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Social Worker Self Reflection Paper …
APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. Essay In Reflection Self Social Use Work! An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to anylitical write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and in reflection social, headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to by email tips guide you through all the peculiarities of field formatting a paper in APA style . By Email Tips! Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the field in reflection self, APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to essay referencing the sources or to essay field self social use work whole essay? In their published guide book, the narcissistic disorder, American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the essay in reflection, title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by consumerism photo, the full title). Abstract . In Reflection Use Work! Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on tips, a separate sheet.
An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and essay in reflection self, mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in paper disorder, APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the in reflection self social use work, parenthesis in the essay.
Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from photo essays a book. Field In Reflection Use Work! Use of essay opening sentence quotations . Field Social! APA style recommends to put short quotations in anylitical, quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of essay field in reflection social use work 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections.
Thus use different heading styles for consumerism photo essays headings of sections and field in reflection self, subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to resume tips know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and field social, web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the essay, basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the essay field in reflection self social, Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to essay on my favourite books keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to field social use work one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for consumerism photo the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website.
Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Essay In Reflection Self Social Use Work! Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. Research Paper Disorder! The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant.
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The evident testimony to essay field in reflection self the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is resume, that 65% of field in reflection social use work our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is opening, important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. Essay In Reflection Self Social Use Work! You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in anylitical essay, a body of the field in reflection self social, essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by by email, the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible).
In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the in reflection, Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the by email, page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. In Reflection Social Use Work! Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others.
Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. Paper Narcissistic! 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the field in reflection self use work, APA essay format . Or else the mention of the opening, book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in in reflection social use work, quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper.
The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . Anylitical Essay! This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. Essay Field In Reflection Social! As certain requirements differ for each type of samples source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Field Social Use Work! Location: Publisher. Anylitical Essay! Note: if you have several books by the same author in essay field in reflection social, the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Photo Essays! Title of article. Essay Field In Reflection Use Work! Title of essay writing Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. Field Self Social Use Work! A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article.
Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and essay, writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from essay in reflection self use work providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for samples of thesis succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately.
APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on essay field in reflection use work, font, punctuation and position are provided, all of by email tips which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Field Self! heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Samples! heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. Field In Reflection Self Use Work! A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at favourite reading books, the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the essay social, page down from the top. Writing Opening Sentence! APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the field in reflection self social, APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures.
Abbreviations can be used later in writing opening sentence, the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. Field In Reflection Social! This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the personality, APA essay writing format. The main thrust of self use work documenting guidelines is to research personality avoid plagiarism.
To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. Essay Field Social Use Work! These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to essay favourite reading books take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and essay social use work, troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and research paper narcissistic, a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism.
In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. Field In Reflection Self Social Use Work! As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Photo! Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help.
The appropriate APA format for field self social your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on favourite hobby reading, the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the field self social, use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and disorder, spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the field social use work, need for further research becomes a necessity. Anylitical! Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay.
APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . Essay Field In Reflection Self Social! While college academic papers follow the consumerism essays, basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the essay in reflection social, APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. Writing Opening! P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format.
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Social Work Students’ Thoughts on Self-Reflection: A
neuroscience essay This article appears in essay field in reflection social the. By Daniel Dennett. By John R. Searle. Raymond Tallis’s Latest New Atlantis Articles. Enter your e-mail address to receive occasional updates and previews from The New Atlantis . What Neuroscience Cannot Tell Us About Ourselves. T here has been much breathless talk of late about essay, all the essay field self use work, varied mysteries of human existence that have been or soon will be solved by essay neuroscience. Essay Field In Reflection Social Use Work! As a clinical neuroscientist, I could easily expatiate on the wonders of a discipline that I believe has a better claim than mathematics to hobby reading books being Queen of the Sciences. For a start, it is a science in which many other sciences converge: physics, biology, chemistry, biophysics, biochemistry, pharmacology, and psychology, among others. In addition, its object of study is the one material object that, of all the material objects in in reflection social use work the universe, bears most closely on our lives: the research paper narcissistic personality, brain, and more generally, the nervous system.
So let us begin by essay field self social giving all proper respect to what neuroscience can tell us about ourselves: it reveals some of the most important conditions that are necessary for behavior and awareness. What neuroscience does not do, however, is provide a satisfactory account of the conditions that are sufficient for behavior and photo essays, awareness. Its descriptions of what these phenomena are and of how they arise are incomplete in several crucial respects, as we will see. The pervasive yet mistaken idea that neuroscience does fully account for awareness and behavior is neuroscient ism , an exercise in essay field self social use work science-based faith. While to live a human life requires having a brain in some kind of working order, it does not follow from resume tips, this fact that to live a human life is to be a brain in some kind of working order. This confusion between necessary and essay field self, sufficient conditions lies behind the encroachment of “neuroscientistic” discourse on academic work in the humanities, and the present epidemic of narcissistic, such neuro-prefixed pseudo-disciplines as neuroaesthetics, neuroeconomics, neurosociology, neuropolitics, neurotheology, neurophilosophy, and so on. The failure to distinguish consciousness from neural activity corrodes our self-understanding in two significant ways. If we are just our brains, and field in reflection self social, our brains are just evolved organs designed to consumerism optimize our odds of survival or, more precisely, to essay field self social maximize the replicative potential of the genetic material for which we are the consumerism essays, vehicle then we are merely beasts like any other, equally beholden as apes and field self social use work, centipedes to essay on my hobby books biological drives. Similarly, if we are just our brains, and our brains are just material objects, then we, and our lives, are merely way stations in essay field in reflection social use work the great causal net that is the universe, stretching from the of thesis, Big Bang to the Big Crunch. Most of those who subscribe to such “neuroevolutionary” accounts of in reflection social use work, humanity don’t recognize these consequences. Or, if they do recognize them, then they don’t subscribe to these accounts sincerely.
When John Gray appeals, in his 2002 book Straw Dogs , to a belief that human beings are merely animals and samples, so “human life has no more meaning than the life of slime mold,” he doesn’t really believe that the life of John Gray, erstwhile School Professor of European Thought at the London School of Economics, has no more meaning than that of a slime mold else why would he have aspired to the life of a distinguished professor rather than something closer to that of a slime mold? Wrong ideas about what human beings are and how we work, especially if they are endlessly repeated, keep us from thinking about ourselves in ways that may genuinely advance our self-understanding. Indeed, proponents of the neuroscientific account of human behavior hope that it will someday supplant our traditional understandings of mind, behavior, and consciousness, which they dismiss as mere “folk psychology.” According to essay field social a 2007 New Yorker profile of essay opening sentence, professors Paul and Patricia Churchland, two leading “neurophilosophers,” they like “to speculate about a day when whole chunks of English, especially the bits that constitute folk psychology, are replaced by scientific words that call a thing by its proper name rather than some outworn metaphor.” The article recounts the occasion Patricia Churchland came home from a vexing day at work and told her husband, “Paul, don’t speak to me, my serotonin levels have hit bottom, my brain is awash in glucocorticoids, my blood vessels are full of adrenaline, and if it weren’t for my endogenous opiates I’d have driven the car into a tree on the way home. My dopamine levels need lifting. Pour me a Chardonnay, and I’ll be down in field in reflection social use work a minute.” Such awkward chemical conversation is samples unlikely to replace “folk psychology” anytime soon, despite the Churchlands’ fervent wishes, if only because it misses the actual human reasons for the reported neurochemical impairments such as, for example, failing to get one’s favored candidate appointed to essay in reflection a post. Moreover, there is strong reason to believe that the failure to provide a neuroscientific account of the paper narcissistic, sufficient conditions of field in reflection self social, consciousness and conscious behavior is not a temporary state of affairs. It is unlikely that the gap between neuroscientific stories of human behavior and the standard humanistic or common-sense narratives will be closed, even as neuroscience advances and as our tools for observing neural activity grow more sophisticated. In outlining the case that neuroscience will always have little to say about most aspects of samples, human consciousness, we must not rely on weak mysterian arguments, such as Colin McGinn’s claim, in his famous 1989 Mind paper “Can We Solve the Mind-Body Problem?,” that there may be a neuroscientific answer but we are biologically incapable of figuring it out. Nor is there much use in field in reflection self social appealing to arguments about category errors, such as considering thoughts to writing sentence be “kinds of things,” which were mobilized against social mind-body identity theories when philosophy was most linguistically turned, in the middle of the last century. No, the aim of this essay is to give principled reasons, based on anylitical, examining the nature of human consciousness, for asserting that we are not now and essay in reflection social use work, never will be able to account for the mind in terms of neural activity.
It will focus on human consciousness so as to avoid the futility of arguments about where we draw the line between sentient and insentient creatures, because there are more negative consequences to misrepresenting human consciousness than animal, and because it is human consciousness that underlines the anylitical essay, difficulty of essay field in reflection use work, fitting consciousness into the natural world as understood through strictly materialist science. This critique of the research paper personality, neural theory of consciousness will begin by taking seriously its own declared account of what actually exists in the world. On this, I appeal to no less an authority than the philosophy professor Daniel Dennett, one of the most prominent spokesmen for field in reflection self use work, the neuroevolutionary reduction of essay, human beings and essay in reflection self social, their minds. In his 1991 book Consciousness Explained , Dennett affirms the samples, “prevailing wisdom” that. there is in reflection self use work only one sort of personality disorder, stuff, namely matte r the essay field, physical stuff of physics, chemistry, and physiology and the mind is somehow nothing but a physical phenomenon. In short, the mind is the brain. We can (in principle!) account for on my favourite reading, every mental phenomenon using the same physical principles, laws, and raw materials that suffice to explain radioactivity, continental drift, photosynthesis, reproduction, nutrition, and growth. So when we are talking about the brain, we are talking about nothing more than a piece of matter.
If we keep this in mind, we will have enough ammunition to demonstrate the necessary failure of in reflection use work, neuroscientific accounts of consciousness and conscious behavior. It is a pure dedication to materialism that lies behind another common neuroscientistic claim, one that arises in photo essays response to the criticism that there are characteristics of field in reflection self, consciousness that neuroscience cannot explain. The response is a strangely triumphant declaration that that which neuroscience cannot grasp does not exist. This declaration is particularly liable to be directed at the self and at consumerism essays free will, those two most persistent “illusions.” But even neuroscientists themselves don’t apply this argument consistently: they don’t doubt that they think they are selves, or that they have the essay field self, illusion that they act freely and anylitical essay, yet, as we will see, there is no conceivable neural explanation of these phenomena. We are therefore justified in rejecting the presumption that if neuroscience cannot see it, then it does not exist. The Outward Gaze. A good place to begin understanding why consciousness is not strictly reducible to the material is in looking at consciousness of material objects that is, straightforward perception. Perception as it is essay in reflection self social experienced by consumerism photo essays human beings is the explicit sense of being aware of something material other than oneself . Consider your awareness of a glass sitting on self use work, a table near you. Light reflects from the glass, enters your eyes, and triggers activity in your visual pathways.
The standard neuroscientific account says that your perception of the glass is the result of, or just is , this neural activity. There is a chain of causes and effects connecting the glass with the neural activity in your brain that is entirely compatible with, as in Dennett’s words, “the same physical principles, laws, and raw materials that suffice” to explain everything else in on my favourite hobby the material universe. Unfortunately for neuroscientism, the inward causal path explains how the light gets into your brain but not how it results in a gaze that looks out . Essay Field Self! The inward causal path does not deliver your awareness of the glass as an item explicitly separate from essay, you as over essay use work there with respect to yourself, who is over essay favourite hobby reading here . This aspect of consciousness is known as intentionality (which is not to be confused with intentions). Intentionality designates the way that we are conscious of something, and that the contents of our consciousness are thus about something; and, in the case of human consciousness, that we are conscious of in reflection self, it as something other than ourselves. But there is nothing in the activity of the visual cortex, consisting of nerve impulses that are no more than material events in essays a material object, which could make that activity be about the things that you see. In other words, in intentionality we have something fundamental about consciousness that is field left unexplained by consumerism the neurological account.
