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book report blogspot Chapter 4: The Counterpane. I was preparing to hear some good stories about whaling; to my no small surprise, nearly every man maintained a profound silence. And not only that, but they looked embarrassed. Yes, here was a set of sea-dogs, many of whom without the slightest bashfulness had boarded great whales on the high seas--entire strangers to them--and dueled them dead without winking; and as level yet, here they all sat at a social breakfast table--all of the same calling, all of kindred tastes--looking round as sheepishly at each other as though they had never even out of on social networking sites, sight of some sheepfold among the Green Mountains. A curious sight; these bashful bears, these timid warrior whalemen!
This scene reminds me of veterans of World War II, many of whom were reticent to talk about their war experiences. The implication is that, what they experienced away from as level biology coursework beetroot, polite society was too intense and profound to discuss over a meal. The scene also implies that these whalemen are cut from a different cloth than the rest of society. They are men of action, not words, and find themselves out of place, fish out of water if you will, when home among the comforts of 1 amendment essay, shore-life. Biology Coursework Beetroot! Queequeg, humorously, uses his harpoon to essay in criminal law in spear helpings of rare beefsteak.
Chapter 8: The Pulpit. Chapter 11: Nightgown. Chapter 12: Biographical. Chapter 19: The Prophet. Chapter 21: Going Aboard. Chapter 22: Merry Christmas. Stand dressed in living green.
So to as level biology the Jews old Canaan stood. While Jordan rolled between.#8221; Chapter 24: The Advocate. Chapter 26: Knights and Squires. Phd Thesis On Social Networking Sites! The third mate is a guy named Flask: #8220;a short, stout, ruddy young fellow, very pugnacious concerning whales, who somehow seemed to think that the great Leviathans had personally and hereditarily affronted him.#8221; Flask has no reverence for the majesty and grandeur of whales. To him, they are no more than #8220;water rats#8221; that need to be exterminated. Each of the ship#8217;s three mates (Starbuck, Stubb, and Flask) has his own harpooner, who are as follows: Stubb#8217;s harpooner is a Native American man named Tashtego, a great hunter on land and sea. Flask#8217;s harpooner is a large African-American man named Dagoo. Biology Coursework! Interestingly, each of the harpooneers is non-white. On this point, the author comments: #8220;Herein it is the same with the American whale fishery as with the American army and military and merchant navies, and the engineering forces employed in the construction of the essay lens American Canals and Railroads.#8221; The point is biology coursework that, much of the green construction essays actual building of America was done by non-white immigrants. Chapter 29: Enter Ahab; to him, Stubb.
5.) The Sulfur-Bottom Whale (known today as the beetroot Blue Whale). Construction Essays! In the category of medium-sized whales. 7.) The Black-Fish Whale (known today as the Pilot Whale). In the category of small whales. Chapter 33: The Specksynder. Chapter 34: The Cabin-Table. Chapter 37: Sunset.
To loves as gay and fleeting. As bubbles that swim, on the beaker's brim, And break on the lips while meeting. Chapter 41: Moby Dick. These deep thoughts are interrupted by the shouts of the harpooneer Tashtego, There she blows! -- meaning he has spotted some whales. The sailors on the Pequod come alive with activity, preparing to pursue the as level coursework beetroot whales. This activity is interrupted by a loud cry. Everyone looks at ethics essay, Captain Ahab, who was surrounded by five dusky phantoms that seemed fresh formed out of air. What the hell are these phantoms?! Chapter 54: The Town-Ho's Story.
2.) The painting Perseus rescuing Andromeda from the Sea Monster or Whale by coursework Guido Reni (1635). 3.) The painting Perseus Descending by William Hogarth (1697-1764). 4.) Drawings of ethics essay papers, whales by biology coursework beetroot Scottish physician/naturalist Sir Robert Sibbald (1641-1722) 5.) Jonah and the whale illustrations from old Bibles. 6.) Illustrations from the travel writings of 17th century writer John Harris. 7.) Illustrations from A Voyage Round Cape Horn into critical write, the South Seas for the Purpose of Extending the as level biology coursework Spermacetti Whale Fisheries by Captain James Colnett. Essay Papers! 8.) Illustrations from Oliver Goldsmith's An History of the Earth and Animated Nature.
9.) Illustrations from A Natural History of Whales by Bernard Germain de Lacepede. 10.) Illustrations from as level biology, Frederic Cuvier's Dictionary of Natural Science. Chapter 56: Of the Less Erroneous Pictures of Whales; and the True Pictures of 1 amendment essay, Whaling Scenes. 2.) The engravings of American travel writer John Ross Browne. 3.) The illustrations of English explorer William Scoresby. As Level Coursework Beetroot! 4.) The paintings of another French artist named H. Durand. 3.) Wooden whales, carved from driftwood.
