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How to Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to list, re-iterate, and expand upon your skills and abilities that are relevant to the job you are applying for. A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) “resume reading robots”, which is the first step to getting your application into a hiring manager’s hands. Don’t miss the mother building, opportunity to make a powerful skills section that can tip the odds in your favor — read on to learn how. Sometimes referenced as “ Additional Skills ” the Skills Section is where you can list all of your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in the bullet points of the Work History sections. Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section. Laborer Resume Skills Section. As you can see, these all tend to be brief and to the point.
Yet, there is a right way and wedel, a wrong way to writing them. Don’t forget your cover letter. Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions.
A hiring manager is building essay, interested in what relevant skills you have. They do not care about whether or not you came in first place in the hot dog eating contest at the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in World of Warcraft for 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the other does not. That’s something that might catch a hiring manager’s eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Andreas Wedel. Even if you have a knack for something that is role mother, not directly related to the position, as long as it’s relevant it’s worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for an assistant manager position at a small music shop, it’s perfectly acceptable to latex, mention that you can play guitar.
It isn’t directly related to management, but it shows you have knowledge of the role mother character building, industry. Just like discussed in all of the Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers. The same goes for how specific you are in regards to field in reflection social use work, software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Don’t Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in English and Spanish , and proficient in character building essay, French. Don’t Say: Skilled typist. Do Say: 70WPM typist. You don’t need to get overzealous with the specifics, but a couple of details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to name the on value building, individual applications you’re proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate. If you’re only listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isn’t that big of a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and your speaking and language skills with your speaking and language skills.
Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Bilingual – Fluent in English and French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker Bilingual – Fluent in English and French. Also, when possible list the mother character essay, group of skills that are more important to the position that you’re applying for andreas first. Mother Character Building Essay. You shouldn’t spend too much time debating on the ordering though as per the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway. Formatting: Additional Skills vs. Technical / Computer Skills. Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to essay in character, the bottom, but for some specific industries listing them at the top is mother, very effective . Take a look at the sample resume for an applicant searching for an IT job: Because an IT job requires an employee to have a base set of skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the end. He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is with, proficient with, bolding each main general category and then listing each specific skill in its respective category. Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering.
Regardless of which style of Skills Section you use on your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , you’re sure to impress. Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume. The Best List of Skills For a Resume. Below are the role building essay, most sought after skills and andreas, abilities that employers look for on a resume. Mother Essay. If you can include these abilities on your resume, you will be sure to attract their attention.
However, it is not enough to simply list your skills. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. That’s why it is more effective to include examples of how you use your skills rather than merely stating, “Possess great communication skills.” The bottom line is rutgers thesis, that HR managers want proof. Here is a list of mother character good skills and example bullet points to add to your resume: Approach all work activities with deliberate focus to ensure that each task is completed correctly, efficiently, and effectively.
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Offline : Configuration change operation to apply the patch content with the system down. Bits application happens here, for instance. Mother Building? So the opatch patch will be recorded to andreas phd thesis, the homes OUI inventory in this phase. Start-up : Life-cycle operation that brings the shutdown entities back up again. Online : Configuration change operation apply patch content that requires that the systems be up. If these configuration changes have a system inventory, they will also be recorded to that system's inventory at this point. Finalize : Book-keeping operation to record that patch operation is role mother, complete. In the field in reflection self social, product's documentation, you might see sub-phases that include ”prepare” and ”binary/product” variants. Prepare means ready materials but do not make a configuration change. Role Mother Essay? Binary operations only change Oracle Homes.
Product operations change the identitiy theft, configured system, such as domain configurations or database dictionaries. Character Essay? The specific content of the latex, patch determines precisely what specific Oracle Home and configuration changes occur. Most Fusion Middleware patches, for example, only role mother character essay include offline content changes. But, of course, some include configuration changes as well. In general, the session is an implicit parameter, set internally to the last session. It is visible to the user in the logs, communicated as a session ID, but there is no requirement for identitiy essays it to be supplied by the user. As a convenience for specifying the rollback parameters, you can specify the session ID. In this case, OPatchAuto knows to query that session for the patch you wish to rollback. Patch plans describe, independent of a specific product instance's topology, the sequence of steps to execute in order to deploy the patch. Patch plans are life-cycle programs, developed by Oracle life-cycle management experts, specifically for the given product being patched. They are optional and advanced inputs.
However, internally, OPatchAuto always selects a patch plan to mother character essay, guide its execution. For example, internally, OPatchAuto apply and OPatchAuto rollback automatically select different patch plans implicitly. Users will input patch plans to OPatchAuto when executing more complex life-cycle operation, such as Zero Downtime Patching. The product documentation for these life-cycle operations will list the field self use work, names of valid patch plans. With OPatchAuto, you can automatically patch the character, typical Grid Infrastructure (GI) and RAC home directories with minimal intervention. Persuasive Essay 5 Paragraphs? OPatchAuto performs many of the pre-patch checks (see Using OPatch) as well as the role mother character essay, post-patch verification. The power of OPatchAuto lies in its ability to perform end-to-end configuration patching . Configuration patching is the process of essay on value patching a GI or RAC home based on its configuration. Role Character Building Essay? By incorporating the configuration information into the patch process, OPatchAuto streamlines patching tasks by automating most of the steps. OPatchAuto uses your GI/RAC configuration and, from that information, automatically generates patching instructions specific to your site configuration. OPatchAuto then uses OPatch to implement these instructions and perform the actual application of the patch. Beginning with Oracle Database 12 c , patches have been converted to wedel phd thesis, a System patch format in role mother character building, order to support patch automation.
What is a System Patch? A System patch contains several sub-patches whose locations are determined by a file called bundle.xml in the top level directory of the patch. The sub-patches are intended for different sub-systems of a system that correspond with the database home organization. A typical System patch format is phd thesis, organized as follows: For database releases prior to 12 c , OPatchAuto is character building essay, not supported for essay the released one-off patches. For older releases, you must use OPatch and follow the patch README instructions. OPatchAuto and System patches are only role mother building essay supported by Oracle Database 12 c and above. Additional Supported Patch Types/Configurations.
One ore more one-off patches. One composite patch. One system patch / bundle patch. One system patch / bundle patch and 1 or more one-off patches. One system patch / bundle patch which has a composite patch in identitiy theft essays, it. Character? One system patch / bundle patch which has a composite patch in it and essays, 1 or more one-off patches. One system patch / bundle patch and 1 or more one-off patches and 1 composite patch.
3.4.2 Supported Target Configurations. OPatchAuto can be applied to character building, the following general configurations: GI Home Not Shared. RAC Home Shared. RAC Home Not Shared. 220.127.116.11 Shared Versus Non-Shared (GI or RAC) Homes. The configuration differences between shared and non-shared Homes come into phd thesis, play when determining the patching mode in which OPatchAuto is used. See Section 18.104.22.168, Patch Application Modes.
OPatchAuto supports two modes of patching a GI or RAC Home - Rolling and Non-rolling. When a patching session is started off (on the first node), the stack has to be up and running on mother character building, this node. This applies to both rolling and non-rolling modes of patching. Rolling Mode (Default Mode): When performing patching in Rolling mode, the ORACLE_HOME processes on a particular node are shut down, the patch is applied, then the node is brought back up again. This process is of sports building, repeated for each node in the GI or RAC environment until all nodes are patched. This is the most efficient mode of applying an interim patch to role mother character building, an Oracle RAC setup because this results in no downtime. Not all patches can be applied using Rolling mode. Whether or not a patch can be applied in this way is generally specified in the patch metadata. A Great Essay? The patch README also specifies whether or not a patch can be applied in Rolling mode. The node (GI Home) from which the opatchauto command is executed is considered the LOCAL node and mother character essay, all other nodes are considered REMOTE nodes.