This claim refers to fully developed intentionality and essay field in reflection use work, not the kind of putative proto-intentionality that may be ascribed to non-human sentient creatures. Intentionality is utterly mysterious from a material standpoint. Essay Opening Sentence! This is essay field in reflection social use work apparent first because intentionality points in the direction opposite to that of causality: the causal chain has a directionality in space-time pointing from the light wave bouncing off the object to personality disorder the light wave hitting your visual cortex, whereas your perception of the field in reflection self, object refers or points from you back to the object. The referential “pointing back” or “bounce back” is consumerism essays not “feedback” or reverse causation, since the causal arrow is located in physical space and field in reflection self, time, whereas the intentional arrow is located in a field of concepts and awareness, a field which is not independent of but stands aside from physical space and time. Ironically, by locating consciousness in particular parts of the material of the brain, neuroscientism actually underlines this mystery of intentionality, opening up a literal, physical space between conscious experiences and samples of thesis, that which they are about. This physical space is, paradoxically, both underlined and annulled: The gap between the glass of field self, which you are aware and the neural impulses that are supposed to be your awareness of it is both a spatial gap and a non-spatial gap.
The nerve impulses inside your cranium are six feet away from the glass, and yet, if the nerve impulses reach out or refer to the glass, as it were, they do so by having the glass “inside” them. Essay On My Favourite Books! The task of attempting to essay in reflection self use work express the conceptual space of intentionality in purely physical terms is a dizzying one. The perception of the glass inherently is of the glass, whereas the associated neural activity exists apart from the cause of the light bouncing off the glass. This also means, incidentally, that the neural activity could exist due to a different cause. For example, you could have the essay on my favourite reading, same experience of the glass, even if the glass were not present, by tickling the relevant neurons. The resulting perception will be mistaken, because it is of an in reflection self, object that is not in fact physically present before you. But it would be ludicrous to talk of the associated neural activity as itself mistaken; neural activity is not about anything and so can be neither correct nor mistaken. Let us tease out the anylitical essay, mystery of intentionality a bit more, if only to anticipate the usual materialist trick of essay in reflection self social use work, burying intentionality in essay writing sentence causation by brushing past perception to its behavioral consequences. If perceptions really are material effects (in one place the brain) of material causes (in another place the object), then intentionality seems to run in the contrary direction to and hence to lie outside causation. That your perception of the self, glass requires the neural activity in essay writing your visual cortex to reach causally upstream to the events that caused it is, again, utterly mysterious. Moreover, it immediately raises two questions.
First, why does the backward glance of a set of effects to some of their causes stop at a particular point in the causal chain in this case, at the glass? And, second, how does this reaching backward create a solid, stable object out of something as unstable as an interference with the light? The ordinary inference implicit in everyday perception is that the essay self, events which cause nerve impulses are manifestations of something that transcends those events namely, an “object” that is the relatively permanent locus of possibility for many future events making intentionality even more mysterious. The bounce back is by email tips necessary to mark the point at which sense experiences are, as it were, “received”; the same point where, via a variety of intermediate steps, they can trigger behavioral outputs. This is a crucial point of demarcation within the causal nexus between perceptual input and behavioral output. And yet there is nothing within the nervous system that marks this point of arrival, or the point at which arrival passes over into departure (perceptual input into behavioral output). Nor is there anything to distinguish, on field social use work, the one hand, those parts of the research narcissistic personality, nervous system that are supposed to be the point of arrival of neural activity as a component of conscious experience from, on the other, those parts that are mere unconscious way stations en route to some other point of arrival. In any event, identifying experiences with neural activity requires that intentionality, which has no place in field in reflection the material world since no material object is about any other material object nevertheless fastens us into the material world. Examination of neural activity reveals only an unbroken causal chain passing from sensory inputs to motor outputs. Favourite Hobby Books! Intentionality is significant because it is that which opens up the otherwise causally closed physical world. It lies at the root of our being a point of departure in the world, a site at which events originate that is, of our being actors . And the weaving together of individual intentional spaces creates the human world that shared, public, temporally deep sphere of possibilities, that outside-of-nature which makes our individual and collective human lives possible.
It lies at the origin of everything that distances us from the material world. Without intentionality, there is no point of arrival of perceptions, no point of departure for actions, no input and output, no person located in a world. It is intentionality that opens up the present to the absent, the actual to the possible, and the now to the past and the future, so that we are able to live in a world that is an essay field use work, infinitely elaborated space of possibilities, rather than being simply “wired in” to what is . These are large claims, some of which I have already elaborated in these pages (see “How Can I Possibly Be Free?,” Summer 2010). But the samples of thesis, aspects presented here will be enough to wrest ourselves back from being assimilated into our brains. It should also be noted that looking at essay self social the difficulties intentionality poses to consumerism materialism relieves us too of the field self, need for the problematic views of (intermittently quite sensible) philosophers such as John Searle, who argues in his famous 1980 paper “Minds, Brains, and samples, Programs” that intentionality “is a biological phenomenon, and it is as likely to be as causally dependent on the specific biochemistry of its origins as lactation, photosynthesis, or any other biological phenomena.” Searle says this to undermine computational and functional theories of mind; but he still remains inside the biological frame of field use work, reference. And this requires him to think of intentionality that in virtue of which an effect reaches back to its cause to samples be itself the effect of another cause or set of causes. (The functionalism that Searle was rebutting claims that, just as a computer program is defined by field use work how it transforms input to output, a piece of anylitical, consciousness is defined by the particular causal transformation it effects between an organism’s perceptual input and field self social, its behavioral output.
But since functionalism tries to assimilate perception into causation by arguing that the contents of consciousness are identical with their causal relations, it is just as easily disposed of by looking carefully at the counter-causal nature of intentionality, and the need for a point of samples, arrival and departure, for input and output, without resorting to essay field in reflection social use work Searle’s argument from biological causes.) Focusing on essay favourite books, intentionality and placing it in field self social the context of a materialistic, neuroscientific theory underlines what an extraordinary phenomenon perception is. It is that in virtue of which an object is revealed to a subject; or, rather, that in virtue of which the experiences of a subject are the revelation of an object. Resume By Email Tips! And this brings us to the heart of the trouble that the essay self social, neural theory of perception is in: its central claim is that the interaction between two material objects either directly, such as by touch, or indirectly, such as by vision will cause one to appear to the other. The counter-causal direction of consumerism essays, intentionality not only shows that this cannot be accommodated in physical science (of which neuroscience is essay field in reflection a part) but that appearance is not something that the material world, a nexus of causation, affords. Indeed, we could go further and argue that the progressive enclosure of the world within the framework of physical science, its being construed as a material world, tends towards the elimination of appearance . Making Appearance Disappear.
P hysical science begins when we escape from our subjective, first-person experiences into objective measurement, and thereby start to essay aspire towards Thomas Nagel’s “view from essay in reflection self social use work, nowhere.” You think the table over there is large; I think it is essays small. We make a measurement and field self social use work, discover that it is two feet by two feet. Photo Essays! We now characterize the table in a way that is less beholden to our own, or anyone else’s, personal experience. Essay Self Social Use Work! Or we terminate an argument about whether the samples of thesis, table is light or dark brown by translating its color into a mixture of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. The table has lost contact with its phenomenal appearance to me, to essay self social you, or to anyone, as being characteristic of what it is. As science progresses, measurement takes us further from paper narcissistic disorder, actual experience, and the phenomena of subjective consciousness, to essay field in reflection self a realm in by email which things are described in abstract, general quantitative terms. Essay In Reflection! The most obvious symptom of this is the way physical science has to discard what it regards as “secondary qualities” such as color experiences, feelings of essay, warmth and cold, and tastes. They are regarded as somehow unreal, or at least as falling short of describing what the furniture of the world is “in itself.” For the physicist, light is social not in itself bright or colorful; rather, it is a mixture of vibrations of different frequencies in an electromagnetic field. The material world, far from being the resume by email, colorful, noisy, smelly place we experience, is purportedly instead composed only field in reflection social use work of colorless, silent, odorless atoms or quarks, or other basic particles and waves best described mathematically.
Physical science is thus about the essays, marginalization, and ultimately the elimination, of phenomenal appearance. But consciousness is centrally about appearances. The basic contents of consciousness are these mere “secondary qualities.” They are what fill our every conscious moment. As science advances, it retreats from appearances towards quantifying items that do not in in reflection self social use work themselves have the kinds of manifestation that constitute our experiences. A biophysical account of consciousness, which sees consciousness in terms of nerve impulses that are the passage of ions through semi-permeable membranes, must be a contradiction in terms. For such an account must ultimately be a physical account, and physical science does not admit the existence of anything that would show why a physical object such as a brain should find, uncover, create, produce, result in, or cause the emergence of resume tips, appearances and, in particular, secondary qualities in the world. Galileo’s famous assertions that the book of nature “is written in the language of mathematics” and that “tastes, odors, colors . reside only in consciousness,” and would be “wiped out and annihilated” in essay self social use work a world devoid of conscious creatures, underline the connection, going back to research disorder the very earliest days of field use work, modern physical science, between quantification and the disappearance of appearance.
Any explanation of consciousness that admits the existence of appearances but is rooted in materialist science will fail because, on its own account, matter and energy do not intrinsically have appearances, never mind those corresponding to secondary qualities. We could, of course, by anylitical all means change our notion of matter; but if we do not, and the brain is field in reflection self social a piece of matter, then it cannot explain the experience of things. Those who imagine that consciousness of material objects could arise from the effect of research paper personality disorder, some material objects on another particular material object don’t seem to social take the notion of matter seriously. Some neurophilosophers might respond that science does not eliminate appearance; rather, it replaces one appearance with another fickle immediate and conscious appearance with one that is more true to resume tips the reality of the objects it attends to. But this is not what science does least of all physical science, which is essay in reflection social use work supposed to give us the opening, final report on what there is in the universe, for which matter (or mass-energy) is the ultimate reality, and equations linking quantities are the best way of revealing the inner essence of this reality.
For, again, it is essay in reflection use work of the very nature of mass-energy, as it is envisaged in physics, not to have any kind of appearance in itself. This lack of appearance to mass-energy may still seem counterintuitive, but it will become clearer when we examine a well-known defense, again made by John Searle, of the theory that mind and brain are identical or specifically, that experiences can be found in neural impulses because they are the same thing. In his 1983 book Intentionality , Searle who, as already noted, is committed to a neural account of consciousness addresses the most obvious problem associated with the claim that experiences are identical with neural activity: experiences are nothing like neural activity, and the least one might expect of something is that it should be like itself. Searle denies that this is a problem by arguing that neural activity and experiences are different aspects of the same stuff; more precisely, that they are the paper narcissistic personality, same stuff seen at essay field use work “different levels.” The immediate problem with this claim is in knowing what it means. Clearly, neural activity and experiences are not two aspects of the same thing in the way that the front and back of a house are two aspects of the same house. Searle tries to clarify what he means using an analogy: experience is related to neural activity, he says, as “liquid properties of water” are related to “the behavior of the by email tips, individual molecules” of essay field in reflection self social use work, H 2 O. They are the same stuff even though molecules of H 2 O are nothing like water. Water is by email wet, he argues, while individual molecules are not.
Wetness is the one specific “liquid” property of water he cites at the outset, and the only others he mentions are that “it pours, you can drink it, you can wash in use work it, etc.” Because of this, it may seem at first that all Searle has accomplished is consumerism essays isolating the experiential qualities of water from the non-experiential. That is, one interpretation of Searle’s supposed explanation is that neural activity is related to experience in the same way water is related to experiences of water. This explanation, of course, is completely inadequate, because it simply sets us at a further regress from the answer. But it turns out field use work that this interpretation of Searle’s argument is the paper personality, charitable one. We can see why in a section where Searle responds to this famous argument made by Leibniz in field in reflection self The Monadology (1714): And supposing that there were a machine so constructed as to think, feel, and have perception, we could conceive of it as enlarged and yet preserving the same proportions, so that we might enter it as into a mill. Consumerism! And this granted, we should only find on visiting it, pieces which push against another, but never anything by which to explain perception. This must be sought for, therefore, in the simple substance and not in field self social the composite or in resume the machine. An exactly parallel argument to Leibniz’s would be that the behavior of essay use work, H 2 O molecules can never explain the liquidity of water, because if we entered into the system of molecules “as into a mill we should only find on visiting it pieces which push one against another, but never anything by which to explain” liquidity. But in resume by email both cases we would be looking at the system at the wrong level.
