO.com regarding job search, career development, internships and higher education’s role in preparing emerging talent for proposal help the workforce. A keynote speaker and online blogger, Mark’s contributions include Huffington Post, Bloomberg News, Switch and Shift, and Under30CEO. Mark has been honored to be named to GenJuice’s list of phd research proposal help “Top 100 Most Desirable Mentors” , HR Examiner’s “Top 25 Trendspotters in HR” and writing CareerBliss’ “Top 10 Gen Y Career Experts”. Mark is currently working on opinion essay two new books: “A World Gone Social: How Business Must Adapt to Survive (AMACOM, June 2014) with Ted Coine and “The Ultimate Guide to Internships (And Making Your College Years Matter Again)” (Allworth, September 2014). Contact Mark via email or on Twitter! Mark, this is a great addition to the list of #8220;must read#8221; items for writing prospective interns or really any employee.

While the sole purpose of an ATS is not to screen out, it works that way if the job seeker is naive on how it works. In order to be considered you first have to opinion essay be seen. Differentiating yourself from the hundreds of other possible applicants is the only way to get that interview and ultimately a job. I might add that words without substance can be an even bigger fail. You may make it past the ATS with a laundry list of buzzwords, but an experienced recruiter or screener will see that immediately.

Everything must be in writing, context#8230; if you have a skill flaunt it! If you just use its name, there is no evidence you even know what it means. The people behind the system [for the most part] are not stupid so don#8217;t insult their intelligence. YouTern advocates high-quality, mentor-based internships and connects emerging talent to dynamic leaders and mentors at thesis fbw, start-ups, entrepreneurial small businesses and non-profits!

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Essay on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to FDI 2. Writing? Concept of FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison d’etre 5. Benefits 6. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Service? Theories 10. Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Writing? Promotion 13. FDI Trends in India.

Essay on the Introduction to phd research proposal FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on content, Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI Essay on Raison d’etre for tempest FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on online writing, the Selection of thesis FDI Destinations Essay on the Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on online writing, the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Patterns of FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI) Essay on phd research proposal help, FDI Trends in writing, India. International trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) are the two most important international economic activities integrating the world economy. With the increase in the mobility of proposal factors of production across countries, FDI has become an integral part of online writing a firm’s strategy to expand international business. FDI is the largest source of external finance for developing countries. At present, inward stock of FDI amounts to about one-third of the developing countries’ gross domestic product (GDP), compared to merely 10 per cent in genetic engineering essay, 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in the development process of host economies.

It also has a significant role in enhancing exports of the host country. It is estimated that the sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the value of world trade. FDI not only serves as a source of capital inflow into host economies, but also helps to enhance the competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthen­ing infrastructure, raising productivity, and generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to the capacity of transnational investing firms to influence economic and writing, political affairs. Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and essay tempest, the returns depend on the performance of the project financed by the investors. FDI is content, considered superior to proposal help other types of content writing capital flows due to various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in contrast to foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to sustain at the time of economic crisis.

ii. Function Utopian? Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is more likely to be used to improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to content writing have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to master thesis fbw cater to foreign markets and select the most appropriate mode of international business expansion. Geographical distances of markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to online get into manufacturing operations overseas.

In addition, the firm has to carry out engineering essay a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the institutional and regulatory framework for investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. It is the movement of capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. FDI occurs when an online investor based in one country (the home country) acquires an asset in another country (the host country) with the intent to manage it. It is the management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by way of FDI as its operations extend to service multiple countries.

FDI is defined as an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in online writing, an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the engineering essay foreign direct investor.’ For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in the foreign firm. Online Content Writing? The ‘lasting interest’ implies the existence of a long- term relationship between the direct investor and of the tempest, the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is exerted by the investor in the management of the content writing direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per master thesis, cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by the direct investor. The definition of direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Content? Since FDI is the result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.

It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at international level. The returns of FDI are generally in form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in thesis fbw, foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the equity stake in the foreign business entity is not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the passive holding of securities and online, other financial assets by cv writing service, a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the writing issuing firm. Service? High rate of returns and mitigation of risks due to online writing geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in the case of FPI are generally in function literature, the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the content writing capital account of balance of payment (BoP) statistics.

It is important to understand why a firm takes a decision to invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to cater to foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the firm is exposed to greater risks. Major factors that influence a firm’s decision to invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of master fbw transportation have to content be incurred for marketing products in countries located at larger geographical distances. For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of transportation has much larger impact on its competitiveness in foreign markets compared to tempest a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the products in the foreign country itself either by way of licensing or FDI. Liability of foreignness : A firm’s unfamiliarity with the host country and lack of adaptation of business practices in a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. This adds to the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of foreignness’. For instance, Kellogg’s unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder.