4.) Brass whales, used as door knockers. 6.) Petrified/fossilized whales created by the earth's geology. Medical Ethics Essay Papers! 7.) Mountains and biology beetroot earthforms that resemble whales. 8.) Whale constellations seen in starry skies. Ishmael concludes this chapter with a wild desire to mount a whale of stars and ride it to heaven: With a frigate's anchors for my bridle-bits and fasces of on social networking sites, harpoons for spurs, would I could mount that whale and leap the topmost skies, to see whether the fabled heavens with all their countless tents really lie encamped beyond my mortal sight! #8220;And now abating in beetroot his flurry, the whale once more rolled out into view; surging from side to side; spasmodically dilating and contracting his spout-hole, with sharp, cracking, agonized respirations. Foreign Labour! At last, gush after gush of as level biology beetroot, clotted red gore, as if it had been the purple lees of red wine, shot into the frighted air, and falling back again, ran dripping down his motionless flanks into the sea. His heart had burst!#8221; Chapter 62: The Dart.
Chapter 68: The Blanket. Chapter 70: The Sphynx. #8220;Speak, thou vast and about venerable head#8230;speak, mighty head, and as level coursework beetroot tell us the secret thing that is in thee. Of all divers, thou hast dived the deepest. Green Construction Essays! That head upon which the upper sun now gleams, has moved amid this world#8217;s foundations#8230;Oh head! thou hast seen enough to split the planets and make an as level biology beetroot infidel of Abraham, and essay on recent not one syllable is thine! #8230;O Nature, and O soul of as level, man! how far beyond all utterance are your linked analogies! not the smallest atom stirs or lives in matter, but has its cunning duplicate in essay mind.#8221; Chapter 74: The Sperm-Whale's Head--Contrasted View.
Chapter 77: The Great Heidelberg Tun. Chapter 78: Cistern and Buckets. In this chapter, Ishmael states two unwritten but generally agreed-upon laws which govern the whaling industry, which are as follows:
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cma cover letter Senate Must Reject Health Bill Passed by coursework beetroot the House. The American Health Care Act (AHCA), passed by the House by 4 votes on May 4, 2017, has now moved to the Senate for green construction essays, consideration. Early next week, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) is expected to issue a report on the most recent amended version of ACHA that passed the House, including whether anticipated impacts are even worse than projections on biology beetroot, previous versions of the green construction, bill. As we have expressed elsewhere , if enacted, AHCA would roll back important consumer protections in the Affordable Care Act (ACA), dramatically increase the number of uninsured individuals in our country, dramatically increase costs for older adults age 50-64, undermine Medicare’s finances, and drastically gut the Medicaid program, putting millions at risk of diminished coverage and access to care. So far, it appears the Senate is taking the same secretive approach as the House crafting a bill behind closed doors, with no public hearings. While the fate of people with pre-existing conditions understandably took the as level biology, spotlight leading up to passage of AHCA in the House, less attention has been paid to green, how AHCA would go far beyond the as level biology coursework, stated goal of phd thesis networking sites some policymakers to “repeal Obamacare” and decimate the Medicaid program by fundamentally restructuring it.
As the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP) states, AHCA would end Medicaid as we know it , and “would have a devastating impact on health care for over 70 million people who rely on Medicaid, including over 30 million children and millions of seniors, people with disabilities, pregnant women, and low-income adults.” While some early reports indicate that the Senate might reject some of the as level biology, House’s attacks on consumer protections, including relating to pre-existing conditions, the threat to Medicaid remains dire. As the Senate considers health reform, we urge members to essay about, consider the impact on the health and welfare of people covered by the ACA, Medicare and Medicaid, and biology coursework reject the networking, American Health Care Act. The Center for Medicare Advocacy will continue to as level biology beetroot, fight to sites, save Medicaid, Medicare and health care, but we need your support . Make your donation online and help #ProtectOurCare! CMS Considers New Medicare Reimbursement System for Skilled Nursing Facilities: If Implemented, Would Gut Therapy. Proposed changes to nursing facility payment under consideration by CMS would reduce financial incentives to biology coursework beetroot, provide therapy, and would do so with such force providing higher reimbursement to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) that provide fewer types of therapy to residents over a shorter period of time or no therapy at all that it would actually encourage facilities not to provide therapy. Further, the Jimmo v. Sebelius mandate to cover maintenance therapy would be completely ignored. Ever since the new prospective payment system for Medicare coverage of skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) was first implemented in 1998, the system has faced ongoing criticism. Critics, including the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission  and the Department of Health and Human Services’s Office of green construction essays Inspector General,  report that the reimbursement system encourages over-utilization of therapy services, insufficient payment for nursing services, and inaccurate payment for non-therapy ancillary services (chiefly prescription drugs). As Level Biology Coursework! The Centers for Medicare Medicaid Services (CMS) contracted with Acumen to develop a new reimbursement system to replace the current system.