When you begin a rolling mode session, at least 1 remote node has to be up and running. A Great? OPatchAuto applies patches in character building essay, rolling mode by default. Non-rolling Mode : Prior to 12 c , a non-rolling upgrade was defined as shutting down Oracle processes on all nodes. Beginning with 12c, non-rolling patching requires the GI stack to be up on essay self, local node. The patching operation on first and last node have special steps to perform hence the operation needs to be handled separately but not in parallel with other nodes.
The non-rolling patching can ve described as three phases: Beginning with 12c, non-rolling patching occurs in three phases: Patch Node 2 through n-1. Building? When you start a non-rolling mode session none of the remote nodes can up and running: All nodes (including the local node) must be stopped. As shown in the following figure, given n nodes, you begin the non-rolling patch session by patching a single node, then patch nodes two through n -1 in parallel, and finally patch node n to finish the patching session. To run OPatchAuto in non-rolling mode, you must explicitly specify the -nonrolling option.
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Current Trends Risks Associated with Human Parvovirus B19 Infection. This report* was developed to assist physicians, public health officials, and other health-care professionals respond to public concerns about role mother character building, recently recognized, serious complications of human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection, including transient aplastic crisis (TAC), chronic anemia, and fetal death. It includes background information about the virus, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and identitiy essays, diagnostic testing. In addition, interim guidelines are presented for preventing B19 infection, managing persons exposed to persons with B19 infection, and role character building essay, managing patients infected with B19. These guidelines reflect both the essay of sports in character current limited information about the extent to which B19 infection leads to severe complications and the limited availability of diagnostic testing. Priorities for role mother building future research are identified. GENERAL INFORMATION. B19 was discovered in England in 1975 in of sports serum specimens from healthy blood donors (1). Since its discovery, B19 has been shown to be the causative agent of erythema infectiosum (EI) (also known as fifth disease) and is the primary etiologic agent of TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (2-4). B19 has also been associated with fetal death (both spontaneous abortions and role mother character building essay, stillbirths), acute arthralgias and arthritis, and chronic anemia in immunodeficient patients (5-14).
The virus belongs to the family Parvoviridae, which includes two genera of vertebrate viruses: genus parvovirus (autonomously replicating parvoviruses) and genus dependovirus (parvoviruses that require a helper virus, such as adenovirus or herpes virus, for replication); and one genus of invertebrate viruses, the genus densovirus (15). B19 is in latex the genus parvovirus, which includes a number of mother animal parvoviruses such as the canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus. The parvoviruses tend to be species-specific; only the adeno-associated parvoviruses (members of the a great sargeson essay dependovirus genus) and B19 are known to infect humans. Role Mother Essay. The adeno-associated parvoviruses have not been associated with disease in humans. Fecal parvoviruses and the RA1 virus have been reported but not confirmed to be human pathogens (16,17).
B19 is a heat-stable virus and can survive at field self use work, 60 C (140 F) for up to mother building, 12 hours. CLINICAL FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease) The most commonly recognized illness associated with B19 infection is EI. Andreas Wedel. EI is a mild childhood illness characterized by a facial rash (slapped cheek appearance), and a reticulated or lacelike rash on role character building essay, the trunk and day frank sargeson, extremities (18). Reappearance of the rash may occur for several weeks following nonspecific stimuli such as change in temperature, sunlight, and emotional stress. Typically, the patient is role building, otherwise well at rash onset but often gives a history of persuasive essay with 5 paragraphs mild systemic symptoms 1-4 days before rash onset. In some EI outbreaks, pruritis has been a common clinical feature.
In addition to typical EI, B19 infection has been associated with a variety of other exanthems, including those that are rubella-like, vesicular, and role essay, purpuric (18). Asymptomatic Infection. In outbreak investigations, asymptomatic infection has been reported in essays approximately 20% of children and character building, adults (19,20). Persuasive With. Arthropathy. In some outbreaks of EI, arthralgias and arthritis have been commonly reported (7,8,21). Infection may produce a symmetrical peripheral polyarthropathy. Role Mother Character Essay. Joints in the hands are most frequently affected, followed by the knees and wrists. Symptoms are usually self-limited but may persist for several months.
Joint symptoms, more common in adults, may occur as the sole manifestation of infection. Transient Aplastic Crisis and Severe Anemia. B19 is the primary etiologic agent causing TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (e.g., sickle cell disease, hemoglobin SC disease, hereditary spherocytosis, alpha-thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia) (22,23). It can also cause TAC in wedel other conditions in which increased red cell production is mother character essay, necessary to maintain stable red cell indices, as may occur in anemia due to blood loss. Patients with TAC typically present with pallor, weakness, and latex, lethargy and may report a nonspecific prodromal illness in the preceding 1-7 days. Few patients with TAC report a rash. In the acute phase of the illness, #12;patients usually have a moderate to mother building essay, severe anemia with absence f reticulocytes, and bone marrow examination shows a hypoplastic or an aplastic erythroid series with a normal myeloid series. Recovery is indicated by a return of reticulocytes in the peripheral smear approximately 7-10 days after their disappearance. TAC may require transfusion and phd thesis, hospitalization and can be fatal if not treated promptly. Mother Building. B19 Infection in Immunodeficient Patients. A B19-related severe chronic anemia associated with red cell aplasia has been described in patients on maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia, patients with congenital immunodeficiencies, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency (9-14).
It is not yet known how often B19 causes chronic anemia in with 5 paragraphs immunodeficient patients or which patients are most susceptible to mother character essay, this complication of infection. Theft Essays. Chronic B19 infection should, however, be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in the immunodeficient patient. Role Character Essay. Infection in the Pregnant Woman Intrauterine infection and fetal death. In most of the reported B19 infections occurring during pregnancy, the fetus has not been adversely affected (5,6,24-30). However, in some cases B19 infection has been associated with fetal death. 5 Paragraphs. The risk of role character building essay fetal death attributable to essay, parvovirus infection following documented maternal infection (B19 IgM-antibody-positive) is mother character essay, not known, but preliminary results of one study from the United Kingdom suggest that it is less than 10% (30; SM Hall, unpublished data). Essay Self. In that study, 174 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 were followed prospectively to mother character essay, delivery. Fetal loss occurred in use work 30 (17.2%): 21 (19.1%) of role character 110 women infected during the first 12 weeks of essay in reflection social pregnancy, seven (15.2%) of 46 women infected during weeks 13-20, one (6.3%) of 16 women infected after 20 weeks, and one of two women with unknown time of character building essay infection. Fetal death most commonly occurred from the field use work 10th through the 20th weeks of pregnancy. Not all fetal deaths directly resulted from essay, B19 infection. Since this study did not include a control group, the number of deaths attributable to B19 infection cannot be calculated directly.
In other studies, rates of recognized pregnancies ending in spontaneous abortions from day frank sargeson essay, all causes by 28 weeks' gestation range from 10% to 25% (31). In the British study, the mother character building number of fetal deaths linked to B19 infection can be estimated by determining whether fetal tissues contain B19 DNA. Tissues from 14 fetuses were tested for B19 DNA: six were positive, two were equivocal, and andreas, six were negative. Mother Essay. The cause of on value of sports in character death is likely to have been B19 infection for the DNA-positive fetuses; thus, at least six (3.4%) of 174 infected women were likely to have had a B19-associated fetal loss. When the results of the 14 tested were extrapolated to all 30 fetal deaths, an role mother character estimated 17 fetuses would be B19 DNA-positive or equivocal, suggesting that less than or equal to17 (less than or equal to9.8%) of the 174 B19-infected women might have had a B19-associated fetal loss. Antibody studies of liveborn infants and hybridization studies of fetal tissues indicate that less than one third of persuasive essay with maternal infections are associated with fetal infection in this study.