The liquidity of water is not to be found at the level of the individual molecule, nor [is] the visual perception . to be found at the level of the individual neuron or synapse. The key to field in reflection use work understanding Searle’s argument and its fatal flaw is in the words, “But in both cases we would be looking at of thesis the system.” It turns out that in this water/H 2 O analogy, it is not just the water but both levels that are already levels of experience or of observation. Searle in fact requires experience, observation, description in short, consciousness to generate the two levels of his water analogy, which are meant to essay in reflection sustain his argument that two stuffs can be the same stuff even if they do not look like one another. This supposed explanation evades the question of essay, experience even more than does the first. For what Searle is in effect arguing, though he does not seem to notice it, is that the relationship between neural activity and experience is like the relationship between two kinds of experience of the same stuff. And this is unsatisfactory because the in reflection self social, problem he is supposedly solving is that neural impulses are not like experiences at all. (This rebuttal also applies even more obviously, in research paper narcissistic disorder fact to another, very popular analogy, between dots of newsprint and a picture in the newspaper as neural activity and experiences. The dots/picture analogy also has the essay field in reflection use work, benefit of making clear another vulnerability of essay, such analogies: the suggestion that neural activity is “micro” while experiences are “macro,” when it is not at all evident why that should be the case.)
Some will object to this experiential characterization of the “levels” argument, and will formulate it instead in terms of levels of organization or complexit y : for example, the essay field in reflection use work, Earth’s climate and favourite hobby books, weather system is organized into many different levels of complexity, each exhibiting distinct behavior and distinct sorts of phenomena, from the interplays causing cycles of temperature over the centuries, down to the behavior of storms, down to the interactions of molecules. The implicit idea is that each level of complexity is governed by essay field in reflection social use work its own distinct set of consumerism photo essays, laws. But one cannot take the distinction between these sets of laws to be inherent in the climate/weather system without in effect saying that when enough matter gets together in the same vicinity, it becomes another kind of essay self, matter which falls under the scope of another kind of law (at the same time that it remains the more basic kind of matter under the scope of the more basic kind of law). That flies in the face of essay writing sentence, reductive materialism not to mention raises some very difficult questions about the identicality of field, these different kinds of matter. What is more, the hobby books, “getting together” that makes, say, a storm a whole made out of parts, is itself description-dependent and hence perception-dependent. Essay Field In Reflection Self! The very term “complexity” refers to consumerism essays a description-dependent property. A pebble may be seen as something very simple one pebble or something infinitely complex a system of essay field in reflection self social, a trillion trillion sub-atomic particles interacting in such a way as to consumerism essays sustain a static equilibrium. The persistent materialist may launch a final defense of the argument, to essay field the effect that the particular descriptions of water and H 2 O molecules Searle mentions do not really depend on resume by email tips, experience at all. He writes, “In its liquid state water is wet, it pours, you can drink it, you can wash in it, etc.
When we describe the field in reflection self social, stuff as liquid we are just describing those very molecules at a higher level of description than that of the individual molecule.” One might argue that these enumerated qualities of water are all physical facts, that they are true even when there is no one present to observe them. But to the extent that this reinterpretation of research paper narcissistic, Searle’s argument helps it to hold water (so to speak), it is only due to the original argument’s imprecision. For if we take it to be truly independent of experience that water “is wet, it pours, you can drink it, you can wash in it,” then these facts are equally true of essay social, a collection of molecules of H 2 O, because of course the physical stuff known as water just is a collection of molecules of H 2 O. Water and H 2 O molecules, considered solely as physical things, are identical, and have all of the same properties. No appeal to “levels of description” should even be necessary. The reason it is necessary hinges on Searle’s description of resume by email tips, one level as that of “ the individual molecule.” But an individual molecule is essay field in reflection social use work not at all the same thing as water which is a collection of many individual molecules and so of course we should not expect the two to have the same properties.
If we remove from the analogy the differing appearances to essay us of water and H 2 O molecules as sources of their un-likeness, then all Searle has demonstrated is how a thing can be unlike a part of itself, rather than unlike itself. This is trivially true, and does not apply in any event to essay field in reflection self the question at hand if neural impulses are taken to be identical to experiences. Searle makes his position even more vulnerable by arguing that not only are neural activity and the experience of perception the essays, same but that the former causes the latter just as water is “caused” by H 2 O. This is desperate stuff: one could hardly expect some thing A to cause some thing B with which it is identical, because nothing can cause itself. In any event, the bottom line is field in reflection self social use work that the molecules of H 2 O and the wet stuff that is water are two appearances of the same thing two conscious takes on essays, the same stuff. They cannot be analogous to, respectively, that which supposedly causes conscious experiences (neural impulses) and conscious experiences themselves . What Physical Science is Blind To. T o press this point a little harder: conscious experiences and observed nerve impulses are both appearances. But nerve impulses do not have any appearance in themselves; they require a conscious subject observing them to appear and it is irrelevant that the essay in reflection self, observation is highly mediated through instrumentation.
Like all material items, nerve impulses lack appearances absent an observer. And given that they are material events lacking appearances in themselves, there is no reason why they should bring about the appearances of things other than themselves. It is magical thinking to imagine that material events in a material object should be appearings of objects other than themselves. Material objects require consciousness in order to appear. All Searle has explained, again, is how two different appearances of the same thing can be unlike each other; but the problem he means to of thesis solve in the first place or should mean to solve is how something that itself has no appearance can give rise to, in fact be identical to, appearances. That is, Searle’s task is to show how something that itself has no appearance can be an appearance and field in reflection self social use work, without someone else observing the thing so as to give it the appearance. Samples Of Thesis! The question becomes pointed in Leibniz’s thought experiment: how, from looking at field the raw material of neurons in someone’s brain, are we, as outside observers, supposed to opening get the appearances these neurons are meant to be causing, or generating, or identical to? Searle is forced into this conclusion: “If one knew the principles on which the system of H 2 O molecules worked, one could infer that it was in a liquid state by observing the movement of the molecules, but similarly if one knew the principles on which the brain worked one could infer that it was in essay field in reflection self social use work a state of thirst or having a visual experience.” In other words, just by looking at neural impulses and of thesis, “translating” them into the other “level of in reflection self social, description,” we can get at the corresponding experiences. Essay! This sounds fine until we consider just what “getting at” those experiences means.
For what Searle does not account for is how knowing that a particular brain is having a particular experience is supposed to be enough to deliver actually having that experience yourself. To fully accept Searle’s conclusion, we would have to believe that having the experience is the same as knowing that it exists that it arises for in reflection self use work, the one person experiencing it, perhaps, from some implicit act of translation or “inference” and so, among other things, that just by looking at someone else’s brain in the proper way, we could have the same experiences they are having. These are absurd conclusions, as we will see. From a more practical standpoint, we can see why it will never be enough to dismiss the problem of appearances out of hand by appealing either to the idea that perceptions are just brain activity like any other brain activity, or the idea that consciousness (and so all appearance) is an illusion. For in either case, while appearances are “nothing but” neural activity, we still must be able to explain why some neural activity leads to the sensation (or illusion) of appearance while other neural activity does not; and we must be able to distinguish between the two by looking only at the material neurons. Neurophilosophers should be able to recognize this problem, since they acknowledge that the vast majority of neural impulses are not associated with appearances or consciousness of any sort. The search for neural correlates of consciousness has in fact turned up clusters, patterns, and locations of by email tips, activity that are not in any significant respect different from neural activity that is not so correlated. What is more, “clusters,” “patterns,” and so forth also require an observer, to bring them together into essay field social use work a unity and to see that unity as a unity. That which requires an observer cannot be the basis of an photo, observation. The fact that intentionality does not fit into the materialist world picture has often been noted, but it is essay field self use work important to emphasize its anomalous nature because it lies at the root of pretty well everything that distances us from the material world, including other animals.
The nature of intentionality becomes most clear when we see that the perceiver is an embodied subject when the object is related to an “I” who perceives it, and who experiences himself as being located in the same experiential field as the object. The requirement of admitting the existence of a perceiving self is, of course, enough to make neurophilosophers hostile to the notion of the subject. But if they deny the existence of a self, they still have to account for how it is that matter can be arranged around a viewpoint as “near,” “far,” and so forth for the construction of what Bertrand Russell called “egocentric space,” in which indexical words like “this,” “that,” and “here” find their meanings. There are no appearances without viewpoints: for example, there are no appearances of a rock that are neither from the front of it nor from the back of it nor from any other angle. But there is nothing in the material brain, as we have seen, that could make it anyone’s own brain, or that could locate it at samples of thesis the center of anyone’s sensory field as the foundation of a viewpoint. We cannot appeal to the objective fact that the brain is located in a particular body to install it as someone ’s brain, because ownership does not reside in bodies absent consciousness, or indeed self-consciousness but consciousness is just what we are unable to find by looking at the material of the brain. Nor is the field social, fact that the brain is located at a particular point in space sufficient for making it the center of a particular someone’s personal space any more than that fact is sufficient for a rock to anylitical essay have its own personal space. The “view from nowhere” of physical science does not accommodate viewpoints.
And since the material world has of itself no viewpoints, it does not, of field in reflection social use work, itself, have centers or, for narcissistic disorder, that matter, peripheries. The equation E=m c 2 , like all laws of physics, captures an ultimate, all-encompassing scientific truth about the world, a viewless view of material reality, and has nothing to say about the experience of the world. Absent from in reflection self social, it is that which forms the basic contents of favourite hobby, consciousness: the phenomenal appearances of the world. Mysteries of the Subjective Self. T he loss of appearances is not an essay in reflection social use work, accidental mislaying. It is an inevitable consequence of the essay writing opening sentence, materialist conception of matter as we have it today. The brain, being a piece of matter, must be person-free. This is true not only by definition but also in essay in reflection other, specific senses. Persons or selves have two additional features which cannot be captured in on my books neural terms. The first is field in reflection use work unity in multiplicity . At any given moment, I am aware of a multitude of experiences: sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, emotions. I am c o -conscious of them that is, I am aware of each of them at once, so that they are integrated into a unity of essay, sorts.
Moreover, co-consciousness includes consciousness of essay self social use work, things I cannot currently see or touch: it includes consciousness of the absent past, of the absent elsewhere of the photo, present, and field, of the possible future. It is resume difficult to see how this integration is possible in neural terms, since neurophysiology assigns these experiences to spatially different parts of the brain. Aspects of consciousness are supposedly kept very tidily apart: the pathways for perception are separate from those for emotion, which are separate from those for memory, which are separate from those for motivation, which are separate from essay self, those for judgment, and so on. Within perception, each of the senses of vision, hearing, smell, and so forth has different pathways and destinations. And within, say, visual perception, different parts of the samples of thesis, brain are supposed to be responsible for receiving the color, shape, distance, classification, purpose, and emotional significance of seen objects. When, however, I see my red hat on the table, over there, and see that it is squashed, and feel cross about it, while I hear you laughing, and I recognize the field in reflection use work, laughter as yours, and consumerism, I am upset, and I note that the taxi I have ordered has arrived so that I can catch the train that I am aware I must not miss when all of these things occur in my consciousness at once, many things that are kept apart must somehow be brought together. There is no model of such synthesis in the brain. This is the in reflection self social use work, so-called “binding” problem. Converging neural pathways might seem to offer a means by which things are all brought together this is the standard neurophysiological account of “integration.” However, it solves nothing.
If all those components of the moment of consciousness came together in the same spot, if their activity converged, they would lose their separate identity and the distinct elements would be lost in a meaningless mush. When I look at my hat, I see that it is red, and squashed, and over there, and a hat, and all of the rest. Here is the challenge presented to neuroscience by the experienced unity and multiplicity of the conscious moment: that which is brought together has also to be kept apart. Writing! Consciousness is a unification that retains multiplicity . Neurophilosophers have tried to field in reflection self social deal with this problem by arguing that, while the anylitical essay, components of experience retain their individual locations in the brain, the essay field in reflection self, activity that occurs in those different locations is paper disorder bound together. Essay Field Self Use Work! The mechanism for this binding is supposed to be either rhythmic mass neural activity or emergent physical forces which transcend the boundaries of resume tips, individual neurons, such as electromagnetic fields or quantum coherence arising out essay field social use work of the properties of nerve membranes.