Four Technical Expert Panels considered draft recommendations. Foreign Labour! In an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM), CMS solicits comments on “options we may consider” for revising the biology coursework beetroot, reimbursement system, based on critical lens, Acumen’s work.  CMS sets out a proposed framework for coursework beetroot, a new Medicare payment system for essay on recent, SNFs, called Resident Classification System, Version I (RCS-I). CMS describes three goals for the new reimbursement system: (1) more accurately compensating SNFs; (2) reducing incentives for SNFs to biology beetroot, deliver therapy based on about labour, financial considerations, rather than resident need; and (3) maintaining simplicity, to the extent possible.  As described in detail in the ANPRM (and illustrated in the chart below), RCS-I dramatically changes the financial incentives for SNFs.  Under RCS-I, SNFs would receive higher reimbursement if they provided 15 or fewer days of Medicare coverage and only one form of therapy (not three). Medicare reimbursement would also be higher if 50-75% of a SNF’s Medicare days were billed as non-rehabilitation . In contrast, Medicare reimbursement would be lower for SNFs providing care to the oldest residents (age 90+), to residents receiving three types of as level biology coursework therapy, or to lens write, residents having 31 or more days of care paid by Medicare. Comments on the ANPRM are due June 26, 2017. If CMS goes forward with replacing the coursework beetroot, Medicare SNF reimbursement system with a new system, it will publish a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking a year from now. Current Medicare Reimbursement System for SNFs. The current system, called Resource Utilization Groups (RUGs), uses a case-mix component and medical essay papers a non case-mix component (which reflects room and as level beetroot board and various capital costs). About! The case-mix component uses resident assessment information to determine a resident’s classification for payment purposes. RUG-IV has two case-mix categories nursing (which includes non-therapy ancillary services) and as level beetroot therapy (which includes physical, occupational, and medical essay speech therapy).
A resident’s RUG classification is beetroot, based on the higher of the two case-mix categories. Payment for essay, residents in as level, therapy groups reflects the construction, amount of therapy that a SNF reports providing. There are now 66 RUG-IV classifications based on resident assessment information. At this time, more than 90% of residents are assigned to a rehabilitation-based RUG.  Resident Classification System, Version 1. Instead of the RUGs’ two components (nursing and therapy) for case-mix adjustment, RCS-I creates four distinct case-mix categories physical/occupational therapy, speech language pathology, nursing, and non-therapy ancillaries with separate case mix adjustments for each. Number of case-mix categories. Physical therapy/occupational therapy.
*Clinical reasons for as level beetroot, hospital stay (5 categories) * Functional status (3 ADLs: transfers, eating, toileting) * Presence of cognitive impairment. 30 case-mix groups. Speech language pathology. *Clinical reasons for networking, hospital stay. *Presence of swallowing disorder or mechanically altered diet. *Presence of SLP-related co-morbidity or cognitive impairment.
18 case-mix groups. Nursing case mix. CMS is considering using the non-rehabilitation RUG for the nursing component, which is based on the staff-time motion study called Staff Time and as level coursework beetroot Resource Intensity Verification (STRIVE) that was used to critical essay lens, develop the biology coursework, nursing case-mix categories for RUG-IV. 43 case-mix groups. Non therapy ancillaries (NTA) *Use of extensive services. 6 case-mix groups.
For speech language pathology and NTA, CMS calculates how much of the variation in current per day costs are predicted by the case-mix adjustments that it proposes. For speech language pathology, the 18 case-mix groups account for only 14.5% of the variation in per day costs; for NTA, only essays 11.7%. Two additional factors affect daily reimbursement rates. As Level Biology Coursework! First, based on Acumen’s finding that physical therapy/occupational therapy costs are generally higher and non-therapy ancillary costs are very high at 1 amendment essay the beginning of a resident’s stay, RCS-I “front loads” payments that is, it pays higher rates at the beginning of a resident’s stay, rather than a consistent rate for each day in the assessment period. The proposed system then adjusts rates downward on successive days, under what CMS calls the variable per diem adjustment schedule.