Results from an ongoing study in character the United States also suggest that B19- attributable fetal deaths are infrequent (CDC, unpublished data). In this study, 95 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 are being followed prospectively. Fetal loss has so far occurred in identitiy essays two (4.1%) of 49 women followed to term. It is not known whether the two fetal deaths were caused by B19 infection. One fetus was hydropic; the other was not described. Character Essay. No tissues from either fetus were available for B19 hybridization studies. When the antibody status of the woman is theft essays, unknown, estimates of the building risk of fetal death after exposure must take into account the rate of susceptibility in the population and the risk of infection after the exposure.
For example, by taking these factors into account, the upper limit estimate of the risk of fetal death would be less than 2.5% after exposure to household members with documented infection (less than 0.1 risk of fetal death x 0.5 rate of susceptibility x 0.5 rate of infection x 100; see sections on Epidemiologic Features of B19 Infection: Prevalence and Transmission) and less than 1.5% after prolonged exposure at phd thesis, schools with widespread EI among students (less than 0.1 risk of fetal death x 0.5 rate of susceptibility x 0.3 rate of infection x 100). The upper limit risk estimate of fetal death after other types of exposure (e.g., schools with limited EI among students) is likely to be substantially less. A study of role mother building essay 96 women who had stillbirths, 96 women who had spontaneous abortions, and controls matched by age, duration of pregnancy, and location suggests that B19 is not responsible for a substantial #12;proportion of fetal deaths in andreas the general population (32). In this study, the building essay rate of serologically confirmed B19 infection was the same (1%) in cases and controls. In a survey of 50 fetuses with nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis, an uncommonly diagnosed cause of fetal death, four (8%) were positive for identitiy B19 DNA (25). Congenital anomalies. Since some of the mother building animal parvoviruses are teratogens (33), the possibility that infection may also be associated with congenital anomalies in humans is a concern. However, there is no evidence that the rate of with congenital anomalies following B19 infection exceeds background rates. B19-associated congenital anomalies have not been reported among several hundred liveborn infants of B19-infected mothers. One aborted fetus with eye anomalies and histologic evidence of mother character building damage to on value of sports, multiple tissues born to a B19-infected woman has been reported (34).
An anencephalic fetus was reported in character essay a B19-infected woman, but the theft timing of role essay infection made it unlikely that B19 contributed to persuasive essay with 5 paragraphs, the defect (35). ATHOGENESIS. The pathogenesis of the rash in EI is mother, unknown, but the rash may be immune- complex-mediated. Wedel Phd Thesis. The other, more serious manifestations of B19 infection are related to the propensity of the virus to infect and lyse erythroid precursor cells and interrupt normal red cell production (36). In a person with normal hematopoiesis, B19 infection produces a self-limited red cell aplasia that is clinically inapparent. Transient leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia have also been reported with B19 infection in the normal host (37,38).
In patients who have increased rates of red cell destruction or loss and who depend on compensatory increases in mother character building red cell production to maintain stable red cell indices, B19 infection may lead to essay with 5 paragraphs, TAC. Patients at risk for TAC include those with chronic hemolytic anemias and those with anemias associated with acute or chronic blood loss. In immunodeficient persons, B19 infection may persist, causing chronic red cell aplasia, which results in role building chronic anemia; chronic neutropenia has also been described (10). B19 DNA-positive tissues have been reported in 20 fetal deaths; in all 17 cases in which pathologic findings were described, the fetuses had nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis (6,25-27,30,35,39-44). The precise pathogenesis of fetal death remains unclear. Severe anemia may precipitate congestive heart failure, generalized edema, and ultimately fetal death.
The fetus may be particularly vulnerable to B19 infection because red cell survival is essay on value of sports in character building, short, and the red cell volume is rapidly expanding. Severe anemia, B19 viremia, and cytologic changes in erythroid precursor cells have been described in mother character building fetuses just before death (26,27,39). Chronic infection may occur in the fetus (one fetus was viremic for at least 4 weeks) (26). Essay 5 Paragraphs. In one case report, infection of character essay myocardial cells was noted, suggesting that direct damage to myocardial tissue may also contribute to the disease process in the fetus (29). EPIDEMIOLOGIC FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Prevalence. B19 infection occurs worldwide (45,46). Infection with B19 can occur throughout the year, in all age groups, during outbreaks of EI, or as sporadic cases. B19 infection is most frequently recognized during outbreaks of EI in schools. These outbreaks often begin in late winter or early spring and may continue until school recesses for the summer. The level of persuasive with EI activity in a community varies from role character building essay, year to year; periods of increased activity lasting several years are generally followed by several years of rutgers latex decreased activity (47-50). The reported seroprevalence ranges from 2% to 15% in children 1-5 years old, 15% to 60% in children 5-19 years old, and 30% to 60% in adults (18,40,51,52).
Incubation Period. Studies of secondary illness in households suggest that the incubation period for clinical EI and role mother character essay, TAC is usually 4-14 days but can be as long as 20 days (18). In volunteer studies, rash illness occurred 17-18 days after inoculation (37,38). Transmission. B19 DNA has been found in respiratory secretions in viremic patients, which suggests that these secretions are involved in transmission (19,20,37). In studies of human volunteers, serum and respiratory secretions became positive for persuasive with B19 DNA 5-10 days after intranasal inoculation (during the prodromal illness) (37,38). Role Mother Building Essay. By the time of onset of rash or arthralgia, serum specimens had been negative for 1-5 days.
B19 has not been detected in the respiratory secretions and persuasive, only rarely in the serum of role building essay patients after onset of EI (37). In contrast, acute serum specimens are often positive for sargeson essay B19 DNA in role mother character essay patients when they present with TAC; serum specimens are usually negative by 7 days after onset of theft essays illness (53). Role Mother Essay. The presence of with 5 paragraphs B19 DNA in serum or respiratory secretions presumably correlates with infectiousness; thus, patients with EI are probably past the period of greatest infectiousness, while patients with TAC are likely to be #12;infectious during the course of their illness. The presence of IgG antibody correlates with a lower risk of infection. This decreased risk has been suggested in volunteers who were experimentally inoculated with B19: four of five IgG-negative but only one of role mother character building four IgG-positive volunteers developed serologic evidence of infection (37). The IgG-positive volunteer who became infected had low levels of IgG antibody before challenge and theft, had a lower titer and shorter duration of viremia than had the four infected volunteers who were IgG-negative. The virus is transmitted effectively after close contact exposures. The secondary attack rate for infection among susceptible household contacts of patients with TAC or EI is about 50% (19,20). In school outbreaks, 10%-60% of students may develop EI. In outbreaks in which student involvement is widespread, preliminary data suggest 20%-30% of susceptible (IgG-antibody-negative) staff may develop serologic evidence of B19 infection during the course of the mother character essay outbreak (CDC, unpublished data).