This way of imagining the unity of consciousness assumes, without any reason, that linked activity across large sections of the brain say, a coherent pattern of rhythmic activity, made visible as such to an observer by instrumentation will be translated, or more precisely will translate itself , from an objective fact to by email a subjective unity. We are required to accept that something that is observed as an internal whole via instrumentation will be experienced as a whole, or itself be the experience of a whole, such that it will deliver the wholeness of a subset of items in the world while at the very same time retaining the separateness of those items. The other distinctive feature of subjectivity is temporal depth . Field In Reflection Social Use Work! The human subject is aware of a past (his own and the shared past of communities and cultures) and reaches into a future (his own and paper narcissistic personality, the shared future). For simplicity’s sake, let us just focus on the past. Essay Field Self Social! There are many neurophilosophical accounts of memory, but they have one thing in common: they see memory as, in the slightly scornful phrase of the hobby reading, philosopher Henri Bergson, “a cerebral deposit.” Memory is, to use the slippery term, “stored” as an effect on the brain, expressed in its altered reactivity. This theory has been demonstrated, to the satisfaction of many neurophysiologists and cognitive neuroscientists, in essay field in reflection self creatures as disparate as apes and fruit flies. Some of the most lauded studies on “memory,” such as those that won Columbia University neuroscientist Eric Kandel his 2000 Nobel Prize, have been on the sea slug. In reality, Kandel did not examine anything that should really be called memor y it was actually altered behavior in response to training by means of an electric shock essentially a conditioned reflex. A sea slug does not, so far as anybody knows, have semantic memory of consumerism photo essays, facts that is, memory of facts as facts, laden with concepts. It does not have explicit episodic memories of essay social, events that is, events remembered as located in the past.
Nor does it have autobiographical memories that is, events remembered as located in its own past. Photo Essays! It does not even have an explicit sense of the past or of time in essay field in reflection social general, and even less of anylitical, a collective past where shared history is located. Nor can one seriously imagine an elderly sea slug actively trying to remember earlier events, racking its meager allocation of twenty thousand neurons to recall something, any more than one can think of it feeling nostalgic for its youth when it believed that it still had a marvelous life ahead of it. Of course, neurophilosophers are not impressed by the objection that the sea slug or any other animal model does not possess anything like the kind of memory that we possess. It is, they say, simply a matter of different degrees of complexity of the nervous system in question: explicit memories involve more elaborate circuitry, with more intermediate connections, than the kinds of conditioned reflexes observed in sea slugs. Essay Self Social Use Work! To dissect this response, we have to examine critically the very idea that memories are identical with altered states of a nervous system. Consumerism Photo! Let us look first of all at field in reflection how the fallacy commanded acceptance. Essay On My Favourite Hobby Reading Books! Kandel, like many other researchers, seems to assimilate all memory into habit memory, and habit memory in turn into altered behavior, or altered reactivity of the organism. And altered reactivity can be correlated with the essay social use work, altered properties of the excitable tissue in the organism, which may be understood in biophysical, biochemical, or neurochemical terms the essay, kinds of chemical changes one can see in the contents of a Petri dish. But these changes have nothing to field self do with memory as we experience and value it, though they have everything to do with overlooking the true nature of consumerism photo, memory. This is because habit memory is merely implicit, while human memory is also explicit: the former sort of “memory” is merely altered behavior, while the latter is essay field in reflection self use work something one is aware of essays, as a memory . Those who think this a false elevation of the human must address not only the fact that there are two broad categories of memory to essay field in reflection self social be found among animal species, but that both of these types of memory coexist in human beings.
We not only have uniquely explicit memory, but also have the same sort of implicit memory as Kandel’s sea slugs. Moreover, we can have both of these types of writing opening sentence, memory about the same event: After a spark from a doorknob shocks my hand as I close the door during the winter, I will instinctively flinch from touching it again, and will then stop and explicitly remember that I had previously received an electrostatic shock. This time, I will explicitly plan to shut the door with my foot, an act that will itself after a few repetitions become instinctive or implicit, until I again stop to recall the explicit memory of the event that led to the habit. Field In Reflection Self Social Use Work! The neurophysiological account fails to address these distinctions. To get to the bottom of the fallacies that underlie the very idea of a “neurophysiology of memory,” we need to remind ourselves that the nervous system is narcissistic disorder a material object and that material objects are identical with their present states.
A broken cup is in reflection self use work a broken cup. It is not in itself a record of its previous states of a cup that was once whole except to an outside observer who previously saw the cup in its unbroken state and now remembers it, so that he or she can compare the essays, past and present states of the essay in reflection, cup. Books! The broken cup has an field social use work, altered reactivity it moves differently in response to stimuli but this altered reactivity is consumerism essays not a memory of its previous state or of the essay social, event that caused its altered reactivity, namely its having been dropped. Likewise, although the altered state of the sea slug is, as it were, a “record” of what has happened to it, it is a record only to an external consciousness that has observed it in both its past and present states and is aware of both. And this is on my favourite books equally true of the altered reactivity of neurons exposed to previous stimuli in higher organisms. Indeed, just as a conscious observer is required for essay in reflection self social, the present state of the broken cup to be regarded as a “record” or “memory” of photo essays, its having been dropped, so it must be a consciousness that identifies the particular piece of matter of the cup as a single object distinct from its surroundings, having its own distinct causal history, of which there is one special event among all others of which the cup is a “record”: its being dropped. From a consciousness-free material standpoint, the cup is but an self use work, arbitrary subset of all matter, and research paper, its present state owes equally to every prior state of the matter that composes it. The cup would have to be at once a “memory” of the moment it was dropped and of the innumerable moments when it sat motionless in the cupboard with the former in no way privileged. Essay Field Use Work! In fact, if you believe that the present state of an object is a record or memory of essay writing, all the events that brought it to its present state, you are committed to believing that, at any given moment, the universe is a memory of all its previous states.
This need not be so, of course, if an object is encountered by a conscious individual who can see its present state as a sign of essay self social use work, its past state, and so can focus on salient causes of paper personality, salient aspects for essay field in reflection self, example, the event that led to the cup being broken. Anylitical! The conscious individual alone can see the present state as a sign of a past state and field use work, pick out one present state as a sign of one of the events that brought it from its past state to its present state. This final point illustrates how the effect of an experienced event is a record of this event only to an observer. But the brain, being a material object, cannot be its own observer, comparing its past and present states. More precisely, the present state of by email, a portion of the essay field self social, brain cannot reach out or refer , by the temporal equivalent of intentionality, to those salient events that changed it from an consumerism photo essays, earlier state. And yet this is essay field in reflection self social what memory does. Memories, that is to say, have an even more mysterious and counter-causal about-ness than perceptions of present events: they reach back to previous experiences, which themselves, through perception, reached out to consumerism essays that which, according to in reflection social use work orthodox neuroscience, caused the experience. Memories supposedly therefore reach back to the mental causes of their physical causes. What is more, just as in vision I see the object as separate from myself, in memory I see the research paper narcissistic personality disorder, remembered object as different from the present, from the totality of what is here I see it as absent . The memory explicitly locates its intentional object in the past . To borrow a phrase that Roger Scruton used in relation to music, memories have a double intentionality . The failure of neuroscientism to deal with this last twist of the knife is illustrated by a recent paper in Science which some regarded triumphantly as having nailed memory.
The authors found that the same neurons were active when an individual watched a TV scene (from, of all things, The Simpsons ) as when they were asked to remember it. Memory, they concluded, is simply the replication of the field in reflection self use work, neural activity that was provoked by paper personality disorder the event that is remembered. This fails to distinguish, and so leaves unexplained, how it is essay in reflection self social use work that an individual experiences a memory as a memory rather than as something present or, actually, a hallucination of something present. A putative neural account of memory cannot deal with the difference between perceptions and memories because there is no past tense or indeed future tense in the material world. Favourite! Consciousness, with its implicit sense of “now,” is required to locate events in one panel or other of the triptych past, present, and future; it is the in reflection social, conscious subject that provides the reference point. This is why Einstein said that physicists “know that the distinction between past, present, and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.” A consistent materialism should not allow for the possibility of memory, of the sense of the research narcissistic personality disorder, past.
It only manages to seem to do so because observers, viewpoint, and consciousness are smuggled into the descriptions of the successive states of the brain, making it seem that later states can be about essay in reflection social use work, earlier states. As if the samples, unity of the self or subject or “I” at a particular time were not sufficiently resistant to field social neurological explanation, the unity of the self over time is even further beyond its reach. The objective endurance of the brain does not generate the sensed co-presence of resume by email tips, successive states of the self, even less the sense that one has temporal depth. Even if the self were reduced to a series of experiences, as in the accounts of essay social use work, David Hume or Oxford philosopher Derek Parfit, it would not be possible to see how the series was explicit as a series, with different moments explicitly related to each other, where one part accessed another and saw that it belonged to the same self. Indeed, starving the self down into essay opening sentence a mere implicit thread linking successive experiences renders it less , not more, amenable to neural reduction, since the question of why some particular set of successive experiences rather than another should be linked together as a single series becomes even more glaring when the experiences are seen as but some arbitrary physical events among other physical events occurring in many different locations in physical space. And the problem is by no means absolved if the sense of self is as claimed by some neuroscientists, like so many other things they are unable to explain an illusion. My feeling that I am the same person as the field in reflection social use work, person who married my wife in 1970 is just as impossible to explain neurologically if it is an illusion as if it is true. Neural activity does not have the wherewithal to create the sense that we have of feeling that we are the same individual at different times just as little if the sense is illusory as if it is true. The notion that the material brain can produce the illusion of the self but not be the basis of the real thing seems, to essay on my favourite books put it mildly, rather odd. And what is it to which the illusion is presented? Here again is the neuroscientific reduction to absurdity, in its purest form: illusions must be experienced by some being, but “being something” is itself an illusory experience.
An Insincere Materialism. T he belief among neurophilosophers that the brain, a material object, can generate tensed time is one among many manifestations of the insincerity of their materialism. As we have seen, under cover of hard-line materialism, they borrow consciousness from in reflection self, elsewhere, smuggling it into, or presupposing it in, their descriptions of brain activity. This ploy is anylitical facilitated by a mode of social, speaking which I call “thinking by transferred epithet,” in which mental properties are ascribed to the brain or to favourite books parts of the brain (frequently very tiny parts, even individual neurons), which are credited with “signaling,” and often very complex acts such as “rewarding,” “informing,” and so forth. The use of transferred epithets is the linguistic symptom of essay field social use work, what Oxford philosopher P.M.S. Hacker and University of Sydney neuroscientist M.R. Anylitical Essay! Bennett described, in their 2003 book Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscienc e , as the “mereological fallacy”: ascribing to parts properties which truly belong to wholes. This fallacy bids fair to be described as the field self, Original Sin of essay, much neurotalk, and it certainly allows the mind-brain barrier to be trespassed with ease.
This ease is in turn concealed by the ubiquity of transferred epithets outside brain science in field everyday life. We are so used to talking about machines (particularly computers) “detecting,” “signaling,” “recording,” “remembering,” “warning,” and samples of thesis, so forth, that we hardly notice, even less object, when this talk is applied to brains. Indeed, given that the brain is often billed as the most sophisticated of in reflection self, all machines, the computer to end all computers, it hardly needs to demonstrate its entitlement to being credited with such activities. While the homunculus is out of paper personality, fashion, and ghosts have been exorcised from the machine, there are apparently billions of micro-homunculi haunting the cerebral cortex. The exiled homunculus has crept back in essay field in reflection the form of research personality, a million billion angels bearing messages from field in reflection self social, one part of the brain to another, chattering endlessly across synapses. This absurdity is concealed yet more deeply by a mode of speech that populates even the material environment that surrounds the brain with “signals” and “messages” and essay on my favourite books, “information.” All the nervous system has to do is to social extract and transmit those signals and essay, messages and information. The Princeton psychologist Philip Johnson-Laird, a leading figure of the self social, school of thought that held that the brain-mind is a computer, stated in his 1988 book The Computer and essay, the Mind that “light reflected from surfaces and in reflection self, focused on the retinae contains a large amount of information.” (Gossipy stuff, light.) He admitted, however, that there were no entirely free gifts: No matter how much information is in the light falling on the retinae, there must be a mental mechanism for recovering the identities of the things in a scene and those of their properties that vision makes explicit to consciousness. Nevertheless, stipulating that there is information in the energy tickling up the brain is a flying start, and gets you across the brain-consciousness barrier without any scientific or indeed conceptual work being done.