Thus, on day 24 of a resident’s Part A stay, for example, the as level coursework, daily rate has a 0.96 adjustment factor, which means that the SNF is paid 96% of the essay about foreign labour, Medicare rate for that person. For a resident in a Medicare-covered stay on days 99 and beetroot 100, the adjustment factor is 0.71 i.e., 71% of the daily rate that was assessed at the beginning of the construction, resident’s Medicare-covered stay.  Second, CMS is coursework beetroot, considering eliminating the 1 amendment, multiple assessments that are currently required for Medicare reimbursement days 5, 14, 30, 60, and 90 and using only the coursework, 5-day assessment and the “significant change” assessment that is green essays, otherwise required for all residents, regardless of payment source. This change means that, in the absence of a resident’s significant change, the reimbursement rate remains constant and biology coursework beetroot does not reflect changes in the resident’s actual needs. Downward adjustments in payment during the course of 1 amendment a resident’s stay reflect the variable per diem adjustment schedule, not the resident’s assessed condition. To calculate the per day rate for a particular resident, RCS-I begins with unadjusted per diem rate for urban and as level rural facilities.
RCS-1 Unadjusted Federal Rate Per Diem-Urban and Rural  The unadjusted federal per diem rates (urban or rural) are adjusted twice: first, to reflect the four case-mix categories (nursing, non-therapy ancillary services, physical and occupational therapy, and speech language pathology), and second, to account for declining payments under the 1 amendment essay, variable per diem adjusted schedule. These case-mix adjusted rates, as reduced by the adjustment schedule, are added to the non case-mix component to as level coursework, create a single, declining per day rate for each resident. Winners and Losers Under RCS-I. The ANPRM includes two Tables identifying the impact of RCS-I on reimbursement rates for individual residents and for lens, facilities. Some key changes are highlighted. Residents under 65.
Residents 90+ years. Medicare/Medicaid dual status. Residents who are dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid. Residents are not dually eligible for biology, Medicare and Medicaid. Residents who are disabled. Residents with SNF stays of 1-15 days. Residents with stays of medical essay papers 31+ days.
Use of as level biology coursework 100-day SNF benefit. Residents not using 100 days. Residents using 100 days. Length of qualifying acute care stay. Residents with 31+ qualifying inpatient days.
Residents with 3 qualifying inpatient days. Admitted with diagnosis of a stroke. Residents with a stroke. Residents without a stroke. Presence of 1 amendment cognitive impairment. Residents who are severely cognitively impaired. Residents who are moderately cognitively impaired. Admitted with, or has diagnosis of, HIV.
Residents without HIV. Residents with HIV. Receipt of IV medications during stay. Residents with IV medication. Residents without IV medication. Presence of as level beetroot wound infection. Residents with wound infections.
Residents without wound infections. Receipt of 1 amendment therapy services during SNF stay. Residents receiving a single therapy. Residents receiving 3 therapies. Residents not receiving any physical therapy. Residents receiving physical therapy. Residents not receiving any occupational therapy. Residents receiving occupational therapy. Residents receiving only occupational therapy. Residents receiving physical, occupational, and speech therapy. Non-therapy ancillary costs during SNF stay.
Residents with NTA costs of $150. Residents with NTA costs of $10-$50. Use of extensive services. Residents with tracheostomy. The ANPRM identifies the impact of RCS-I on reimbursement rates for as level, facilities. Small facilities, 0-49 beds.
Facilities with 200+ beds. Hospital-based and on social sites swing-bed facilities. % of SNF stays with 100 day utilization. SNFs with 1-10% of their stays utilizing 100 days. SNFs with 25-100% of their stays utilizing 100 days. % of SNF stays with Medicare/Medicaid dual enrollment. SNFs with 50-75% of biology coursework their stays with dual eligible residents. SNFs with 0-10% of their stays with dual eligible residents. % of labour SNF utilization days billed as rehabilitation ultra high (RU) SNFs with 1-10% of the utilization days billed as RU. SNFs with 90-100% of the utilization days billed as RU.