In outbreak settings, it is not known whether the primary mode of transmission involves direct person-to-person contact, fomites, large-particle droplets, or small- particle droplets. The virus can also be transmitted parenterally by transfusion of blood or blood products and vertically from mother to fetus (1,54,55). Transmission rarely occurs during transfusion with single-donor blood products but is common during treatment with clotting-factor concentrates even after steam- or dry-heat treatment of the clotting factor concentrate (1,54,55). Tattooing was suspected as the source of a great essay B19 transmission in two instances (56). DIAGNOSIS B19 Antibody Assays. The most sensitive test to building, detect recent infection is the IgM-antibody assay. B19 IgM antibody can be detected by capture-antibody radioimmunoassay or enzyme immunoassay in approximately 90% of cases by the third day after symptoms of identitiy TAC or EI begin (57,58).
The titer and role mother character building essay, the percentage of persuasive essay 5 paragraphs positives begin to role character, decline 30-60 days after onset. B19 IgG antibody is usually present by the seventh day of illness and persists for years. B19 antibody may not be detectable in andreas immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection, and additional testing for B19 DNA or viral antigens may be necessary to document infection. B19 has not been grown in standard cell culture systems or animal model systems, but it has been grown in bone marrow explant culture systems (59). Role Character. The inability to grow the of sports in character building virus in sufficient quantity to produce antigen for diagnostic assays has precluded widespread availability of B19 testing (36,60,61).
Recently parvovirus B19 DNA has been incorporated into the genome of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line (62). This cell line expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious virionlike particles that can be used as antigen for antibody assays; this source of role essay antigen should lead to increased availability of diagnostic tests. Assays for B19 DNA. The most sensitive test for detecting the thesis virus is role mother, nucleic acid hybridization (63,64). This test has been used to identify B19 DNA in serum, leukocytes, respiratory secretions, urine, and tissue specimens. One group reported that B19 DNA was more likely to be detected in leukocytes than in serum (65). Histologic Features of B19 Infection.
Light and essay building, electron microscopy can be helpful in diagnosing B19 infections (1,23,41) By light microscopy, eosinophilic nuclear inclusions with peripheral condensation of chromatin can be seen in erythroid precursor cells of infected patients. Character. The inclusions contain parvovirus-like particles by transmission electron microscopy (28,41,66). B19-like particles may also be seen by andreas wedel phd thesis, electron microscopy in serum specimens of some infected patients (1,23,41). Mother Building Essay. Histologic findings in fetal tissues also may include a severe leukoerythroblastic reaction and excessive iron deposition in tissues, which indicates hemolysis. Assays to Determine Site of Infection. It is not known which tissues, in addition to in reflection social, erythroid precursor cells, support virus replication. Role Mother. Several tests have been developed that distinguish virus infection of tissue or cells from deposition of virus by passive transfer in blood. In situ hybridization can demonstrate viral DNA in specific cells and has been used to show that B19 sometimes infects fetal myocardial cells (29). Replicative forms of B19 DNA and nonstructural proteins can be demonstrated by Southern and Western blot analysis, respectively, indicating infection in the tissue (67,68).
PREVENTION OF INFECTION Risk Groups. Although B19 infection usually produces a mild, self-limited illness, three groups of persons are at essay, risk for role mother character essay serious complications of infection: 1) persons with chronic hemolytic anemias, 2) persons with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, and 3) pregnant women. Since infection in these persons can lead to substantial morbidity #12;and some mortality, consideration should be given to phd thesis, preventing or ameliorating disease. Role Mother Character. Immunization Active. There is identitiy essays, no vaccine to character essay, prevent B19, but a recently developed cell line that expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious viruslike particles has been proposed as a source of antigen for andreas wedel development of a candidate vaccine (62). Passive. No studies have been conducted to determine whether preexposure or postexposure prophylaxis with commercially available immune globulin (IG) preparations would prevent infection or modify the course of character illness during community outbreaks. Routine prophylaxis with IG cannot be recommended at this time. Thesis Latex. Health-Care Settings.
Guidelines for isolation precautions in hospitals have been published for EI (69), but recent information suggests that these guidelines should be modified. Most patients with EI are past their period of infectiousness and role character essay, do not present a risk for identitiy essays further transmission; thus isolation precautions are not indicated. However, there is risk for role building essay nosocomial transmission of B19 from patients with TAC and from immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection. These patients should be considered infectious and placed on isolation precautions for the duration of use work their illness or until the infection has been cleared. Nosocomial transmission of B19 has been associated with one case of TAC (70). Transmission of role building essay B19 infection has also occurred in medical research laboratories (4,71). Patients with TAC or chronic B19 infection should be admitted to private rooms. Persons in close contact with the essay field social use work patients should wear masks. Gloves should be worn by persons likely to touch infective material such as respiratory secretions, and gowns should be worn when soiling is anticipated (contact isolation) (69). Character Building. Hands should be washed after the patient or potentially contaminated articles are touched and before care is provided to another patient. B19-infected patients may share a room with another B19-infected patient unless sharing is 5 paragraphs, contraindicated by another infection or condition.
Health-care workers should be advised that they are at risk of mother character building essay B19 infection after exposure in the hospital or in the community and that there may be a risk for further transmission to patients. With 5 Paragraphs. Routine infection-control practices should minimize the risk of transmission. Personnel who may be pregnant or who might become pregnant should know about potential risks to the fetus from B19 infection and about preventive measures that may reduce those risks. Homes, Schools, and role mother character essay, Workplaces. When outbreaks of B19 infection occur in situations in which prolonged, close contact exposures occur (e.g., at home, in schools, or in day-care centers), options for preventing transmission are limited. The greatest risk of transmitting the virus occurs before symptoms of EI develop; therefore, transmission cannot be prevented by identifying and excluding persons with EI. The efficacy of decontaminating toys and essay field self social, environmental surfaces to decrease B19 transmission has not been studied. The efficacy of role mother character building handwashing to decrease B19 transmission has not been studied either, but handwashing is recommended as a practical and probably effective measure. When outbreaks occur, parents of school-aged children and employees should be advised about the risk of transmitting and acquiring infection and about who is at identitiy theft, risk for serious complications.
Persons who wish to role character building essay, obtain additional information about risks and management of B19 exposures should be referred to their health-care provider and state or local health officials. The decision to try to decrease any person's risk of infection by avoiding a workplace or school evironment in which an EI outbreak is occurring should be made by the person after discussions with family members, health-care providers, public health officials, and theft, employers or school officials. A policy to building, routinely exclude members of high-risk groups is not recommended. PATIENT MANAGEMENT Patients with Chronic Hemolytic Anemia. The exposed patient with chronic hemolytic anemia should be managed by rutgers thesis latex, alerting the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the role mother building exposure, the rutgers thesis latex symptoms and role character, signs associated with TAC (pallor, weakness, and lethargy), and identitiy theft, the need to consult a physician immediately if symptoms or signs of TAC develop.
Management of the patient with TAC is based on mother, treating symptoms of the associated anemia and may require blood transfusion. Patients with Congenital and Acquired Immunodeficiencies. The exposed patient with a congenital or acquired immunodeficiency should be managed by advising the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the exposure and wedel phd thesis, the possibility that B19 infection may lead to chronic anemia. The physician should consider B19 infection in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in this group of patients, especially if there is an mother essay outbreak of EI in rutgers thesis the community. #12; In several patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, the administration of IG resulted in disappearance of viremia and improvement in role mother character building red cell indices (10). In other patients, the infection and associated anemia resolved when immune function returned (12,14). The role of IG in the treatment of these patients needs further study. Pregnant Women. The knowledge that B19 infection during pregnancy can cause fetal death has created concern among health-care providers, public health officials, and thesis latex, pregnant women and their families.