It took several years for Kellogg’s to understand the centrality of its traditional food in online content, India’s lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast. In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of product adaptation in view of master thesis ugent significant differences in customers’ preferences in Europe vis-a-vis the US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at a single location and exporting or benefits of online content writing FDI, such as proximity of production locations, higher level of control, and gaining better access to the market. Potential benefits of rennes FDI to host countries include the online following: Access to superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. Service? The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in overall reduction in online, domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and greater availability.

This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in essay, net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of FDI in­crease domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to content writing the increased competition. Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to engineering essay achieve growth targets. Besides, the online writing level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Under such situations, the FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for imports.

Essay # 6. Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNE’s operations in a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and financial capital employed for brest rennes setting up of plant or the rent. Wage rate is highly significant for online content the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of prime importance while making an investment decision. A large number of countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs:

The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of service various modes of transport, and online, the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions. Brest Rennes? In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is online writing, considered the most attractive investment location by 52 per cent of respondents followed by India with 41 per cent (Fig. Proposal Help? 12.1).

India’s high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. Writing? The overall trend in FDI inflows in recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.

Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is service, not very favourable and FDI is content writing, feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the master ugent fbw negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to their large size and financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to online content writing operate at a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and advertising and RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to cv writing service make similar investments in RD and online content writing, marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to genetic engineering opinion essay discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect.

As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and content writing, increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant. Foreign investors import their inputs and use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in genetic, the host country. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in content, sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of core equipment and software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the essay of the strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used.

Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of content writing Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is known as outward FDI. Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the Basis of Types of brest rennes resume Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country. Multinational firms from both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad.

A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by online content writing, way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to either provide inputs for the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over various stages of the value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to marketing. Engineering Essay? The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is content writing, historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction).

Companies like British Petroleum and Shell have expanded their international business by backward vertical FDI. Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to sell the output of the firm’s domestic production processes is referred to as forward vertical FDI. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at master thesis ugent fbw, manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of natural resources. This ensures the MNE of stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of raw material.

ii. Complementary factors of production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of capital and technical skills and are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to writing non-equity arrangements and arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over art essay literature, time. However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries.

Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is also preferred for production of labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the cost of content writing production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the essay cost of steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per cent of the world’s phosphate resources. MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to online content writing preclude rivals or potential rivals from gaining new markets.

Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of essay of the market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii. Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc.

A firm may strategically opt for content efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii. Availability of skilled labour. iii. Of The? Availability of content business related services.

iv. Trade policy. Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and service, pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of online existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by way of Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and brest resume, production technology are the key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii.

Cultural factors. iii. Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in online content writing, capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the genetic mode of content writing direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at genetic engineering, investment in new greenfield ventures as it is online content, viewed to generate economic benefits.

In developing countries where the right types of companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firm’s internationalization strategy. MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of investment among firms worldwide in order to brest enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by online content, acquiring companies internationally. It is estimated that about 70-80 per cent of FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of FDI.

However, an MNE has to help make Greenfield investments in developing and least developed countries where the right type of target firms are not available for online acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from cv writing service US$9.5 billion in 2005 to US$48 billion in 2007 but declined to online writing US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by rennes, 200 per cent from US$5.1 billion in content, 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the service outbound deals during the same period increased rapidly by content writing, 662 per cent from US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion. However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to of the tempest US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to writing 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and rennes, Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2).

The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to online writing witness a relatively large volume of of the horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is resisted by the target firm’s management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. In order to prevent the acquiring firm from such takeovers the target firm often resorts to use of ‘poison pills’ by increasing the cost of negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to effectively counter the target firm’s resistance.

Investment by online, foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in genetic engineering opinion, the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of availability of raw material inputs and manpower at cheaper costs. Savings in costs of content logistics due to proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into cost reduction. ii. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently.

iv. To have physical presence due to service strategic reasons. Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for online writing non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the customer. (vi) On the Basis of thesis ugent Strategic Modes: In response to writing trade barriers of the selected host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is made a substitute for exports.

It is aimed to serve the target market and its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for such types of content FDI is typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to minimize a firm’s cost of production and art essay function literature selected utopian, distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI. Greenfield investment is often the mode of entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to serve investors’ home country.

The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in content, FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to brest rennes resume explain why a firm invests in writing, foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical ‘W and ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the investor? A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition?

Whether the investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for art essay function selected utopian making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon the selection of host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firm’s resource availability. How to internationalize? In view of various modes of international business expansion, the writing firm has to genetic essay select the content writing best suited entry mode.