% of SNF utilization days billed as non-rehabilitation. SNFs with 50-75% of the utilization days billed as non-rehabilitation. SNFs with 0-10% of the as level coursework, utilization days billed as non-rehabilitation. Center for 1 amendment essay, Medicare Advocacy Concerns. As demonstrated by the charts above, the proposed revision to Medicare reimbursement for SNFs dramatically alters the biology coursework beetroot, Medicare benefit, encouraging less therapy and shorter Medicare-covered stays, while not necessarily improving nurse staffing levels. During the lens, meetings and in a follow-up letter and conference call with CMS, TEP members expressed concern with Acumen’s charge, which was, apparently, to identify new payment policies and approaches that would be able to more accurately reflect residents’ current use of nursing, therapy, and non-therapy ancillary services. Whether current use is consistent with requirements of federal law was not within Acumen’s scope of work. Center attorney Toby S. Beetroot! Edelman, a member of all four TEPs, repeatedly raised the issue of provision of, and on social payment for, maintenance therapy, as required by Jimmo.  Acumen responded that the models were based on existing data.
With data documenting the cost of maintenance therapy unavailable and possibly non-existent at biology this time, maintenance therapy is 1 amendment essay, not reflected in the proposed reimbursement system. Acumen suggested that when data become available, Jimmo costs may be added to later revisions of the reimbursement system. Biology! The Center questions how data will become available if Jimmo -mandated maintenance nursing and maintenance therapy are not covered by the reimbursement system. In an August 2016 letter to CMS, Edelman expressed additional concerns about the about foreign labour, proposed revisions to the Medicare reimbursement system that the TEPs had been reviewing.  She wrote that she had thought that the purposes of revising the SNF reimbursement system were to (1) respond to beetroot, and correct problems that have been identified for many years in the RUGs system; (2) incorporate new understandings of the care and services that are currently coverable under Medicare (for example, Jimmo's recognition of maintenance therapy and essay development law in india nursing); (3) recognize and implement the statutory directive to pay for care and services that SNFs are required to provide (and therefore, to reflect the revised Requirements of Participations for biology, SNFs, when they were published, which happened in phd thesis on social networking, October 2016  ); and (4) recognize the changes in delivery system reforms and biology beetroot ongoing payment changes, such as bundling demonstrations, that affect reimbursement policies going forward. The short answer is essay, no. First, RCS-I does not appear to more accurately pay SNFs for providing care to residents who are in a Medicare Part A-covered stay. It rearranges payments, but does not necessarily compensate SNFs appropriately for providing the care and services they are required to as level coursework, provide under the green, federal Nursing Home Reform Law.  The revised Requirements of Participation are not reflected in the proposal. The proposed case-mix adjustments for biology, speech language pathology and NTA have minimal correlation with current facility costs. Second, while RCS-I does reduce financial incentives to provide therapy, it does so with such force providing higher reimbursement to essay, SNFs that provide fewer types of beetroot therapy to residents over a shorter period of time or no therapy at all that it actually encourages facilities not to lens, provide therapy. Jimmo’s mandate to cover maintenance therapy is as level beetroot, completely ignored. Finally, RCS-I does not maintain simplicity.
It is essay about, a highly complex system. Submitting Comments Comments must be submitted by June 26. As Level Biology! When commenting, refer to file code CMS-1686-ANPRM. Comments may be submitted electronically, at medical essay papers http://ww.regulations.gov , by regular mail, by as level biology coursework beetroot express or overnight mail, or by hand or courier. Ethics Essay Papers!  Steve Gleason Enduring Voices Act Introduced. Legislation would make the Steve Gleason Act of 2015, which increased access to speech generating devices for people with degenerative diseases, permanent. On May 16, 2017, Representatives John Larson (D-CT), Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA), and Senators Bill Cassidy (R-LA) and Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) introduced the Steve Gleason Enduring Voices Act, which builds upon the successes of the Steve Gleason Act of 2015.
The Steve Gleason Enduring Voices Act permanently fixes the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) policy that limited access to speech generation devices for people with degenerative diseases. The Center for Medicare Advocacy was one of the organizations that worked closely with Team Gleason on the 2015 law. Coursework Beetroot! The Center applauds the critical, Steve Gleason Enduring Voices Act, which will provide peace of mind for biology coursework beetroot, extremely vulnerable Medicare beneficiaries and 1 amendment ensure they will never again lose their only means of biology beetroot communication if they need to leave home to live in a nursing facility, hospice or hospital. Oral Health Update – The Painful Truth About Teeth (Washington Post) A recent Washington Post article , “The Painful Truth About Teeth: You Can Work Full Time But not have the Money to Fix Your Teeth Visible Reminders of the Divide Between Rich and Poor” outlines the devastating impacts of the lack of 1 amendment essay adequate oral health care in the country. As Congress considers drastic cuts to Medicaid through the American Health Care Act (AHCA), which would make it difficult for states to provide adequate funding for dental care, it is essential that lawmakers consider the implications of these changes. The Washington Post article highlights the following: Medicare does not have a comprehensive oral health benefit Two million ER visits in 2016 for dental issues $1.6 billion in costs for those ER visits Those ER visits frequently lead to as level biology, prescriptions for antibiotics and opioids instead of treating the underlying dental issue, only perpetuating the opioid crisis One in five Americans over 65 do not have a single real tooth left Link between oral health and overall health: “Poor oral health can lead to heart disease and other serious medical problems, and tooth loss can lead to depression and difficulty eating and speaking”  MedPAC, Report to the Congress: Medicare Payment Policy , Chapter 8, page 200 (Mar. 2017) (calling for critical essay lens, lower rates and a revised reimbursement system. “Under a revised design, payments would increase for medically complex stays and decrease for stays that include intensive therapy that is unrelated to a patient’s care needs.”), http://medpac.gov/docs/default-source/reports/mar17_entirereport.pdf?sfvrsn=0 .  OIG. Questionable Billing by Skilled Nursing Facilities (Dec. 2010), https://oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-02-09-00202.pdf ; OIG, Inappropriate Payments to Skilled Nursing Facilities Cost Medicare More Than a Billion Dollars in 2009 (Nov.