In managing exposed pregnant women, risks should be considered in the context of other risks to the pregnancy and the risks associated with intervention. For women with a documented infection, maternal serum #156;ga-fetoprotein levels and diagnostic ultrasound examinations have been used to identify adversely affected fetuses, but the sensitivity and role character, specificity of these tests, their appropriate timing, and the risks and latex, benefits of role character essay their use in managing infected pregnant women have not yet been determined (39,41). Interpretation of the ultrasound is essay on value of sports in character building, difficult early in pregnancy and should be supervised by a physician experienced in diagnosing fetal abnormalities. Intrauterine blood transfusion (IBT) has been proposed as treatment for the fetus with B19-induced severe anemia. However, IBT is a high-risk, specialized procedure of unproven benefit in this situation and cannot be recommended for routine treatment of character essay B19-related hydrops fetalis (72). AVAILABILITY OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTING AT CDC. Diagnostic testing is available at only a few sites, primarily research laboratories; increasing the availability of diagnostic testing is a public health priority. The Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, can accept a limited number of specimens for B19 diagnostic testing. Identitiy. At this time, CDC is accepting specimens through state health departments from patients with TAC, immunodeficient patients with chronic anemia, pregnant women exposed to B19 or with symptoms suggestive of role B19 infection, and cases of nonimmune fetal hydrops possibly related to essay, B19 infection, and not accepting specimens for routine antibody testing. Physicians can arrange testing at CDC by consulting their state health department.
PRIORITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. The following areas have been identified as high priorities for future public health-related research on B19 infection: Develop surveillance methods that distinguish outbreaks from sporadic disease. 2.Refine estimates of infection rates following exposures in the home, the workplace, and school. Role Mother. 3.Refine risk estimates for adverse fetal outcomes associated with B19 infection during pregnancy.
4.Evaluate methods to treat and prevent B19-related fetal hydrops. Andreas Wedel. 5.Determine the disease burden associated with B19 infection in immunodeficient patients, including patients with HIV infection. 6.Determine the risk of infection and factors associated with transmission in health-care settings. 7.Determine the efficacy of IG for prevention and treatment of B19 infection. 8.Determine the potential reduction in morbidity and role character, mortality associated with development and theft essays, use of a B19 vaccine. Reported by: Div of Reproductive Health, Center for role mother character building Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; Div of Immunization, Center for Prevention Svcs; Div of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control; Div of Surveillance and Epidemiologic Studies, Epidemiology Program Office; National Institute for wedel phd thesis Occupational Safety and Health; AIDS Program, Hospital Infections Program, Div of role Host Factors, Div of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC. Cossart YE, Field AM, Cant B, Widdows D. Parvovirus-like particles in theft essays human sera.
Lancet 1975;1:72-3. 2.Anderson MJ, Jones SE, Fisher-Hoch SP, et al. Human parvovirus, the cause of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)? (Letter). Lancet 1983;1:1378. 3.Anderson MJ, Lewis E, Kidd IM, Hall SM, Cohen BJ. Role Mother Essay. An outbreak of erythema infectiosum associated with human parvovirus infection. J Hyg (Lond) 1984;93:85-93. 4.Pattison JR, Jones SE, Hodgson J, et al.
Parvovirus infections and hypoplastic crisis in sickle-cell anaemia (Letter). On Value In Character Building. Lancet 1981;1:664-5. 5.Knott PD, Welply GAC, Anderson MJ. Serologically proved intrauterine infection with parvovirus. Br Med J 1984;289:1660. 6.Brown T, Anand A, Ritchie LD, Clewley JP, Reid TMS. Intrauterine parvovirus infection associated with hydrops fetalis (Letter). Role Mother. Lancet 1984;2:1033-4.
7.White DG, Woolf AD, Mortimer PP, Cohen BJ, Blake DR, Bacon PA. Human parvovirus arthropathy. Lancet 1985;1:419-21. #12;8.Reid DM, Reid TMS, Brown T, Rennie JAN, Eastmond CJ. Human parvovirus-associated arthritis: a clinical and laboratory description. Lancet 1985;1:422-5. Field Social. 9.Van Horn DK, Mortimer PP, Young N, Hanson GR. Human parvovirus-associated red cell aplasia in the absence of underlying hemolytic anemia. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1986;8:235-9. 10.Kurtzman GJ, Ozawa K, Cohen B, Hanson G, Oseas R, Young NS. Chronic bone marrow failure due to persistent B19 parvovirus infection.
N Engl J Med 1987;317:287-94. 11.Davidson JE, Gibson B, Gibson A, Evans TJ. Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and immunodeficiency (Letter). Lancet 1989;1:102. 12.Smith MA, Shah NR, Lobel JS, Cera PJ, Gary GW, Anderson LJ. Severe anemia caused by human parvovirus in a leukemia patient on maintenance chemotherapy. Clin Pediatr 1988:27:383-6.
13.Kurtzman GJ, Cohen B, Meyers P, Amunullah A, Young NS. Persistent B19 parvovirus infection as a cause of severe chronic anaemia in children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Lancet 1988;2:1159-62. 14.Coulombel L, Morinet F, Mielot F, Tchernia G. Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and immunodeficiency (Letter). Role Mother Character Essay. Lancet 1989;1:101-2. 15.Siegl G, Bates RC, Berns KI, et al. Characteristics and taxonomy of Parvoviridae.
Intervirology 1985;23:61-73. Persuasive Essay. 16.Paver WK, Clarke SKR. Mother Essay. Comparison of human fecal and rutgers, serum parvo-like viruses. J Clin Microbiol 1976;4:67-70. 17.Simpson RW, McGinty L, Simon L, Smith CA, Godzeski CW, Boyd RJ. Association of parvoviruses with rheumatoid arthritis of humans.
Science 1984;223:1425-8. 18.Anderson LJ. Role of parvovirus B19 in human disease. Role Character Essay. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987;6:711-8. 19.Plummer FA, Hammond GW, Forward K, et al. Latex. An erythema infectiosum-like illness caused by human parvovirus infection. N Engl J Med 1985;313:74-9. 20.Chorba T, Coccia P, Holman RC, et al. The role of parvovirus B19 in essay aplastic crisis and latex, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). J Infect Dis 1986;154:383-93.
21.Ager EA, Chin TDY, Poland JD. Epidemic erythema infectiosum. N Engl J Med 1966; 275:1326-31. 22.Serjeant GR, Goldstein AR. B19 virus infection and the aplastic crisis. Role Mother Essay. In: Pattison JR, ed.
Parvoviruses and human disease. Phd Thesis. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1988:85-92. 23.Young N. Hematologic and hematopoietic consequences of mother character building essay B19 parvovirus infection. Semin Hematol 1988;25:159-72. 24.Anderson LJ, Hurwitz ES.
Human parvovirus B19 and pregnancy. Clin Perinatol 1988; 15:273-86. 25.Porter HJ, Khong TY, Evans MF, Chan VT-W, Fleming KA. A Great Day Frank Essay. Parvovirus as a cause of hydrops fetalis: detection by in role character building situ DNA hybridisation. With. J Clin Pathol 1988;41:381-3. 26.Anderson MJ, Khousam MN, Maxwell DJ, Gould SJ, Happerfield LC, Smith WJ. Human parvovirus B19 and hydrops fetalis (Letter). Building Essay. Lancet 1988;1:535. 27.Franciosi RA, Tattersall P. Fetal infection with human parvovirus B19.
Hum Pathol 1988; 19:489-91. Andreas. 28.Caul EO, Usher MJ, Burton PA. Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus B19: a ight and electron microscopy study. J Med Virol 1988;24:55-66. 29.Porter HJ, Quantrill AM, Fleming KA. Role Mother Essay. B19 parvovirus infection of myocardial cells (Letter).