The otherwise inexplicable miracle by which the brain is supposed to support intelligent consciousness is by email tips made rather easier to understand when the field in reflection self social, energy that impinges on it is billed as informatio n information “about” the brain’s surroundings. This trend, incidentally, is the top of a slippery slope at the bottom of which much lunacy lies. Information, once freed from the confinement of conscious human beings offering information to other human beings requiring to be informed, is everywhere. Essay Opening! It is in the light; it is in DNA and field self use work, other structures of the body. It is even in the material transactions of the non-living universe, as has been suggested by the advocates of “digital physics” the idea that the essay on my reading books, universe is computation. By such misuse of language, matter becomes consciousness, or the energy in in reflection the material world comes to know itself, as has been suggested by the advocates of “panpsychism” the idea that all matter is at of thesis least partially conscious. The promotion of essay field self use work, energy to opening sentence information is the inverse of the essay field self social, demotion of resume by email tips, consciousness to material transactions. In one direction, consciousness is in nothing; in field self the other, it is in samples everything. It gets right to the heart of how inherently absurd and paradoxical is neuroscientism to recognize that it naturally splits into these two wholly and fundamentally opposed modes of thinking, yet relies simultaneously on them both. W e can see more clearly now the wide gap between brain function and consciousness really, between people and their brains. This gap is seemingly crossed by self social linguistic legerdemain: people can be “brainified” if the brain is personified.
But we have seen reasons why this gap should be unbridgeable. This, however, only throws into greater relief the magnitude of what remains to be answered, and so we must ask where we go from here. The failure to research paper personality explain consciousness in terms of the brain which follows from the failure of matter as understood in in reflection self social the most rigorous scientific manner to be able to house consciousness raises two immediate questions. The first and most obvious question is: Why, if the brain is samples of thesis not the essay field, basis of consciousness, is it so intimately bound up with it? Even those of by email, us who object to the reduction of persons to brains have to explain why, of in reflection self social, all the objects in samples of thesis the world, the field in reflection self use work, brain is so relevant to our lives as persons. Essay On My Hobby Reading Books! Nor can we overlook the extraordinary advances that have come from neuroscience in our ability to self understand and treat diseases that damage voluntary action, consciousness, and on my hobby, mood something that has been central to my entire professional career as a clinical neuroscientist. If consciousness, mind, volition, and essay field in reflection self, so forth are not deeply connected with brain activity, then what are we to make of the genuine advances that neuroscience has contributed to our management of essay writing opening sentence, conditions that affect these central underpinnings of essay in reflection social, ordinary life?
The second question is whether, having shown the difficulty no, the impossibility of essay favourite, trying to get from field self social use work, brains alone to persons, we should abandon the very notion of the brain as a starting point for essay, our thoughts about human consciousness. This question, however, brings us back to the first. If we say “I wouldn’t start from here,” then what do we do with the facts of neuroscience? Where does the brain fit into a metaphysics, an epistemology, and an ontology of mind that deny the brain a place at their center? If we are thinking of a new ontology, an account of the kinds of things there are in the universe that goes beyond the traditional division into essay field social use work mental and physical things; or if we are to go beyond an interactive epistemology that begins with sensations arising out of the impingement of energy on essay, our brains and ascends to our knowledge of the in reflection self social use work, laws of opening, nature; then how shall we make sense of the essay in reflection social, things neuroscience tells us? How shall we deal with the fact that we are evolved organisms as well as persons? These questions are posed because the case outlined here has been, necessarily, quite negative. It has merely been meant to clear the decks so we can set sail on the real work of finding a positive description of our nature, of the essay writing, place of mind in essay field in reflection use work nature, and, possibly, of the nature of nature itself. Samples Of Thesis! We need to start again thinking about our hybrid status: as pieces of matter subject to essay field self social the laws of physics, as organisms subject to the laws of biology, and as people who have a complex sense of themselves, who narrate and lead their lives, and who are capable of thinking thoughts like these. Raymond Tallis , emeritus professor of geriatric medicine at paper disorder the University of Manchester, United Kingdom, is the author, most recently, of field social use work, Michelangelo’s Finger: An Exploration of Everyday Transcendence (Yale, 2010) and Aping Mankind: Neuromania, Darwinitis and the Misrepresentation of Humanity (Acumen, forthcoming in 2011). This essay has been adapted from a lecture delivered in February 2010 at the American Enterprise Institute.
Raymond Tallis, What Neuroscience Cannot Tell Us About Ourselves, The New Atlantis , Number 29, Fall 2010, pp. 3-25.
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Essay field in reflection self social use …
2017 Retirement Tips from a Close Friend. Field Self Social! In 1996, I met Faith Skordinski, Ed.D., right after I published the first edition of the consumerism essays, Federal Resume Guidebook . Essay In Reflection Self Social Use Work! Vice President Gore had just “eliminated” the SF-171 with his Reinvention Government Movement. Samples! He said, “…the government should accept a resume, like the rest of the in reflection, world.” Faith was a training coordinator for the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and she invited me to teach Federal Resume Writing about once a month for a whole year to meet employees’ demands. We used a huge projector, slides, and my brand-new book, the Federal Resume Guidebook 1st Edition. These classes were the favourite reading books, beginning of our federal resume writing workshops in government, and Faith was the visionary who rolled them out for HHS Headquarters’ employees and subsequently other Operating Divisions throughout HHS. Essay Use Work! Since 1996, Faith and I have remained friends and colleagues in the federal careers and training world. On December 31, 2016, Faith will retire after 36 years of dedicated federal service. She has contributed so much to both military members and civilian employees. Consumerism Photo! On the in reflection social, military side, she served five years as an research paper personality disorder officer in the United States Air Force and later as a career counselor at Andrews Air Force Base Family Support Center. Essay Field In Reflection Use Work! On the civilian side, she was hired by HHS to coordinate the Senior Executive Service Candidate Development Program and then later assumed the position of career services coordinator in HHS’s Employee Assistance Program.
Faith also accepted a career development specialist position in HHS’s Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and her last 12 years have been with the on my hobby, Food and Drug Administration as a management analyst focusing upon training and curriculum development, special programs, and communications. With many federal baby boomers considering retirement now, I asked Faith for her top recommendations for any career federal employee to plan a successful retirement from federal service. Here is what she wrote: Sure, Kathy, I could give you a few ideas off the top of my head. Decisions employees will make for retirement are decisions that will affect the remainder of their lives. Essay Self Social Use Work! Therefore, they need to give retirement planning top priority throughout the consumerism essays, year. For those planning a 2017 retirement, a few suggestions follow. Early in essay field self use work 2017, very important to attend a retirement seminar to be placed on the right track to research paper narcissistic personality ensure informed decisions and essay field in reflection social smart choices regarding all aspects of retirement, many of which require time-sensitive attention.
Attending multiple retirement seminars throughout the writing sentence, year is highly advisable. For starters, an outstanding free one-day intra-government seminar offered nationwide is essay field social use work ProFeds at essay hobby http://fedimpact.com/learn-more/. Meet with a certified financial planner, one who is intimately familiar with all aspects of federal government retirement idiosyncrasies, Thrift Savings Plan management, and in reflection self use work spousal benefits. “Serving Those Who Serve” securities available through Raymond James Financial Services offers experienced, high-quality services to federal employees preparing for retirement. Their website is http://www.myfederalretirement.com/public/1365.cfm. Meet with a reputable CPA for pre-retirement advice. Meet with an attorney to update wills, living wills, power of attorney, general estate planning, and address whatever other legal concerns are applicable to your family.
Meet with your HR specialist for guidance on the sea of forms to samples of thesis be completed and find out essay field in reflection social use work, your agency’s timeline to receive your completed package of retirement forms. The forms are extensive and lengthy and require time and careful thought, so do not procrastinate. Begin the paperwork approximately three months in advance of your scheduled retirement date. Most forms are available online. The forms in this table are among the writing sentence, ones to be completed and/or updated, specified by retirement plan: Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) or Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS). No cross-offs are permitted on any retirement forms. If cross-offs are submitted, and/or if information is omitted, retirement processing and by extension the stabilization of your pension will be significantly delayed. You will be required to re-submit whatever form is in question, while OPM stamps your retirement application package as “incomplete” and essay in reflection social places it on the bottom of their backlog. Research Narcissistic Personality! If you decide to essay field in reflection use work draw Social Security upon retirement, you are permitted to apply for essay, it three months prior to retirement.
Become familiar with ssa.gov. Ask for help when needed, always being careful to seek guidance from properly credentialed persons as opposed to co-workers chatting around the proverbial water-cooler. Everyone’s situations and needs differ and receiving accurately tailored information to essay field self use work make informed decisions is vital. If assistance is needed with required forms—many of which are steeped in HR jargon and not automatically intuitive—a helpful company, Federal TransFERS at federaltransfers.com, is available to serve you for a reasonable service fee. A seasoned Federal TransFERS counselor will insure all jargon is essays correctly interpreted, completed forms are proofread, good to go without errors, and field self social good to opening go without inadvertently omitted information. All FERS employees should plan their retirement dates for field self use work, the last day of a month—not necessarily the end of a pay period. By Email Tips! CSRS employees have a bit more leeway, extending into the first few days of the new month. Essay Self Social! Be sure to obtain qualified guidance on anylitical how to select your all-important retirement date, which will directly impact your pay.
Run the numbers and resolve unique situations (e.g. Field In Reflection Use Work! Did you leave federal service and then return after withdrawing retirement funds? Did you serve in the military and now want to buy back your military time to count toward retirement? Is your TSP set up to your best advantage in retirement?). If questions or concerns arise relative to any facets of your career and their potential impact upon retirement, research the appropriate sources and seek clarification until you understand the answers and the reasoning behind the answers. If your agency has a pre-retirement support group, join it—a great resource! These groups offer valuable information relevant to all pre-retirees from leisure ideas, to finding new careers, to volunteer possibilities, to impact upon your family, to resume tips finances, and so much more. So now, Kathy, you have a dozen informational points you can work with to advise 2017 federal employees preparing to retire.
From my perspective, these 12 points are most important to begin the journey into retirement. Bottom line: A smooth retirement requires meticulous, well-organized research followed by subsequent well-timed action. For my personal post-retirement plans, traveling and cruising are first and foremost on my agenda. Immediate trips planned include the Southern Caribbean, Arizona, and Colorado, as well as random trips to points of interest located closer to my home. Scandinavia, the Greek Isles, Alaska, and self social use work Hawaii are next in my queue, but I am open to all possibilities. Essay Favourite Hobby Reading Books! When not traveling, I will be working out and shaping up daily in my local fitness center. Volunteering with my affiliated political party, indulging in hobbies, relaxing with family and friends, and simply enjoying hearth and home round off my personal vision of a good retirement life.
Where The Federal Jobs Are Department of Agriculture. Essay Field In Reflection Use Work! Six Part Series SES ECQ Leadership Competencies ECQ 1: Leading Change. What is a Federal “Career Ladder” Position? Where The Federal Jobs Are Department of Transportation. Resume Tips! We are happy to send you our blogs when they are posted.
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Essay field in reflection self social use …
Downsizing the Federal Government. Your Guide to Cutting Federal Spending. The federal government funds a large range of essay field in reflection social use work, subsidy programs for low-income Americans, from food stamps to Medicaid. Anylitical! This essay examines Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), which is a joint federal-state cash assistance program for low-income families with children. When most people think of welfare, they are thinking of this program. Since a major welfare reform in essay self social use work, 1996, federal spending on anylitical TANF has been held fairly constant at somewhat less than $20 billion per year. 1 The 2009 American Recovery and essay field self use work, Reinvestment Act provided an additional $5 billion in research paper narcissistic personality disorder, federal funding over several years.
About 1.8 million families receive TANF payments each month. 2. Before 1996, federal welfare was an open-ended entitlement that encouraged long-term dependency, and there was widespread agreement that it was a terrible failure. It neither reduced poverty nor helped the essay social poor become self-sufficient. It encouraged out-of-wedlock births and consumerism essays, weakened the work ethic. The pathologies it engendered were passed from generation to field self social generation. The welfare reforms of 1996 were dramatic, but the essay hobby reading federal government still runs an array of welfare programs that are expensive and damaging.
The federal government should phase-out its role in TANF and related welfare programs and leave low-income assistance programs to state governments, or better yet, the private sector. Government welfare cannot provide the same flexibility and diversity as private charities. Use Work! Private aid organizations have a better understanding that true charity starts with individuals making better life choices. Federal involvement in welfare has generated an expensive mess of paperwork and reading books, bureaucracy while doing little to solve the in reflection self social use work problem of photo, long-term poverty. A Brief History of Federal Welfare. The first federal welfare program was Aid to Dependent Children (ADC), which was created as part of President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal in 1935.
The program was intended to supplement existing state relief programs for essay self widows and to resume by email tips provide support to families in which the essay social use work father was deceased, absent, or unable to work. 3. Although it was originally supposed to samples be a small program, ADC expanded rapidly. By 1938, almost 250,000 families were participating in the program. 4 Despite rapid economic growth and declining levels of poverty during the 1950s, ADC rolls continued to grow. By 1956, over 600,000 families were receiving benefits. In Reflection Self Social Use Work! 5.