2012), https://oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-02-09-00200.pdf ; OIG, The Medicare Payment System for Skilled Nursing Facilities Needs to be Reevaluated (Sep. 2015), https://oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-02-13-00610.pdf ).  82 Fed. Reg. 20980, 20984.  82 Fed. Reg.
20980, 21009-21012.  82 Fed. Reg. 20980, 20981-20982.  82 Fed. Reg. 20980, 21002, Table 14.  82 Fed. Reg. 20980, 20987, Tables 1 and 2 combined.  Taken from 82 Fed. Reg. Beetroot! 20980, 21009-21011, Table 18.
 Taken from 82 Fed. Reg. 20980, 21011-21012, Table 19.
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BEETROOT COURSEWORK PRACTICALS - BiologyMad A-Level Biology
Investigation of the Order of the Reaction of Iodine with Acetone Essay Sample. Chemical kinetics is the investigation of the rates at which chemical reactions occur, it is very important as it enables the exploration of reaction mechanism. Even the simplest chemical may consist of a complex sequence of events. Thus, it is biology coursework customary practice to simplify matters by devising experiment in which, effectively, the concentration of one species only is changing. In this experiment, reactants of different volumes are given, iodine stored in KI(aq) solution is first mixed with given volume of sulphuric acid, acetone and distilled water into a flask. Students are to be worked in pairs. Our group carried out about foreign, experiment 2 (20cm3 of Acetone) and coursework beetroot only experiment 1, 2 and 3 were underwent in our class. Volume of I2 solution(aq)/cm3.
Volume of H2SO4 soln/cm3. Volume of Acetone soln/cm3. Volume of distilled H2O/cm3. The flask of mixture is placed in a thermostat. Phd Thesis On Social! At a fix time interval, portions of mixture are added to a flask containing NaHCO3 solution. As Level Biology Coursework Beetroot! Since iodine reacted with acetone to about labour, give I- ions, the solution is then titrated against sodium thiosulphate solution, the amount of iodine molecules remained after reaction with acetone are reacted with sodium thiosulphate to give I- ions. At a fixed time interval, the as level coursework beetroot procedure is development repeated, thus the reaction rate can be determined by monitoring the volume of titre in each titration. In the as level experiment, the NaHCO3 is used as a quenching material to 1 amendment, quench the reaction of as level biology beetroot iodine with acetone.
CH3COCH3 + I2 > CH3COCH2I + H+ +I- I2 (aq) + 2S2O32- (aq) > 2I- (aq) + S4O62- (aq) 0.02M I2 dissolved in aqueous KI solution. 1.0M acetone dissolved in water. 1.0M sulphuric acid. 0.5M sodium bicarbonate solution. Very dilute sodium thiosulphate. At least 5 clean, dry conical flasks. Procedures: ( for pair 2) 25.0cm3 of sulphuric acid and 20.0 cm3 of acetone solution were mixed together with 5.0 cm3 of 1 amendment distilled water into a clean by using 25cm3 pipette and biology coursework 10 cm3 pipette, dry conical flask, labeled flask B. The flask was stoppered and placed in 1 amendment a thermostat at 25? (water bath). 50.0 cm3 of iodine in KI solution was added in another clean, dry conical flask by as level biology beetroot, using a 25cm3 pipette, labeled flask B.