Lancet 1988;1:535-6. 30.Public Health Laboratory Service Working Party on persuasive essay 5 paragraphs, Fifth Disease. Study of human parvovirus (B19) infection in pregnancy. Comm Dis Rep 1987;87/20:3. 31.Edmonds L, Hatch M, Holmes L, et al.
Guidelines for reproductive studies in role building essay exposed human population. In: Bloom AD, Paul NW, eds. Guidelines for studies of human populations exposed to mutagenic and persuasive with 5 paragraphs, reproductive hazards: proceedings of role building essay conference held January 26-27, 1981, in Washington, DC. Andreas. White Plains, New York: March of character building essay Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, 1981:71. 32.Kinney JS, Anderson LJ, Farrar J, et al. Risk of adverse outcomes of pregnancy after human parvovirus B19 infection.
J Infect Dis 1988;157:663-7. 33.Siegl G. Biology and pathogenicity of autonomous parvoviruses. In: Berns KI, ed. The parvoviruses. New York: Plenum Press, 1984:297-362. 34.Weiland HT, Vermey-Keers C, Salimans MMM, Fleuren GJ, Verwey RA, Anderson MJ.
Parvovirus B19 associated with fetal abnormality (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:682-3. 35.Rodis JF, Hovick TJ Jr, Quinn DL, Rosengren SS, Tattersall P. Rutgers Thesis Latex. Human parvovirus infection in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:733-8. 36.Young N, Harrison M, Moore J, Mortimer P, Humphries RK. Role Building. Direct demonstration of the human parvovirus in erythroid progenitor cells infected in vitro. J Clin Invest 1984; 74:2024-32. 37.Anderson MJ, Higgins PG, Davis LR, et al. Experimental parvoviral infection in humans.
J Infect Dis 1985;152:257-65. 38.Potter CG, Potter AC, Hatton CSR, et al. Variation of erythroid and myeloid precursors in andreas phd thesis the marrow and peripheral blood of volunteer subjects infected with human parvovirus (B19). J Clin Invest 1987;79:1486-92. Role Mother Building. #12;39.Carrington D, Gilmore DH, Whittle MJ, et al. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein--a marker of fetal aplastic crisis during intrauterine human parvovirus infection. Sargeson. Lancet 1987;1:433-5.
40.Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Deinhardt F. (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:739. 41.Anand A, Gray ES, Brown T, Clewley JP, Cohen BJ. Human parvovirus infection in role mother character pregnancy and hydrops fetalis. N Engl J Med 1987;316:183-6. 42.Bond PR, Caul EO, Usher J, Cohen BJ, Clewley JP, Field AM. Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus (Letter). Lancet 1986;1:448-9. 43.Woernle CH, Anderson LJ, Tattersall P, Davison JM.
Human parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy. J Infect Dis 1987;156:17-20. 44.Maeda H, Shimokawa H, Satoh S, Nakano H, Nunoue T. Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis resulting from intrauterine human parvovirus B-19 infection: report of two cases. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:482-5. 45.Courouce AM, Ferchal F, Morinet F, et al. Human parvovirus infections in France (Letter). Lancet 1984;1:160. 46.Okochi K, Mori R, Miyazaki M, Cohen BJ, Mortimer PP. Nakatani antigen and human parvovirus (B19) (Letter). Lancet 1984;1:160-1.
47.Goldstein AR, Anderson MJ, Serjeant GR. Parvovirus associated aplastic crisis in homozygous sickle cell disease. Essays. Arch Dis Child 1987;62:585-8. 48.Anderson MJ, Cohen BJ. Human parvovirus B19 infections in United Kingdom 1984-86 (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:738-9.
49.Naides SJ. Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) occurrence in Iowa. Am J Public Health 1988;78:1230-1. 50.Anderson MJ, Cherry JD. Parvoviruses. In: Feigin RD, Cherry JD, eds. Textbook of pediatric infectious diseases. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1987:1646-53. 51.Cohen BJ, Buckley MM. The prevalence of antibody to human parvovirus B19 in role mother character building essay England and day frank essay, Wales.
J Med Microbiol 1988;25:151-3. 52.Mortimer PP, Cohen BJ, Buckley MM, et al. Human parvovirus and the fetus (Letter). Lancet 1985;2:1012. 53.Saarinen UA, Chorba TL, Tattersall P, et al.
Human parvovirus B19-induced epidemic acute red cell aplasia in patients with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Blood 1986;67:1411-7. 54.Mortimer PP, Luban NLC, Kelleher JF, Cohen BJ. Transmission of serum parvovirus-like virus by clotting-factor concentrates. Lancet 1983;2:482-4. Essay. 55.Bartolomei Corsi O, Assi A, Morfini M, Fanci R, Rossi Ferrini P. Human parvovirus infection in haemophiliacs first infused with treated clotting factor concentrates. J Med Virol 1988;25:165-70. In Reflection Social Use Work. 56.Shneerson JM, Mortimer PP, Vandervelde EM. Febrile illness due to a parvovirus. Br Med J 1980;1:1580. Role Building Essay. 57.Cohen BJ, Mortimer PP, Pereira MS.
Diagnostic assays with monoclonal antibodies for the human serum parvovirus-like virus (SPLV). J Hyg (Lond) 1983;91:113-30. A Great Day Frank Essay. 58.Anderson LJ, Tsou C, Parker RA, et al. Detection of antibodies and antigens of human parvovirus B19 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 1986;24:522-6. 59.Ozawa K, Kurtzman G, Young N. Productive infection by B19 parvovirus of human erythroid bone marrow cells in vitro. Blood 1987;70:384-91. 60.Mortimer PP, Humphries RK, Moore JG, Purcell RH, Young NS. A human parvovirus-like virus inhibits haematopoietic colony formation in vitro.
Nature 1983;302:426-9. 61.Young NS, Mortimer PP, Moore JG, Humphries RK. Character Essay. Characterization of a virus that causes transient aplastic crisis. J Clin Invest 1984;73:224-30. Persuasive Essay 5 Paragraphs. 62.Kajigaya S, Fujita S, Ozawa K, et al. A cell line that expresses B19 parvovirus structural proteins and role mother, produces empty capsids (Abstract no. 86). On Value In Character. Blood 1988;72(suppl 1). 63.Anderson MJ, Jones SE, Minson AC. Diagnosis of human parvovirus infection by dot-blot hybridization using cloned viral DNA. J Med Virol 1985;15:163-72.
64.Clewley JP. Detection of human parvovirus using a molecularly cloned probe. J Med Virol 1985;15:173-81. 65.Kurtzman GJ, Gascon P, Caras M, Cohen B, Young NS. B19 parvovirus replicates in circulating cells of acutely infected patients. Blood 1988;71:1448-54. 66.Knisely AS, O'Shea PA, McMillan P, Singer DB, Magid MS.
Electron microscopic identification of parvovirus virions in building essay erythroid-line cells in in reflection social use work fatal hydrops fetalis. Pediatr Pathol 1988;8:163-70. 67.Ozawa K, Kurtzman G, Young N. Replication of the B19 parvovirus in building essay human bone marrow cell cultures. Science 1986;233:883-6. Essay In Reflection Self. 68.Cotmore SF, McKie VC, Anderson LJ, Astell CR, Tattersall P. Identification of the major structural and nonstructural proteins encoded by human parvovirus B19 and mapping of their genes by procaryotic expression of isolated genomic fragments. J Virol 1986; 60:548-57. Role Building. 69.Garner JS, Simmons BP.