In 1960, President John F. Kennedy took office amidst rising concern about poverty in America. But beyond renaming ADC to Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and expanding it to include two-parent families in which the father was unemployed, Kennedy actually took little action on welfare. But Kennedy's general support for expanding aid to the poor set the stage for Lyndon Johnson's Great Society. After Kennedy's assassination, Johnson had a free hand in Congress, and he was determined to by email use it to remake government and society. Johnson declared that the federal government would wage a War on Poverty and social, his administration proposed a huge array of new subsidy programs for individuals and state and research narcissistic disorder, local governments. America had not seen such an expansion of government or such a proliferation of in reflection use work, anti-poverty programs since the anylitical New Deal. Among the major Johnson initiatives were Medicare, Medicaid, and Head Start. The proliferation of new urban programs, job training, health care, and other welfare activities during the self social use work 1960s coincided with further expansions in AFDC. By 1965 the number of people receiving AFDC had risen to 4.3 million. 6 By 1972 the number had more than doubled to nearly 10 million. The welfare rolls were rapidly expanding even though this was a period of general economic prosperity and low unemployment.
7. After Johnson left office, there was a bipartisan consensus in Washington to preserve and even expand his legacy. Presidents Nixon, Ford, and Carter all added new anti-poverty programs. Between 1965 and 1975, measured in constant dollars, spending for AFDC tripled. 8 A series of samples, court decisions that established rights for welfare recipients helped fuel the spending growth. 9 After 1975, the growth rate of welfare slowed but still continued upward. In 1981, President Ronald Reagan came into essay in reflection social, office with strong views about shrinking the welfare state. Unfortunately, welfare-related spending actually grew during Reagan's two terms. Reagan did shift the funding emphasis among welfare-related programs. Samples! For example, funding for AFDC declined by 1 percent during his tenure, but spending for the Earned Income Tax Credit doubled. By the time President Bill Clinton took office in 1993, a broad national consensus had developed that traditional open-ended welfare had failed.
This led to a period of state-government experimentation with welfare within the constraints that the federal government allowed them. Many state experiments—particularly work requirements and recipient time limits—would become part of federal welfare reform in 1996. In August 1996, President Clinton signed into law the essay field in reflection self social Personal Responsibility and essay writing opening sentence, Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which represented the most extensive revision of federal welfare in essay self social use work, more than 30 years. By one important measure, welfare reform was very successful. The number of Americans on welfare plunged from 12.6 million in 1996 to 4.2 million individuals by 2009, a dramatic 67-percent decrease. 10. The reform bill made a number of significant changes in the way welfare was provided. AFDC had provided cash payments to families with children where the parents were absent, incapacitated, deceased, or unemployed. The program was funded by a combination of essay, federal and state funds (the federal portion varied from 50 to 80 percent), with states setting benefit levels and essay field in reflection self use work, the federal government determining eligibility requirements. States had an incentive to expand benefit levels because that would draw more federal payments. And recipients could stay on sentence the program for essay years on end.
PRWORA replaced AFDC with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grant. The block grant was a fixed amount of resume by email, federal funds for essay each state, largely based on anylitical the pre-reform federal contribution to that state's AFDC program. However, this caused states that had offered more generous welfare benefits to receive much more federal money per poor family than other states received. 11. Welfare reform in 1996 abolished most federal eligibility and payment rules, giving states much greater flexibility to design their own programs. The reforms eliminated welfare's entitlement status so that no one would have an automatic right to benefits. States could choose which families to help. Essay In Reflection Social Use Work! States were, however, required to essay on my favourite books continue spending at least 80 percent of their previous levels under a maintenance of in reflection use work, effort provision.
In recent years, federal spending on TANF has been held fairly constant at somewhat less than $20 billion per year. 12 Combined federal and essay, state TANF spending was about essay social $26 billion in essay, 2006. 13 About 41 percent was for essay field in reflection social use work direct cash assistance, with the remainder of the subsidies for childcare, transportation, work support, and education and training. 14 Administrative costs accounted for almost 10 percent of expenditures. 15. That represents a significant change in the distribution of expenditures from narcissistic personality disorder, pre-reform welfare. Essay Field Social Use Work! Prior to reform, cash assistance accounted for 73 percent of welfare spending under AFDC and related programs. 16.
Under the old AFDC system, many welfare recipients seemed trapped in essay favourite books, almost permanent dependency on government aid. To combat this, welfare reform established time limits to prevent welfare from becoming a way of life. PRWORA set a federal limit of five years, but allowed states to set shorter time limits if they wished. While this sounds fairly strict, it was undercut somewhat because states were allowed to exempt up to 20 percent of their caseloads from in reflection self social use work, time limits, and were also allowed to use their own funds to continue benefits for families that exceeded the federal five-year time limit. In addition, so-called children only cases, where the child is eligible for samples of thesis welfare benefits, but the adult parent is field social not, are not subject to federal time limits. Children-only cases account for almost half of the total TANF caseload. 17. The 1996 welfare reform imposed widespread work requirements on essay favourite hobby reading recipients.
States are required to have at least 50 percent of eligible welfare recipients from field in reflection self use work, single parent families participating in work activities. For two-parent families, the participation requirement is 90 percent. As of essay on my reading, 2006, every state except Indiana had technically met the mandate for all families. However, states were given various credits and exemptions that significantly reduced the number of recipients required to self social use work work. For example, states receive a credit based on their caseload reductions.
Because welfare rolls have plummeted, the average effective minimum work participation requirement in 2006 was only 5.0 percent for all families and essay writing, 18.7 percent for two-parent families. 18 In fact, for essay field self 17 states and essay, two territories, the credit has reduced the effective work requirement to zero , and only 21 states have an effective minimum greater than 10 percent. 19 Thus, nearly all the states have carved out large exemptions from their work requirements. After all the credits, waivers, and exemptions are taken into account, only 32 percent of welfare recipients were working in 2009. 20 While this is low, it does represent a substantial improvement over pre-reform welfare. Under the old AFDC program, only about 10 percent of recipients were working.
21. Note that just because a recipient is participating in essay field, work activities under today's welfare does not mean that the individual is actually working. For example, in almost all states, simply looking for work constitutes a work activity, which allows people to continue receiving their welfare check. The work component of welfare reform was a big step in essay, the right direction, but the actual changes to work behavior have been modest. Because of exemptions built into the 1996 law, most states are not really required to field in reflection make a large number of recipients work, and few states have chosen to do so on their own.
The tragedy of government welfare programs is not just wasted taxpayer money but wasted lives. The effects of of thesis, welfare in in reflection social use work, encouraging the break-up of low-income families have been extensively documented. The primary way that those with low incomes can advance in the market economy is to get married, stay married, and work—but welfare programs have created incentives to do the opposite. The number of single-parent families has risen dramatically since the 1960s. Research! The most important reason for the rise in single-parent families is births to unmarried women. In 1965, less than 8 percent of essay field in reflection self social, all births were out of wedlock.
Today the figure is 39 percent. 22. The policy concern about the increase in out-of-wedlock births is not a question of private morality. The concern is that out-of-wedlock childbearing remains overwhelmingly concentrated at by email tips, the lowest rungs of the socio-economic ladder. Having a child out of wedlock at an early age for essay field in reflection self someone without career skills can mean a lifetime of poverty.
Of more than 20 major studies of the essay on my favourite hobby books issue, more than three-quarters show a significant link between welfare benefit levels and out-of-wedlock childbearing. 23 Higher benefit levels mean higher out-of-wedlock births. Children living with single mothers are seven times more likely to be poor than those living with two parents. 24. Welfare removes some of the negative economic consequences of out-of-wedlock births, and thus encourages more such births. Essay Self Social Use Work! More than 20 percent of paper narcissistic personality, single-mothers start on welfare because they have an out-of-wedlock birth, 25 and 75 percent of government aid to children through means-tested programs like TANF goes to single-parent families. 26 Moreover, once on welfare, single mothers find it difficult to get off, and social, they tend to stay on welfare for longer periods than other recipients. 27. Focusing solely on the out-of-wedlock birthrate may actually understate the problem. In the past, women who gave birth out of wedlock frequently married the fathers of their children after the birth. As many as 85 percent of unwed mothers, in the 1950s, ultimately married the fathers of their children.
28 Therefore, while technically born out of wedlock, the children were still likely to of thesis grow up in intact two-parent families. However, the increasing availability and value of welfare have made such marriages less attractive for unwed mothers. If the father is essay field self unskilled and has poor employment prospects, a welfare check may seem a preferable alternative. Studies indicate that young mothers and by email tips, pregnant women are less likely to field in reflection marry the fathers of their children in essay, states with higher welfare benefits. 29 Nonetheless, 70 percent of self, poor single mothers would no longer be in poverty if they married their children's father. 30. Welfare is also likely to entrap the next generation as well. The attitudes and habits that lead to welfare dependency are transmitted the same way as other parent-to-child pathologies, such as alcoholism and child abuse. Although it is true that the majority of children raised on welfare will not receive welfare themselves, the rate of welfare dependence for children raised on it is samples of thesis far higher than for their non-welfare counterparts. Children raised on field in reflection use work welfare are likely to have lower incomes as adults than children not raised on welfare.
The more welfare received by a child's family, the lower that child's earnings as an adult tend to essays be, even holding constant such other factors as race, family structure, and education. 31 According to one study, nearly 20 percent of daughters from families that were highly dependent on welfare became highly dependent themselves, whereas only 3 percent of in reflection, daughters from non-welfare households became highly dependent on welfare. 32. The choice of research narcissistic personality disorder, welfare over work is often a rational decision based on economic incentives. Empirical studies confirm that welfare is a disincentive for essay field in reflection self work. For example, an analysis of interstate variation in labor force participation by economists Richard Vedder, Lowell Gallaway, and Robert Lawson found that such participation declined as welfare benefits increased. 33 Similarly, Robert Moffitt of Brown University found that the work effort of by email tips, welfare recipients was reduced by as much as 30 percent.
34. Such studies may understate the work disincentive of essay field social use work, welfare because they consider only a small portion of the total package of federal and state welfare benefits. Benefits available to people in the welfare system that are not available to the working poor create an incentive to go on welfare and consumerism, remain in the program once enrolled. 35 For example, one study shows that education and essay field social, training programs available under TANF may induce people to go on welfare. 36. Perhaps most troubling of all is the psychological attitude toward work that can develop among those on welfare.
Studies have found that the poor on welfare do not have a strong sense that they need to essay on my take charge of their own lives or find work to become self-sufficient. Essay In Reflection! 37 Indeed, they often have a feeling that the consumerism photo government has an social, obligation to provide for them. Of course, these psychological effects are also true for personality disorder other government subsidy recipients, including farmers, the elderly, and businesses that are hooked on federal hand-outs of one sort or another. Essay Self! Farmers that are major subsidy recipients, for example, are less likely to make tough decisions to cut costs or diversify their income sources because they know they will be bailed out if market conditions sour on them. It is not healthy for tips any group in society to depend on government welfare for their long-term survival, whether they are farmers or poor inner-city families. Children from single-parent families are more likely to become involved in criminal activity. Research indicates a direct correlation between crime rates and the number of single-parent families in a neighborhood. 38 As welfare contributes to the rise in out-of-wedlock births, it thus also contributes to essay field in reflection self use work higher levels of criminal activity. A Maryland National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) report concluded that the ready access to a lifetime of welfare and free social service programs is a major contributory factor to the crime problems we face today. 39 The NAACP's conclusion is by email tips confirmed by additional academic research.
For example, research by M. Anne Hill and June O'Neill shows that a 50-percent increase in essay in reflection self, welfare and food stamp benefits led to resume a 117-percent increase in essay field in reflection, the crime rate among young black men. 40. Barbara Whitehead noted in essays, an article in the Atlantic Monthly: The relationship [between single-parent families and crime] is so strong that controlling for family configuration erases the field self use work relationship between race and crime and between low income and crime. This conclusion shows up time and again in on my reading, the literature. The nation's mayors, as well as police officers, social workers, probation officers, and court officials, consistently point to family breakup as the most important source of essay field self social, rising rates of crime. 41. Welfare leads to tips increased crime by contributing to the marginalization of young men in society. As author George Gilder noted, The welfare culture tells the man he is not a necessary part of the self use work family. 42 Marriage and family have long been considered civilizing influences on young men.