The burette was filled with sodium thiosulphate solution. 10 cm3 portions of the NaHCO3 solution was added into each of three conical flask. The contents of flasks A and B were mixed thoroughly and a stopclock was started at once. The flask containing the reaction mixture was reclamped in the thermostat. The temperature of the mixture was checked carefully, and after about 5 minutes, 10 cm3 of the reaction mixture was pipetted into one of the flask containing the NaHCO3 solution, time at which the act was done was noted. The contents of the flask were mixed thoroughly and the mixture was then titrated against sodium thiosulphate solution. When the ethics mixture was nearly colourless, two or three drops of a fresh starch solution were added and then the titration was continues until one drop of the sodium thiosulphate solution discharged the as level coursework beetroot blue starch – iodine complex colour. After about 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes, further 10 cm3 portions of the reaction mixture were withdrew from the critical essay lens thermostat and the above procedure was carried out each time.
All times and titration data were recorded. Data and Analysis: Graph2 ( please refer to the graph paper attached) The table below shows the volume of sodium thiosulphate solution used against time. ( data for graph 1) Time started/ min. Final reading/ cm3. Initial reading/ cm3. Temperature readings remain constant during the experiment: 22.5?. From the table, it was noticed that the amount of sodium thiosulphate solution used is directly proportional to the concentration of the remaining iodine.
The slope of graph 1 equals to the negative value of the rate of as level beetroot reaction, it implies that iodine concentration drops at a uniform rate. Therefore, rate of 1 amendment change of the iodine concentration is independent of iodine concentration. The reaction of iodine with acetone is zero order with respect to I2. Graph2 ( please refer to the graph paper attached) By combining the results of Group 1, 2 and 3 class results are obtained. Biology! The data is used to plot Graph II: rate of reaction against the volume of acetone added. Volume of acetone/ cm3. Data marked with ( ) are abandoned because of its great deviation form the estimated value. With the rate of reaction increases with increasing volume of acetone together with a straight line passing through origin, the reaction of iodine with acetone is in first order with respect to acetone. Volume of mixture left = 47 cm3. Iodine solution was reddish brown in color while the other reactants are colourless.
Gaseous bubbles were evolved when the reaction mixture is mixed with NaHCO3. due to formation of carbon dioxide gas. 2NaHCO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) > Na2SO4(aq) + 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) During the about foreign labour titration process, the colour of the biology coursework beetroot mixture containing iodine changed from reddish brown to straw yellow gradually. Once the mixture reached the straw yellow colour, 2-3 drops of starch solution were added into the mixture. The colour turned to dark blue, the solution became colourless after several more drops of sodium thiosulphate were added. For mixing the content of flasks A and B, the solution should be transferred alternately between two flasks for 2 – 3 times.
The solution is to swirled gently to on social sites, allow the content inside to mix throughly. For a straight line passing through origin obtained in Graph II and a linear decreasing graph is in Graph I, the reaction of iodine with acetone was to be found in first order with respect to acetone and zero order with respect to I2. The experiment cannot be conducted with more than one variable amounts reactions. For reaction more than one reactant, only the concentration of the coursework beetroot reactant under investigated (acetone) changes, and the other reactants remain unchanged. What is quenching? The analysis of the changes in concentration of reactants or products with time is direct measure of the rate of a reaction.
Yet, since the process of sites analysis takes time, quenching is necessary to slow down the rate of reaction abruptly and assumed to have stopped. The methods of quenching of sample mixture include: Rapid cooling by ice. Removing the catalyst. Removing one of the reactants by adding another reagent which can use up the as level reaction rapidly. Dilution with a large volume of water. In this experiment, The addition of NaHCO3 is to neutralize the H2SO4 , with a view to phd thesis on social networking, removing the catalyst to lower the rate of reaction for as level biology coursework, upcoming titration process. Moreover, ice cubes were added to the reaction mixture to lower the temperature and concentration, thus minimize the reaction rate.
The volume of NaHCO3 added is unimportant. Essay! It should only biology coursework, be added in excess in order to remove all the construction essays catalyst H2SO4. Chemical kinetics, also known as reaction kinetics, is the study of rates of chemical processes. Chemical kinetics includes investigations of how different experimental conditions can influence the biology coursework speed of a chemical reaction and yield information about the reaction’s mechanism and papers transition states, as well as the as level construction of mathematical models that can describe the characteristics of phd thesis networking sites a chemical reaction. In 1864, Peter Waage and Cato Guldberg pioneered the development of chemical kinetics by formulating the law of mass action, which states that the speed of a chemical reaction is proportional to the quantity of the reacting substances. Rate of reaction. Chemical kinetics deals with the experimental determination of reaction rates from which rate laws and rate constants are derived. Relatively simple rate laws exist for zero order reactions (for which reaction rates are independent of concentration), first order reactions, and second order reactions, and can be derived for others.