Guideline for isolation precautions in identitiy theft hospitals. Infect Control 1983;4(suppl):245-325. 70.Evans JPM, Rossiter MA, Kumaran TO, Marsh GW, Mortimer PP. Human parvovirus aplasia: case due to cross infection in a ward. Br Med J 1984;288:681. #12;71.Cohen BJ, Courouce AM, Schwarz TF, Okochi K, Kurtzman GJ. Laboratory infection with parvovirus B19 (Letter). J Clin Pathol 1988;41:1027-8.
72.Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Hottentrager B, et al. Human parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy (Letter). Building Essay. Lancet 1988;2:566-7. *The information and recommendations in this document were developed and compiled by CDC in day frank sargeson essay consultation with representatives of the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American College of Physicians, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, Immunization Practices Advisory Committee, and the National Institutes of Health. The consultants also included MJ Anderson, PhD, University College and mother building, Middlesex School of Medicine, London; SM Hall, MBBS, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London; and GR Serjeant, MBBS, University of in reflection self West Indies, Kingston. These recommendations may not reflect the views of individual consultants or the mother character building essay organizations they represented.
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How to Guide to role essay Racing Resume / Sponsorship Proposal. So you want to race. Welcome to the club. Essay Field In Reflection. Whether you are trying to work this out with family support, or on your own, unless you are fabulously wealthy, you have already realized that sponsorship is a must for nearly every racer on the track. In your pre-racing days you had to pay for parts to make your ride go as fast as your buddy's, or to make it easier on your bod while having fun. As a racer, whether you are a first year amateur or a factory pro, you will have to obtain the performance modifications and replace product when you mess it up, on or off the mother track. In fact I know of quite a few times that perfectly good brand new parts have been destroyed in the process of installing them (an expensive education and a lesson in why we should read the directions that come with our new toys).
The point being that your little obsession/habit of essay on value in character building racing/riding is going to be a costly adventure, but also the time of your life. Anyone that has been to a race track has noticed the stickers on the bikes and haulers. These are sometimes put there because they came free in mother character essay, the shipment of nerfs, handlebars or in a sticker pack the rider got at identitiy essays the local Honda shop. If you are a sponsored rider, then the branding/stickers on your quad and hauler establish you as a part of the company that you represent. Your actions while wearing the stickers of role mother building essay your sponsor reflect on the sponsor as well as yourself.
Sponsors consider that when choosing riders. Next question, How do I get a bunch of those stickers without paying for them or the parts they come with? Answer: You do your darndest to earn sponsorship. Simple. Right? Not really. Field Social. When I first got into this arena I was in the same shoes you are in right now (unless you have a marketing degree- in mother building essay, which case disregard the rest of this article). My background had nothing to do with how to write a resume for a racer. Sure I could find examples from books at the library or bookstore on resumes, but none for rutgers, a professional or semi-professional athlete, much less a racer.
So I had to determine what to do to mix the style of resume that I would submit if was looking for role character building essay, a position with a secretarial pool or a teaching position and that of a professional athlete forming a `Racer's Resume'. If you are still reading this right now, you are probably one of the andreas phd thesis sponsor hungry population who are running out of time to role mother building get noticed and be considered for this season's budget from most companies. How it works: Nearly every company has a `Sponsorship Budget' in their program. A Great Essay. Each company has a person or team of persons responsible for distributing the monies/products or a combination of both to deserving athletes. This person or team of role character persons is called `Rider Support'. Nearly every company that offers sponsorship has levels of of sports sponsorship. Common levels are A, B C level support, Pro and Factory. Support can range from a discount on certain products to free products, contingency (this would be money paid for your wins at certain events) all the way to the Holy Grail of the racer: Factory Support.
Now let's get down to how to role mother building keep your resume on the top of the pile and out of the trash can. Aside from the basics like your name, street address, city, state, zip code, home and essay in reflection self social cell phone numbers, you should also include your email. Role Mother Character Building Essay. A common mistake, believe it or not, is to leave out contact information. Jack Bednar, from Lonestar Racing, has had to dig through the trash pile before to essays find the right envelope that a resume came in to find out how to get in touch with the rider. Also necessary in your resume is a short bio of you and your riding history. Don't go into role character essay, great detail of every second, third or less finishes you have had, and don't include reasons why you didn't podium at specific races. Until you are sponsored, no one really cares why you didn't finish a race except your parents. Photos are a must. You need to include a head-shot of yourself, one of your bike and field self social use work one action shot of you at role building the very least. References must be listed on your resume.
Make sure to include contact information on thesis latex your references as well. Submit your resume to the right people, during the right time frame. What this means is make sure that you address your resume to the correct department within your target sponsor. Check on the target sponsor's website or call their operator to building essay make sure you have the right address, right name and right time frame to submit your resume. OK, these are the rules. Sounds pretty easy so far. If this was all there is to it, you would not have read this far. This section is more the strategy than cheat codes. Persuasive Essay With 5 Paragraphs. There aren't really `Cheat Codes' to a resume, but there are bonus points you can score. Let's review what we have done so far.
We have a basic 4 page resume. You have included all the `regular' stuff and are following all the rules. Now, let's get creative and find the way to keep your resume on the `keep' pile of role mother character essay your target sponsor's desk. First of in reflection self all do not even consider handwriting your resume. Make sure you use a good word-processor and spell check it. Kevin Mummuah, from Lost Creek Cycle, says, Don't expect someone to do more for you, than the essay effort you put into in reflection self social, your resume. I can tell how much work they put into it when I open them. The ones that haven't spent the time are obvious. Your focus should be to maximize what you can offer your potential sponsor in the form of role mother essay endorsing their product and in character how to communicate that you can do this to the sponsor. If you are sending resumes out to companies that you really like, then it shouldn't be too hard to role character building essay express your enthusiasm for the company and their product or to come up with ideas on persuasive how you would carry the role character building essay message to potential customers on wedel how awesome their products are.
Is your brain full yet? Maybe this is where you should reconsider that job at the sawmill instead of building racing. I know I have suggested something like this a couple of times to identitiy theft my racer. Beginning with your contact information review what you have there. Mother Character. Format your information with your name in bold print. This is important. If you have included your email, and I am hoping you ARE including an email, you need to keep it professional. You are asking companies to day frank invest a serious amount of confidence in you as well as money in you to support their products and represent their company. If you have an email of firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com (I don't know if these are real emails or not), it definitely gives a certain impression. Role Mother. Most companies have so much interest in their sponsorship programs that they can throw away any potential riders that even hint of field use work unprofessionalism. Go ahead and role character essay keep your identity nickname for chat and private messages, but obtain a professional email with your name in it like firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com either of rutgers these would be acceptable and have no unprofessional image.
A note on building professionalism: if you include your cell phone number or private home number make sure that your recording is also mainstream. A Great Sargeson Essay. No radical music interludes, raps, or weird recordings. Keep it short and sweet. People in rider support don't have all day to listen to mother character building essay your favorite tunes or you goofing off on your answering machines. Make the choice to go with something grown-up, since you are asking for a grown-up gift. Most of the Rider Support people take about 30 seconds on each resume before deciding what pile to file it in. You need to essay field self use work get their attention to make them even slightly interested in you in role mother essay, the first 10 seconds so they will put you in the `keep' pile rather than the `round' file next to persuasive essay the desk (trash can). Start your resume with an eye catcher.
What catches your eye? An action photo would be a good idea. OK, here comes the kicker: you actually need a decent action photo to put there. If you don't have some that have been professionally done, get some. Next make sure that the reader can tell it's you. Below are two examples. Role Mother Character. They are both great `action' photos but the second one is defiantly more eye-catching. Also use good sizes but not to overwhelming and use good quality prints. After you have your resume completed don't mess it all up by identitiy essays printing on your home computer with a low color cartridge. You can have them printed in role mother building, color on a laser printer for field in reflection use work, under a buck a page at the local Kinkos. Make sure that you are the focus and that action is clear.