Whether or not causation can be proven, it is true that unwed fathers are more likely to use drugs and become involved in criminal behavior than are other men. Consumerism Photo Essays! 43. Replacing Welfare with Private Charity. The 1996 welfare reforms were a step in the right direction, but much more needs to be done. The next step should be to transfer full responsibility for funding and administering welfare programs to the states. The states would have freedom to innovate with their low-income programs and essay field, would have strong incentives to photo essays reduce taxpayer costs and maximize work incentives.
The ultimate reform goal, however, should be to eliminate the entire system of low-income welfare for individuals who are able to work. That means eliminating not just TANF but also food stamps, subsidized housing, and other programs. Individuals unwilling to in reflection self social support themselves through the job market would have to rely on the support of family, church, community, or private charity. What would happen to the poor if welfare were eliminated? Without the negative incentives created by essay sentence, the welfare state, fewer people would be poor.
There would also likely be fewer children born into poverty. Studies suggest that women do make rational decisions about whether to have children, and thus a reduction in welfare benefits would reduce the likelihood of their becoming pregnant or having children out of wedlock. 44. In addition, some poor women who had children out of wedlock would put the children up for essay self social use work adoption. The government should encourage that by eliminating the samples present regulatory and bureaucratic barriers to adoption. Other unmarried women who gave birth would not be able to afford to field in reflection social live independently and essay on my books, they would have to live with their families or boyfriends. Some would choose to use work marry the of thesis fathers of their children. Despite the positive social effects of ending government welfare, there will still be many people who make mistakes and find themselves in tough situations. Americans are an essay use work, enormously generous people, and essay, there is a vast amount of private charitable support available, especially for people truly in need. Private charity is superior to government welfare for many reasons.
Private charities are able to individualize their approaches to the circumstances of poor people. By contrast, government programs are usually designed in a one-size-fits-all manner that treats all recipients alike. Most government programs rely on the simple provision of cash or services without any attempt to differentiate between the needs of recipients. The eligibility requirements for government welfare programs are arbitrary and cannot be changed to fit individual circumstances. Consequently, some people in genuine need do not receive assistance, while benefits often go to people who do not really need them. Surveys of people with low incomes generally indicate a higher level of social use work, satisfaction with private charities than with government welfare agencies. 45.
Private charities also have a better record of actually delivering aid to recipients because they do not have as much administrative overhead, inefficiency, and waste as government programs. A lot of the money spent on federal and state social welfare programs never reaches recipients because it is consumed by fraud and bureaucracy. Audits of TANF spending by the Health and by email tips, Human Services' Inspector General have found huge levels of improper payments, meaning errors, abuse, and fraud. In 2005, the state of essay in reflection self, New York had an improper TANF payment rate of 28 percent and Michigan had an improper payment rate of 40 percent. Writing Opening Sentence! 46 During 2006 and 2007, Ohio had an improper payment rate in TANF of 21 percent. 47 There are similar high levels of waste in other states.
48. Another advantage of essay field self use work, private charity is that aid is much more likely to be targeted to short-term emergency assistance, not long-term dependency. Private charity provides a safety net, not a way of life. Moreover, private charities may demand that the poor change their behavior in exchange for assistance, such as stopping drug abuse, looking for a job, or avoiding pregnancy. Private charities are more likely than government programs to of thesis offer counseling and one-on-one follow-up, rather than simply providing a check. In sum, private charities typically require a different attitude on the part of essay in reflection self social, recipients. They are required to consider the aid they receive not as an entitlement, but as a gift carrying reciprocal obligations. At the essay hobby books same time, private charities require that donors become directly involved in monitoring program performance.
Those who oppose replacing government welfare with private charity often argue that there will not be enough charitable giving to make up for the loss of government benefits. However, that assumes that private charity would simply recreate existing government programs. But the advantage of private and decentralized charity is essay self use work that less expensive and essay, more innovative ways of helping smaller groups of truly needy people would be developed. If large amounts of field in reflection self, aid continue to be needed, there is every reason to resume tips believe that charitable giving in the nation would increase in the absence of government welfare. In every area of society and essay field in reflection self, the economy, we have seen that government expansion tends to research personality crowd out private voluntary activities. So, in reverse, when the government shrinks, private activities would fill in the gaps. A number of studies have demonstrated such a government crowd-out effect in low-income assistance. 49 Charitable giving declined dramatically during the 1970s, as the Great Society programs of the 1960s were expanding. The decline in giving leveled out in the 1980s as welfare spending began to field in reflection social use work level out and the public was deluged with news stories about essay opening sentence supposed cutbacks in essay field, federal programs. Then, after the by email passage of welfare reform in 1996, there was a large spike in private giving. 50 Studies have also shown that when particular charities start receiving government funds, there is a decrease in essay field in reflection use work, private donations to those charities.
51. Americans are the samples most generous people on earth, contributing more than $300 billion a year to organized private charities. In addition, they volunteer more than 8 billion hours a year to charitable activities, with an essay field, estimated value of about $158 billion. 52 Americans donate countless dollars and countless efforts toward providing informal help to families, neighbors, and others in need. There is every reason to believe that the elimination of government welfare would bring a very positive response both from essay, recipients of government welfare and from Americans wanting to help those who are truly in essay field social use work, need.
1 Budget of the United States Government: Fiscal Year 2011, Historical Tables , Table 12.3. 2 Department of samples of thesis, Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. X-6. 3 Susan W. Essay Use Work! Blank and Barbara B. Blum, A Brief History of Work Expectations for Welfare Mothers, Welfare to Work 7, no. Writing Opening! 1 (1997): 29–30. 4 Blanche Coll, Safety Net: Welfare and Social Security, 1929–1979 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995), p. 104. 5 Blanche Coll, Safety Net: Welfare and self, Social Security, 1929–1979 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995), p. 199. 6 James T. Tips! Patterson, America's Struggle against Poverty (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989), p. Essay Self Use Work! 171.
7 Marvin Olasky, The Tragedy of American Compassion (Washington: Regnery, 1992), p. 182. 8 Robert Rector and William Lauber, America's Failed $5.4 Trillion War on Poverty (Washington: Heritage Foundation, 1995), p. Personality Disorder! 11. 9 In King v. Smith (1968), the Supreme Court struck down state laws denying benefits to mothers with able-bodied men in the house. Essay Field Social Use Work! The same year, a federal court struck down laws against essay favourite hobby books aid to mothers whom AFDC administrators considered employable. In 1969 the Supreme Court found in Shapiro v. Essay Use Work! Thompson that state residency requirements for welfare were unconstitutional. Essay Favourite Reading Books! And, in perhaps the most important welfare rights decision, the Court held in Goldberg v. Kelly (1970) that welfare was an essay in reflection self social, entitlement that could not be denied without due process.
11 David Merriman, Should States Receive More Equal TANF Funding? Urban Institute Short Takes on Welfare Policy , no. 4, May 2002. 12 Budget of the consumerism photo essays United States Government: Fiscal Year 2011, Historical Tables , Table 12.3. 13 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to field in reflection self social Congress, June 2009, p. vi. 14 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. II-12. 15 Department of consumerism, Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. II-16. 16 Vee Burke, Welfare Reform: TANF Trends and Data, Congressional Research Service, September 10, 2001. 17 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. v. 18 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. vii. 19 Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. vii.
20 Department of Health and essay in reflection self social, Human Services, 2009 TANF Report to Congress, June 2009, p. III-19. 21 LaDonna Pavetti, Creating a New Welfare Reality: Early Implementation of the resume Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program, Journal of Social Issues 56, no. 4 (2000): 609. 22 Department of Health and Human Services, Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2008, p. III-36. 23 Ron Haskins, Does Welfare Encourage Illegitimacy? The Case Just Closed. The Answer is Yes, American Enterprise Institute, January 1996. 24 Robert Rector, Heritage Foundation, Testimony before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the field self social House Committee on Ways and Means, February 10, 2005.
25 Department of Health and photo, Human Services, Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2008, p. II-33. 26 Robert Rector, Heritage Foundation, Testimony before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the House Committee on Ways and Means, February 10, 2005. 27 Jodie Levin-Epstein, Christine Grisham, and Maya Batchelder, Regarding Teen Pregnancy Prevention and Teen Parenting Provisions in field self social, the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Block Grant, Center for Law and Social Policy, November 30, 2001. 28 Marvin Olasky, The Tragedy of American Compassion (Washington: Regnery, 1992), p. 186. 29 Shelley Lundberg and Robert Plotnick, Effects of samples of thesis, State Welfare, Abortion, and Family Planning Policies on Premarital Childbearing among White Adolescents, Family Planning Perspectives 22, no. Essay In Reflection Self Social! 6 (1990): 246–51. 30 Robert Rector, Heritage Foundation, Testimony before the essay writing Subcommittee on Human Resources of the House Committee on Ways and Means, February 10, 2005. 31 Mary Corcoran et al., The Association between Men's Economic Status and Their Family and Community Origins, Journal of Human Resources 27, no. 4 (Fall 1992): 575–601.
32 Greg Duncan and Martha Hill, Welfare Dependence Within and Across Generations, Science , January 29, 1988, pp. 467–71. 33 Richard Vedder, Lowell Gallaway, and Robert Lawson, Why People Work: An Examination of essay in reflection social use work, Interstate Variation in Labor Force Participation, Journal of Labor Research 12, no. 1 (Winter 1991): 47–59. 34 Robert Moffitt, Incentive Effects of the U.S.
Welfare System: A Review, Journal of essay hobby, Economic Literature 30, no. Field In Reflection Self Use Work! 1 (March 1992): 17. 35 David Card, Philip Robins, and Winston Lin, Would Financial Incentives for Leaving Welfare Lead Some People to Stay on Welfare Longer? National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper no. 6449, March 1998. 36 Cited in David Card, Philip Robins, and Winston Lin, Would Financial Incentives for Leaving Welfare Lead Some People to Stay on Welfare Longer: An Experimental Evaluation of 'Entry Effects' in by email, the Self-Sufficiency Project, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper no. 6449, March 1998. 37 For example, see Ken Auletta, The Underclass (New York: Random House, 1982). 38 Douglas Smith and G. Essay Field In Reflection Social! Roger Jarjoura, Social Structure and Criminal Victimization, Journal of consumerism essays, Research in Crime and Delinquency 25, no. 1 (February 1988): 27–52. 39 John L. Wright, Marge Green, and Leroy Warren Jr., An Assessment of Crime in essay field self social, Maryland Today, Maryland State Conference of Branches, NAACP, Annapolis, February 1994, p. 7.
40 M. Anne Hill and June O'Neill, Underclass Behaviors in the United States: Measurement and Analysis of Determinants, Baruch College, City University of New York, August 1993, p. 73. 41 Barbara Defoe Whitehead, Dan Quayle Was Right, Atlantic Monthly , April 1993, p. 50. 42 Cited in Tom Bethell, They Had a Dream: The Politics of Welfare Reform, National Review, August 23, 1993, p. Consumerism Essays! 33. 43 Robert Lerman, Unwed Fathers: Who Are They? American Enterprise, September-October 1993, pp. Essay Use Work! 32–37. 44 Robert Haveman, Barbara Wolfe, et al., Do Teens Make Rational Choices? The Case of Teen Nonmarital Childbearing, University of Wisconsin, Institute for Research on Poverty, Discussion Paper no. 1137-97, July 1997. 45 Robert Wuthnow, Conrad Hackett, and Becky Yang Hsu, The Effectiveness and Trustworthiness of narcissistic disorder, Faith-Based and Other Service Organizations: A Study of Recipients' Perceptions (paper presented at a conference on The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Social Welfare System, Washington, DC, March 6–7, 2003). 46 See Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Review of Improper Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Basic Assistance Payments in New York State for July 1 through December 31, 2005, October 31, 2007; and field, Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Review of Improper Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Basic Assistance Payments in Michigan for July 1 through December 31, 2005, November 13, 2007.
47 See Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Review of resume tips, Improper Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Basic Assistance Payments in Ohio for April 1, 2006 through March 31, 2007, July 15, 2008. 48 See Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Review of Improper Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Basic Assistance Payments in California for April 1, 2006 through March 31, 2007, September 2008. 49 See, for example, Russell Roberts, A Positive Model of essay in reflection, Private Charity and Public Transfers, Journal of Political Economy 92 (1984): 136–48; and B. Photo Essays! A. Essay Field Self Use Work! Abrams and M. D. Schmitz, The Crowding out Effect of Government Transfers on Private Charitable Contributions, Public Choice, no. 1 (1978): 28–40. 50 American Association of Fundraising Counsel (AAFRC) Trust for Philanthropy, Giving USA 2002, Indianapolis, IN, June 20, 2002.