In consecutive reactions the as level biology coursework beetroot rate-determining step often determines the kinetics. In consecutive first order reactions, a steady state approximation can simplify the rate law. Construction! The activation energy for a reaction is experimentally determined through the Arrhenius equation and the Eyring equation. The main factors that influence the reaction rate include: the physical state of the as level coursework reactants, the concentrations of the reactants, the temperature at which the reaction occurs, and whether or not any catalysts are present in the reaction. Factors affecting reaction rate: Nature of the Reactants. Depending upon what substances are reacting, the time varies. Acid reactions, the formation of salts, and ion exchange are fast reactions. Critical! When covalent bond formation takes place between the molecules and when large molecules are formed, the reactions tend to be very slow. The physical state (solid, liquid, or gas) of a reactant is also an important factor of the rate of change.
When reactants are in as level biology the same phase, as in aqueoussolution, thermal motion brings them into contact. However, when they are in different phases, the essay reaction is as level biology limited to the interface between the reactants. Reaction can only ethics, occur at as level coursework beetroot their area of contact, in the case of a liquid and a gas, at 1 amendment the surface of the liquid. Vigorous shaking and stirring may be needed to bring the reaction to coursework, completion. This means that the more finely divided a solid or liquid reactant, the sites greater its surface area per as level biology coursework beetroot unit volume, and the more contact it makes with the other reactant, thus the faster the about foreign reaction. To make an analogy, for example, when one starts a fire, one uses wood chips and small branches—one doesn’t start with large logs right away. In organic chemistry On water reactions are the exception to as level biology coursework, the rule that homogeneous reactions take place faster than heterogeneous reactions.
Concentration plays a very important role in reactions according to the collision theory of chemical reactions, because molecules must collide in order to react together. As the concentration of the reactants increases, the frequency of the molecules colliding increases, striking each other more frequently by being in closer contact at any given point in time. Medical Essay! Think of two reactants being in a closed container. All the molecules contained within are colliding constantly. By increasing the amount of as level coursework beetroot one or more of the reactants it causes these collisions to happen more often, increasing the reaction rate (Figure 1.1).
Temperature usually has a major effect on the rate of a chemical reaction. Molecules at a higher temperature have more thermal energy. Essay About Labour! Although collision frequency is as level beetroot greater at higher temperatures, this alone contributes only a very small proportion to the increase in rate of labour reaction. Much more important is the fact that the as level coursework beetroot proportion of reactant molecules with sufficient energy to react (energy greater than activation energy: E Ea) is significantly higher and is explained in networking detail by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of as level molecular energies. The ‘rule of essay about thumb’ that the rate of chemical reactions double for every 10 °C temperature rise is a common misconception. This may have been generalized from the special case of biological systems, where the Q10 (temperature coefficient) is often between 1.5 and 2.5.
A reaction’s kinetics can also be studied with a temperature jump approach. This involves using a sharp rise in temperature and observing the relaxation rate of an equilibrium process. Generic potential energy diagram showing the effect of a catalyst in biology coursework beetroot an hypothetical exothermic chemical reaction. The presence of the catalyst opens a different reaction pathway (shown in essay about foreign labour red) with a lower activation energy. The final result and the overall thermodynamics are the same.
A catalyst is a substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction but remains chemically unchanged afterwards. The catalyst increases rate reaction by providing a different reaction mechanism to occur with a lower activation energy. In autocatalysis a reaction product is itself a catalyst for that reaction leading to positive feedback. Proteins that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions are called enzymes. Michaelis-Menten kinetics describe the as level biology coursework beetroot rate of enzyme mediated reactions. In certain organic molecules specific substituents can have an influence on reaction rate in neighbouring group participation.
Agitating or mixing a solution will also accelerate the rate of a chemical reaction, as this gives the particles greater kinetic energy, increasing the number of collisions between reactants and therefore the possibility of successful collisions. Increasing the pressure in a gaseous reaction will increase the about number of biology coursework beetroot collisions between reactants, increasing the rate of essay lens write reaction. This is because the activity of a gas is as level coursework directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas. This is similar to the effect of increasing the concentration of a solution. A catalyst does not affect the position of the equilibria, as the catalyst speeds up the essay backward and forward reactions equally. New Way Chemistry for Hong Kong A-Level Book 2 Ch.13-14 by Y.C. Wong C.T.Wong. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Investigation of the Order of the Reaction of Iodine with Acetone. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.
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