As Kevin Mummuah said, Don't send me substandard photos with ant people in them. Next you need to role mother character essay describe what your abilities and qualifications are. Get rid of all the descriptions of how cool you are and what people think about you. Do include action words describing what you can do. Persuasive Essay 5 Paragraphs. Be willing to back it up. And keep it short. Make sure to role mother building include a short history of your wins.
Don't include every race you did or why you didn't podium or finish a particular race. If you have a photo of essay with your pit area at a race this would be a good place to include it. Mother Character Building. I am thinking of day frank a photo of role building essay your pit area, neat, no garbage, clean well maintained quad, your tools organized and essay field in reflection social maybe you and your mechanic (or Dad, or your dog) standing next to your quad in mother essay, full clean gear. Remember you are asking a company to be identified with your professionalism. Persuasive With 5 Paragraphs. Do you really think they will be interested in being associated with someone who has no respect for role character, their bike or surroundings? Include where you plan to race for the upcoming season. Wedel Phd Thesis. Just list the series that you plan to do in full. If you are going to building do something like the full GNC National schedule then include it, otherwise say you will be attending selected National events. Be realistic on where you are going to persuasive race and choose one series to focus on. Spell check.
Read it aloud to someone (that usually catches something that is worded weird). Check your formatting. Make sure you don't have lines that look. this in your resume. Do your homework. Find out exactly who to send your resume to by calling the company or looking up on their website for information on where and building who to send your resume to AND make sure that you are submitting your resume in the right time frame. For instance Shift's Rider Support head, Rob Salcedo, says that they ONLY accept resumes during October 1-31 period. Any resumes that show up even one day early or one day late go straight into the garbage can. Shift gets over 300 resumes from amateur riders in on value of sports building, the ATV discipline alone. Mother Essay. Clancy Schmitt, from Hiper-Technology, says they get over 500 per year.
The competition is stiff for a great day frank, those sponsorships. So make sure yours comes to the attention of the right person during the right time period. Spell out building essay, how you plan on earning your sponsorship. Simply `promoting my sponsors to the best of in character my ability and listing my sponsors on my sign-ups' is not enough. This is role mother essay, EXPECTED not a perk from identitiy you. Running the sponsor's stickers and saying `Thank-You' when interviewed are also expected. Whew, now that we have that out of the way, think on what YOU can do that only you can do. Be original. Role Mother Building. Be clear on what your plans are. Spell out exactly what you would like your sponsor to do for you.
Do not expect free stuff. Identitiy Theft Essays. More realistically you can expect to receive some kind of a discount on product if you are selected for sponsorship. Role Character. Many companies offer their main products at a special rate for sponsored riders. If for instance you are approaching LoneStar Racing, you can let them know what products you are planning on identitiy theft essays purchasing and role character building essay when you would need to make a decision on purchasing. With. Fasst Company said they want to see at least six things that you can do for them. Role Mother Character Building. Chris and Cole say, Whatever you want from this company, you need to be prepared to do double in return.
References are important. Identitiy Theft Essays. Just like a `regular' resume, be prepared to supply the names, addresses, and phone numbers of role mother character people that have knowledge of essay building your riding and role mother building essay personality. Your school counselor could write a quick letter of support (on school letterhead) as well as be a reference, a family member, the owner of the identitiy essays local bike shop and other sponsors are great references. Other riders are not good references. If you can get someone who is nationally recognized to be a reference this is role character building essay, best. The ATV industry is quite small and many people know each other well enough to andreas just give a quick call. If you are under 18 years old, it is absolutely imperative that you include the fact that you have family support. Even young adults will benefit from showing a strong family support system. Be prepared to show who you are, not just what you do. This is hard to accomplish in role mother building essay, a 4 page resume but can be done.
Presentation. Make sure that you have a cover page, your resume, history/bio page, and a photo page. This is all standard stuff that most of the essay on value of sports in character Rider Support personnel that I spoke with wanted to see. They also have some pet peeves of what is not cool to them. Rob Salcedo absolutely hates those slippery covers that you get for school reports. What happens is you get a stack of them together and role mother character they all start sliding out, ending up on field social the floor, in mother building, the coffee etc. So binders are a big no-no. A simple staple or cover that is not slippery is good.
Have I mentioned spell checking yet? Take pride in yourself and your request. Let your potential sponsor see who you are. Biggest mistakes include: non typed or non word processed resume; slippery folders; the quote, `will promote your company to the best of my ability'; large files emailed to company; too short of a resume; too long of a resume; and misspelled words. Every company that I spoke with accepted resumes in mail form. A few accepted emails, and fewer still accepted FAXed resumes. Nearly every company accepted resumes in October and November. A few accepted them in September and a few accepted them in December.
After January 1 no one that I spoke with would look at a resume. Each company that I spoke with had different levels of support. Scot Denton, from rutgers thesis latex Denton Racing, said they have four levels of support. Kevin Mummuah from Lost Creek Racing works with a lot of riders at different levels of support. Lost Creek has their pros but also a large number of amateurs and pros who are not even on role character building the roster for Lost Creek, who sometimes end up getting on track support from rutgers thesis Kevin.
Hiper Technology has three levels of support. Basically most of the companies that I spoke with have different levels of increasing support the longer you have been with the company or as your racing wins or popularity as an ATV personality increases. If you refer a customer to character building essay your sponsor, ask the customer to tell your sponsor where they found out about the product. This looks very good for you and your sponsor will remember this when it comes time to re-evaluate their budget the persuasive essay with next year. Jack Bednar summed it up pretty well, Obviously we can't see them all ride, so we have to go on how they present themselves to role mother character building essay us through a resume. There are a lot of people using the Sponsorhouse system for generating a resume. This is a great resource, and OK to use, for a starting point. The format of the Sponsorhouse system takes care of all the basics but the individuality is lacking and many times it seems that the potential sponsor or overwhelmed Rider Support personnel are directed to a web-page to go over. Social Use Work. Keeping in mind that the Rider Support people see so many resumes each year, do you really think they are going to be interested in sitting in front of a computer surfing your webpage? Sponsorhouse is a great addition to role building essay a traditional resume that is sent out as a hard-copy to your target companies and in character building can really help as the year goes on by keeping your hard-won sponsors up to date on what is happening with you.
I would not rely on role mother character Sponsorhouse to do it all for you though. If you end up getting sponsorship, and essay I am sure you will if you follow the tips in this article, make sure that you keep contact with your sponsors. Even if it is a small sponsorship the first year, you need to start somewhere. Cultivate your relationships and in a few years you should have a much better sponsorship, assuming you live up to what you say you will do for your sponsor. Role Mother Building Essay. Johnny Jump, from KN Engineering, says he likes to see photos of the a great sargeson bike with his company's stickers on it. Role Mother Building Essay. It would be a fatal mistake to apply for a second year including a photo without your sponsor's sticker visible.
Keep in mind all the riders you have seen in sargeson essay, person, on role character essay the track, movies, magazines and on andreas wedel phd thesis the internet. Essay. They are all potentially competing with you for the sponsor budget. You have to essay self use work sell yourself. I know this is kind of weird but basically the `you-ness' of you is all that really separates you from any other rider who applies for sponsorship. I know it feels odd but you need to bite the bullet and go for it. As an added bonus you can view Dana Creech's 2003 Resume online through his website.
Have fun, ride safe and don't forget to role character building essay call your Mom.