51 Christopher Horne, David Van Slyke, and Janet Johnson, Attitudes for research paper personality disorder Public Funding for Faith-Based Organizations and the Potential Impact on Private Giving (paper presented to essay in reflection social use work a conference on The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Social Welfare System, Washington, DC, March 7–8, 2003).
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How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for essay field, over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. - Are usually written for Art History, History or English courses. - Describe the image and discuss how the by email, way it is put together (the composition). - Analyze the meaning of the image for the artist.
- Consider the historical meaning of the image. - Evaluate the effectiveness of the image for essay field self use work, today. All images project ideas or claims. Advertisements generally make these claims openly and samples of thesis, even tell you the claim in the text. Essay Use Work! Works of art may be more subtle but they usually are also trying to get the viewer to believe something. How can you analyze visual images?
You look at: The purpose of the artist. Opening! The audience. The way the image was composed. The historical context when it was produced and when it is viewed. Introduction : Tell the basic facts about the art (see citing your image). Get the reader interested in the image by using one of the in reflection, following methods: Describe the image vividly so the reader can see it. Tell about how the research narcissistic personality, image was created. Explain the purpose of the artist. Essay Field In Reflection Use Work! Give interesting facts about the art or artist.
Talk about resume tips, a controversy or misunderstanding about the art. Thesis: Your thesis will tell the meaning of this image (see Analyzing the Meaning of the Image) Body: Support your thesis with three or more main ideas which support your meaning. Use questions in the pre-writing sections for ideas. Conclusion: Try to conclude rather than just repeating your thesis.
Either give a final interesting fact or try one of the following: Compare the reception of the painting by the audience who first saw it with your own ideas, or with the in reflection, way people today might interpret the picture. Speculate on what the artist would think about the way his picture has been viewed over time. Compare this image to other similar images. Paper Narcissistic Personality! Suggest how this piece of art fits into the works of an artist, or the ad campaign of a company. What sort of image will you be analyzing for your Visual Analysis Paper?
Student Paper Visual Analysis Sample: This is field in reflection self social, not a student from my class but I think the photo essays, example is pretty well done and field in reflection, might be helpful. Research Narcissistic Personality Disorder! It is about Jeff Soto's wood panel painting Last Voyage Visual Analysis of essay social Botticelli: Another student paper which does a nice job with using the photo essays, format of explaining how the historical period and life of the artist is field in reflection use work, related to resume tips the meaning of the painting as well as discussing the visual aspects. Don't have an art background? Don't worry. You probably know a lot more than you realize. Modern people are surrounded by images every day. Everyone Can Analyze Images: Even if you don't know the terms of how people analyze art, you will be familiar with many of the tricks that artists use to create a reaction in the reader, such as making the most important images larger and light, and the less important ones in the background or fading darker. You can also easily recognize symbolic colors, such as: red means emergency or blood or danger; green means safe and close to nature; and blue means cool and relaxed. Start by Looking Closely : Most Visual Analysis Papers will require a clear and vivid description of the image along with an essay field self use work analysis of the visual composition of the picture in order to research paper disorder explain how the artist put the essay self social, image together to create meaning.
Just describe the image you see and use the chart below to help you use the right terms. Trust Your Own Eyes : You may want to do your own study of the samples, image before you actually research the history of the essay, image, so that you can write out your own thoughts without being influenced by other people. Use Chart and Questions for Help: Start your visual analysis description by getting a good copy of the on my favourite hobby reading books, image and essay field social, looking at it carefully. Look at the chart below and answer the key questions in order to help you see the different visual elements. Analyzing Meaning of Visual Images. Although Visual Analysis Essays often focus a lot on the details of describing the image, you will also need a thesis which tells what the of thesis, images mean. There are several ways to do this and your assignment may tell you which direction to go. Here are some typical ways to analyze images for meaning: Analyzing the essay use work, meaning of the image for opening sentence, the artist and field in reflection social, his or her time. Analyzing the meaning of the image for you and your time.
Analyzing the changes in essay, the meaning of an image over the course of time. Analyze the audience reaction to the image. Essay Social! Analyze your own reaction and evaluate the effectiveness of the image. Use the pre-writing questions below to favourite hobby reading help you analyze your images and start writing notes that will help you develop your paper ideas. 1. Claims: What claims does the image make? What type of claim is field in reflection self, it? Fact Claim: Is it real? Definition Claim : What does it mean?
Cause Claim : What is the paper disorder, Cause? What are the effects? How are these related? Value Claim: How important is this? How should we evaluate it? Policy Claim: What is the solution?
What should we do about it? 2. Visual Composition: How is the field self use work, image arranged or composed? Which of the following aspects of composition help makes the claim? Examine: Layout: where images are placed and what catches your attention. How visual lines draw your attention to or away from the focal point. Balance: size of images and how they compare with one another. Is the focal point centered or offset? Color: how color (or lack of color) draws your attention or creates a mood Key figures: what is the main focus? How does this contribute to meaning?
Symbols : are there cultural symbols in the image? What do these mean? Stereotypes : how does image support stereotypes or challenge them? Exclusions : is there anything left out essay on my favourite reading books of the image that you expect to essay field social use work be there? 3. Genre: What is the genre of this image? (examples: fine art, movie, advertisement, poster, pamphlet, news photograph, graphic art etc.). Research Personality Disorder! How does it follow the rules of essay in reflection self that genre or break away from them? How does that affect the meaning of the image for the audience?
4. Text: How does any text or caption work to favourite hobby reading books provide meaning to the visual? 5. Appeals: How does it appeal to the audience to believe the claims? Are appeals to logic? Emotion? Character? Authority? Are any of these appeals false or deceiving? 6. Selling: Does the claim move into a sales pitch? Does it use a cultural value or common cultural symbol in a way that exploits that image?
7. Story: What story does this image convey? How does this story help the field, claim or appeal to the audience? To get ready to consumerism photo analyze the meaning of the image for the artist and the people viewing the art, it helps to first find out the rhetorical situation. That means you need to essay field social know what the artist was trying to do at anylitical essay that particular point in time, and essay in reflection use work, how the audience reacted. Sometimes the reaction of the audience that first saw the piece is very different from the reaction you might have. On My Hobby Reading! If it is, that can make an interesting paper thesis. This historical photo is essay field in reflection self, a good example of an image with a specific purpose. The photo was taken by Fridtjof Nansen along with other photos of the Russian famine. The purpose of the photo was to raise money for anylitical, Russian relief. The photo was published as part of a set of postcards which were sold to raise money and then sent to raise awareness of the problem in others. Since the essay field in reflection use work, text is in French, the Photograph was probably published to raise money from France and other French-speaking peoples.
The text elucidates the image by saying the boys are feeding one another in the fatal final stages of hunger. It describes their skeletal limbs and swollen bellies as having come from opening sentence eating grass, tree bark, straw, worms and dirt in essay, order to survive. While the photo undoubtedly affected the original audience, the pathos of the image also speaks to an audience today who may be completely unaware of this famine. For viewers today, the image may bring to mind the many famines in other areas around the world, as well as images of Holocaust survivors. Pre-Writing for Visual Analysis Essay of Historical Context. Answer the following questions to get ready to essay favourite hobby reading books write an analysis of the essay field in reflection self, image and consumerism photo, the audience response.
While each of the questions can have a single sentence answer, you can use that single sentence as the topic sentence of a paragraph and give examples and explanation to essay field use work fill out that paragraph. Who is the artist? What is the research paper narcissistic personality disorder, purpose of this piece? Why did the artist create it? Who did the essay social use work, artist create the image for? What was going on at that time in art or in consumerism photo essays, the culture that the artist was either reacting against or reflecting? How did the audience in in reflection use work, that historical moment view this work? Where was it published?
How would the image appeal to that audience? What was the reaction to this piece of art when it first appeared? Since then? Did the audience understand what the artist was trying to say with the image?How did the artist feel about the reaction of the audience? In order for your reader to know which image you are talking about, you will probably want to include a copy of that image or images inside the paper. Anylitical! You will also need to make sure that in the first paragraph you include all of the information your reader needs to know, such as: Title of the Image (underline or italics) Artist's name Date of work Where it was published or the name of museum or collection it is now in. Medium: magazine advertisement, video, oil painting, marble sculpture, chalk drawing, pencil sketch, photograph (what type of image it is and what type of art medium was used) How to Analyze Two Books in an Essay.
50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Cause and essay self, Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109.
Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Taro--Look at my articles about argument strategies for photo, more information, but here is the basic idea: pathos is the emotional appeal, logos is the logic or reason appeal, and ethos is the character appeal. How does the picture make an argument using those three types of appeals? hi plz can u tell me how to explain pathos and ethos and logos for in reflection social use work, Syrian refugee pic. Jigme Tenzin 6 months ago. Wonderful! Glad that I came across this piece of research narcissistic disorder yours at the right time when I had to essay in reflection self submit my visual Art response papers which I was null about it. Thank You!
Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. Excellent points, Mandi. You are quite correct that we are doing analysis all the time, whether we know it or not. Understanding the terms and tools of analysis can help us communicate our evaluations more effectively. That is the essay, purpose of essay field in reflection self social this article. Sometimes, students are asked to do an analysis but not given the terminology or organizational methods that make that sort of paper successful. Knowing what an analysis is and being able to write one can mean a difference between passing and failing a course. In addition, here is paper narcissistic disorder, why: • Your professor may ask you to write an analysis without even mentioning that it is, in fact, an essay social analysis.
• Any time you discuss a work of fiction or even a film or a work of art, you’re doing an analysis. • Being able to do it may count for as much as 80% of your grade, especially in a Humanities course such as Literature, Art, or Sociology. Writing a picture analysis essay requires a basic understanding of essay structure and these visual communication techniques. Excellent picture analysis essays combine both these elements while addressing the more ephemeral ideas and experiences communicated by a picture. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. Alex--I'm so glad you stopped by to essay opening sentence tell me that my work helped you! I've worked hard to make my articles as complete and easy to understand as possible. Having used many different textbooks in my career, I've noticed that many of them explain how to analyze writing but are not as good at essay self social use work explaining how to do that sort of writing yourself. My goal has been to provide step by step instructions of how to write different kinds of essays.
Thank you so much for consumerism photo essays, this article! It's very helpful. Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. I wish I had these guidelines when I was in university. It would have been easy to write all those art analysis papers required in our Humanities class. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Paul--The videos attached to this article are one kind of example and I actually just finished an example of essay social use work doing a visual analysis on an advertisement for my own class but haven't posted it yet. Samples! I will have to do that soon. Can you tell me what your assignment is like? Are they analyzing their own photo?
That would be interesting. I have all kinds of instructions on this website for different kinds of papers. Type the title of what you want into the HubPages search engine and you can pull them up. Or you can look at my index of articles: https://hubpages.com/literature/College-English-He. This article is so helpful. I am teaching an Expository writing course (first time!) and i am having my kids try this, but with a personal photograph. Would you have an example essay that I can show them as a model? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from essay use work United States. Jevon--I'm glad you learned a bit about how to of thesis look at art and find it more interesting. We spent a lot of time going to in reflection social art galleries this summer on by email tips vacation, and I really appreciated being able to use what I've learned about visual analysis when I was looking at field in reflection social use work the paintings. Even though this article was meant to teach me how to write a better Visual Analysis Paper, this article really taught me how to research paper personality better appreciate art.
I'm not the type of person to go to essay social use work an art gallery just to look at on my favourite hobby reading art, but now I believe I can actually give an intellectual thought on any painting I see. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from self social United States. Thanks for the comment nic. I probably need to add a link to my ariticle about anylitical, organizing essays: I also have tips on structure in most of my articles on types of field self use work essays like Argument, Problem Solution or Cause. Research Personality! For a full list of all of my Essay Writing Articles see: was hoping for an essay structure but this still helped. Colin Neville 3 years ago. Excellent article; very comprehensive and field use work, useful, not just for students, but for anyone visiting an art gallery, too. K. R. H.Grace 3 years ago from Fairbanks, AK. I had to do one of those in my English 111 class way back when.
It was fun but I wish I'd read this sooner. college teachers don't make a lick of sense :(. but good hub ;D. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and on my favourite hobby reading books, respective owners. Other product and in reflection use work, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on photo essays affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and essay field in reflection use work, respective owners.