Principal theories of thesis international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of return on capital across countries. Capital is likely to online writing be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to benefit from differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is thesis ugent fbw, more suitable for foreign portfolio investments where the returns on capital are crucial in the short term.

A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from writing working perfectly are known as market imperfections. Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and rennes resume, government’s participation in trade are some of the examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to content writing promote a country’s industrial development and manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by of the, providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to their markets. A combination of all these factors contributes to imperfections in online content writing, the international markets.

Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and art essay function, quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by writing, direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and phd research proposal help, increased profitability of FDI to cater to the market.

This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is online content writing, important to service understand that it is the mobility of capital and writing, immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in fbw, order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the content writing organization.

Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is service, often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the online organization. Therefore, a firm expands into brest resume, international markets by way of investing in a foreign country in order to content have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. Service? The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in online content, the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the genetic engineering cost of operating in a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only through control of foreign operations by online writing, ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of resources such as exporting and brest rennes resume, licensing. Such an advantage specific to content writing the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and literature selected utopian, ‘economies of scale’ not possessed by online, competing firms that justify investment in service, physical capital overseas. (v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the theory was developed in the American context, it can be extended to other countries too.

A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the cost of production in other countries may be lower. Subsequently, in the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the growth phase of online content writing product life cycle, the FDI is made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the master fbw competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of content initial FDI to other lower-cost locations.

As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production. However, the brest rennes IPLC theory does not touch upon the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in online content writing, manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities.

The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the firm (O I). As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of FDI are determined by a combination of three factors as discussed here. For the opinion investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii.

Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and online writing, manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and scope, access to genetic opinion essay finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from online writing diversifi­cation of assets and proposal, risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of content patent rights, and other inputs. Since an genetic essay MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of writing differences in socio-cultural environment of the host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host country’s market conditions.

iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of operation and cv writing service, communication in a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in the host country is not required to incur the above costs, the ‘costs of foreignness’ are specific to foreign firms. Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of raw materials and other inputs, productivity and online, costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of engineering opinion essay communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to promote FDI, continuity of writing economic policies, and the stability of the government.

An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and cv writing, high rate of market growth, adequate and low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by content, way of genetic opinion essay licensing and online content, thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors. ii. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against market uncertainties.

Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for art essay function selected accessing foreign markets. Online Writing? Internalization helps a firm lessen the incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures: Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of essay tempest transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on online writing, demand and supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. Brest Rennes Resume? MNEs are often involved in online, creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in art essay function selected utopian, arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections.

MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an MNE has to incur various costs too—those of online content writing running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is required to expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost. Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and function literature utopian, internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for investing overseas, the selection of country location for investment, and the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of international expansion in content, a holistic manner. In the past decade, the essay US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in online content writing, India.

Companies wishing to master ugent capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in writing, contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to rennes FDI theories, many US and online, European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to cv writing service use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of content both FDI and contracting. The amount of FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the flow of FDI.

If the investment is made by a foreign firm in a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is termed as stock of FDI. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per genetic, IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI. There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in 2004 to US$1215789 million in 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in flows to developed countries. Between 2006 and 2007, FDI inflow’ to Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per cent from US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3).

The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and content writing, 3.1 per brest rennes resume, cent for China. While developed countries remain the major source of FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of 11 per cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in order to achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to outward investment. Writing? Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per cent for Singapore in phd research help, 2002-04 compared to 8 per cent for the US. A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output. There had been considerable debate across the world to reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. Writing? As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries.

However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the US, and function literature selected, some other countries was primarily aimed to content circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004. Service? Developing and content, transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the FDI recovery during the recent years. This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in tempest, India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to this trend. The services sector accounted for three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in the world.

However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to increase in cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by content writing, 40 per cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. China, India, and the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in share of art essay literature selected MAs in the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of online MAs is leading to proposal creation of oligopolistic world, especially in online content, case of strategic industries. iii. MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by MNEs through:

The foreign direct investor’s purchase of share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of engineering essay earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested. Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and online writing, 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per master thesis ugent fbw, cent and re-invested earnings for 12 per cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period.

The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of online 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for phd research help about 30 per cent of worldwide FDI flows. For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and FDI potential, the UNCTAD’s FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the extent to which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the online writing i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country.

A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the ‘baseline’ for cv writing attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the content business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and tech­nologies, to opportunities for participating in privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and master thesis, Belgium. Online? The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of help South East Europe and online writing, the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and cv writing, Southeast Asia.

However, it worsened in developed countries compared to online content 2003. For instance, the US where the help FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the content world due to its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. India’s ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in 1990 to function selected utopian 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in 2005 but declined later to online 113th in 2006. Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is measured by art essay function literature, outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of online a country’s share in global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country.

FDI i = The FDI outflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of thesis ugent factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in writing, different countries: i. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of ugent fbw different goods and services in home and online content writing, host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of globalization of fbw world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates. These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to content 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of brest resume structure variables comprising the index.

It is based on online, 12 economic and structural variables measured by their respective scores on function literature selected, a range of 0-1. It is the un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per capita. b. Online Writing? The rate of growth of GDP. c. The share of genetic engineering opinion exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per capita. f. The share of online content RD expenditures in gross national income.

g. The share of tertiary students in the population. i. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the function utopian world total. j. Writing? Imports of parts and components of electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the world total. k. Exports in services as a percentage of the world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the US, Singapore, the UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by phd research help, the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an indication of how each country performs against its potential. Countries in the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in content, Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance.

Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and performance. India falls in the category of under performer with both low FDI potential and essay tempest, performance. Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential.

The concern for below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of online writing past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of FDI depends on phd research proposal help, many conditions. However, well developed and implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and extent of these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the regulatory framework, within which the content investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:

First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the rennes resume targeting of writing foreign investors at the level of brest resume industries and online, clusters, and the marketing of regions and clusters with the aim of matching the essay of the tempest locational advantages of countries with the online needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Art Essay Literature Selected Utopian? Screening, admission, and online writing, establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Master Ugent? Restrictions on modes of entry. d. Online Writing? Eligibility for art essay function literature selected utopian bidding on privatization.

e. Establishment of online writing special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the rest of the country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in essay of the tempest, standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays. b. Online Writing? Reductions in social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Of The? Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits.

c. Credit guarantees. iv. Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Writing? Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of art essay function literature selected monopoly rights.

v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Online Content Writing? Local content requirements (value added) c. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer. f. Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of phd research proposal help their trade regimes, and the political economy of dispensing patronage.

Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and online content writing, Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Of The Tempest? Three of the six—China, India, and online content writing, Malaysia—feature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of ‘industrial decentralization’ for some time. In all six countries, with the exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds. ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in incentive, in all the six countries.

iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and help, Vietnam, and online writing, so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv. Essay Of The? Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to content writing foreign investors. These vary by the sales orientation of the master foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for online content potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and service, economic development in India and China, as given in Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Content? Promotion of literature selected Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI):

The Department of writing Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an active role in art essay literature selected utopian, investment promotion through dissemination of information on online, investment climate and opportunities in essay tempest, India. The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in writing, the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s.

The Indian government promotes FDI so as to fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in the development of infrastructure, setting up of phd research proposal help Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Online Content? Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy. iii. Lottery business. iv. Gambling and engineering opinion, betting sector.

v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment. FDI up to 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per online content, cent allowed : i. Resume? FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.

Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Online Content? Insurance FDI and FII under the automatic route. v. Publishing of news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per master fbw, cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and content writing, FII with prior government approval. c. Phd Research Help? Direct to online content writing Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per cent. ii. Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route.

iii. Service? Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Online Writing? Refining in cv writing service, case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval.

FDI up to 51 per writing, cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to brest resume 74 per cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and online content, beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Establishment and cv writing, operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Writing? Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the art essay literature utopian automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior gov­ernment approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the content writing automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from small scale sector.

b. Test marketing of items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Brest Rennes Resume? Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to writing divestment of 26 per cent equity in favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to literature utopian 49 per cent under the automatic route and online content, beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.

v. Mining and mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii. Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per cent. viii.

Up-linking of a non-news and essay of the, current affairs TV channel. ix. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to online 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and allied sectors. ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and ugent fbw, minerals.

(b) Coal and lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture.

(e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals. (f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and writing, formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and opinion essay, power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and content writing, Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks. iii.

Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Function Literature Utopian? Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment. v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies.

i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Trading for exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Fig. 12.2. It increased from US$4029 million in 2000-01 to online content US$6130 million in 2001-02. However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and rennes resume, thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in content, 2007-08.

The equity capital accounted for phd research proposal 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in India, as shown in Fig. 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in online content writing, India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. followed by essay of the, the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to content May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest.

Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions. Genetic Engineering? Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to increase this to US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in the retail sector are discussed here. i. FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in China. iii.

It will lead to higher standards of quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv. Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to less wastage of agri-produce due to content writing improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of of the infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi.

It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out indigenous mom and online, pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and essay tempest, services provided by online, super markets. ii.

The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and edge in the retail market. iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of the ugent game. iv. Content Writing? It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi.

Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of global foreign culture. vii. India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in rennes resume, India. viii. Since very little investment is required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per cent in retail trade to online ‘single brand products’ with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of FDI in engineering, retail sector. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the writing significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.

A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in focus areas and essay tempest, strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: